The standard model also includes quantum chromodynamics, Key words: standard model of particle physics, gauge theory, electroweak theory, quantum. Introduction to. Particle Physics Physics Beyond the Standard Model. ○ Recent .. At the LHC: Also important for PDF measurements itself. Some Historical Landmarks of Particle Physics. 3 Fundamental Forces and Fundamental Particles – afawk. 4 The Standard Model – Shortly.
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Abstract: These lectures provide a basic introduction to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. While there are several reasons to believe that the Standard. A qualitative description of the physics of elementary particles. 2. Theoretical foundation of the standard model of particle physics. 3. Limitations of the standard. The first version of these notes was written up for lectures at the AIO-school. (a school for PhD students) on theoretical particle physics.
Additionally, whatever was giving these particles their mass had to not "break" gauge invariance as the basis for other parts of the theories where it worked well, and had to not require or predict unexpected massless particles or long-range forces seemingly an inevitable consequence of Goldstone's theorem which did not actually seem to exist in nature. It then became crucial to science, to know whether or not it was correct. Higgs, Peter Higgs boson. However, an extended Higgs sector with additional Higgs particle doublets or triplets is also possible, and many extensions of the Standard Model have this feature.
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Weinberg was the first to observe that this would also provide mass terms for the fermions. At first, these seminal papers on spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries were largely ignored, because it was widely believed that the non-Abelian gauge theories in question were a dead-end, and in particular that they could not be renormalised. In —72, Martinus Veltman and Gerard 't Hooft proved renormalisation of Yang—Mills was possible in two papers covering massless, and then massive, fields.
For example, Coleman found in a study that "essentially no-one paid any attention" to Weinberg's paper prior to  and discussed by David Politzer in his Nobel speech. The resulting electroweak theory and Standard Model have accurately predicted among other things weak neutral currents , three bosons , the top and charm quarks , and with great precision, the mass and other properties of some of these.
A paper and comprehensive review in Reviews of Modern Physics commented that "while no one doubted the [mathematical] correctness of these arguments, no one quite believed that nature was diabolically clever enough to take advantage of them",  adding that the theory had so far produced accurate answers that accorded with experiment, but it was unknown whether the theory was fundamentally correct.
The three papers written in were each recognised as milestone papers during Physical Review Letters 's 50th anniversary celebration. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics for this work. In the paper by Higgs the boson is massive, and in a closing sentence Higgs writes that "an essential feature" of the theory "is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of scalar and vector bosons ".
Higgs' paper essentially used classical techniques, Englert and Brout's involved calculating vacuum polarisation in perturbation theory around an assumed symmetry-breaking vacuum state, and GHK used operator formalism and conservation laws to explore in depth the ways in which Goldstone's theorem may be worked around.
To produce Higgs bosons , two beams of particles are accelerated to very high energies and allowed to collide within a particle detector. Occasionally, although rarely, a Higgs boson will be created fleetingly as part of the collision byproducts.
Because the Higgs boson decays very quickly, particle detectors cannot detect it directly. Instead the detectors register all the decay products the decay signature and from the data the decay process is reconstructed. If the observed decay products match a possible decay process known as a decay channel of a Higgs boson, this indicates that a Higgs boson may have been created. In practice, many processes may produce similar decay signatures.
Fortunately, the Standard Model precisely predicts the likelihood of each of these, and each known process, occurring. So, if the detector detects more decay signatures consistently matching a Higgs boson than would otherwise be expected if Higgs bosons did not exist, then this would be strong evidence that the Higgs boson exists.
Because Higgs boson production in a particle collision is likely to be very rare 1 in 10 billion at the LHC , [m] and many other possible collision events can have similar decay signatures, the data of hundreds of trillions of collisions needs to be analysed and must "show the same picture" before a conclusion about the existence of the Higgs boson can be reached. More collision data allows better confirmation of the physical properties of any new particle observed, and allows physicists to decide whether it is indeed a Higgs boson as described by the Standard Model or some other hypothetical new particle.
To find the Higgs boson, a powerful particle accelerator was needed, because Higgs bosons might not be seen in lower-energy experiments. The collider needed to have a high luminosity in order to ensure enough collisions were seen for conclusions to be drawn.
Finally, advanced computing facilities were needed to process the vast amount of data 25 petabytes per year as of produced by the collisions.
At the end of its service in , LEP had found no conclusive evidence for the Higgs. There was no guarantee that the Tevatron would be able to find the Higgs, but it was the only supercollider that was operational since the Large Hadron Collider LHC was still under construction and the planned Superconducting Super Collider had been cancelled in and never completed.
The Tevatron was only able to exclude further ranges for the Higgs mass, and was shut down on 30 September because it no longer could keep up with the LHC. Theory suggested if the Higgs boson existed, collisions at these energy levels should be able to reveal it.
As one of the most complicated scientific instruments ever built, its operational readiness was delayed for 14 months by a magnet quench event nine days after its inaugural tests, caused by a faulty electrical connection that damaged over 50 superconducting magnets and contaminated the vacuum system. Data collection at the LHC finally commenced in March Diphoton channel: Boson subsequently decays into 2 gamma ray photons by virtual interaction with a W boson loop or top quark loop.
Boson emits 2 Z bosons , which each decay into 2 leptons electrons, muons. Experimental analysis of these channels reached a significance of more than 5 sigma in both experiments. On 22 June CERN announced an upcoming seminar covering tentative findings for ,   and shortly afterwards from around 1 July according to an analysis of the spreading rumour in social media  rumours began to spread in the media that this would include a major announcement, but it was unclear whether this would be a stronger signal or a formal discovery.
On 4 July both of the CERN experiments announced they had independently made the same discovery: When additional channels were taken into account, the CMS significance was reduced to 4.
The two teams had been working 'blinded' from each other from around late or early ,  meaning they did not discuss their results with each other, providing additional certainty that any common finding was genuine validation of a particle. On 31 July , the ATLAS collaboration presented additional data analysis on the "observation of a new particle", including data from a third channel, which improved the significance to 5.
On one hand, observations remained consistent with the observed particle being the Standard Model Higgs boson, and the particle decayed into at least some of the predicted channels. Moreover, the production rates and branching ratios for the observed channels broadly matched the predictions by the Standard Model within the experimental uncertainties. However, the experimental uncertainties currently still left room for alternative explanations, meaning an announcement of the discovery of a Higgs boson would have been premature.
In November , in a conference in Kyoto researchers said evidence gathered since July was falling into line with the basic Standard Model more than its alternatives, with a range of results for several interactions matching that theory's predictions.
They were also sure, from initial observations, that the new particle was some kind of boson. The behaviours and properties of the particle, so far as examined since July , also seemed quite close to the behaviours expected of a Higgs boson. Even so, it could still have been a Higgs boson or some other unknown boson, since future tests could show behaviours that do not match a Higgs boson, so as of December CERN still only stated that the new particle was "consistent with" the Higgs boson,   and scientists did not yet positively say it was the Higgs boson.
In January , CERN director-general Rolf-Dieter Heuer stated that based on data analysis to date, an answer could be possible 'towards' mid,  and the deputy chair of physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory stated in February that a "definitive" answer might require "another few years" after the collider's restart.
This also makes the particle the first elementary scalar particle to be discovered in nature. Examples of tests used to validate that the discovered particle is the Higgs boson: In July , CERN confirmed that all measurements still agree with the predictions of the Standard Model, and called the discovered particle simply "the Higgs boson". The LHC's experimental work since restarting in has included probing the Higgs field and boson to a greater level of detail, and confirming whether or not less common predictions were correct.
In particular, exploration since has provided strong evidence of the predicted direct decay into fermions such as pairs of bottom quarks 3. This was described by CERN as being "of paramount importance to establishing the coupling of the Higgs boson to leptons and represents an important step towards measuring its couplings to third generation fermions, the very heavy copies of the electrons and quarks, whose role in nature is a profound mystery".
Gauge invariance is an important property of modern particle theories such as the Standard Model , partly due to its success in other areas of fundamental physics such as electromagnetism and the strong interaction quantum chromodynamics. However, there were [ when?
Fermions with a mass term would violate gauge symmetry and therefore cannot be gauge invariant. This can be seen by examining the Dirac Lagrangian for a fermion in terms of left and right handed components; we find none of the spin-half particles could ever flip helicity as required for mass, so they must be massless. Therefore, it seems that none of the standard model fermions or bosons could "begin" with mass as an inbuilt property except by abandoning gauge invariance.
If gauge invariance were to be retained, then these particles had to be acquiring their mass by some other mechanism or interaction. Additionally, whatever was giving these particles their mass had to not "break" gauge invariance as the basis for other parts of the theories where it worked well, and had to not require or predict unexpected massless particles or long-range forces seemingly an inevitable consequence of Goldstone's theorem which did not actually seem to exist in nature.
A solution to all of these overlapping problems came from the discovery of a previously unnoticed borderline case hidden in the mathematics of Goldstone's theorem, [k] that under certain conditions it might theoretically be possible for a symmetry to be broken without disrupting gauge invariance and without any new massless particles or forces, and having "sensible" renormalisable results mathematically. This became known as the Higgs mechanism.
The Standard Model hypothesises a field which is responsible for this effect, called the Higgs field symbol: It can have this effect because of its unusual "Mexican hat" shaped potential whose lowest "point" is not at its "centre".
In simple terms, unlike all other known fields, the Higgs field requires less energy to have a non-zero value than a zero value, so it ends up having a non-zero value everywhere. Below a certain extremely high energy level the existence of this non-zero vacuum expectation spontaneously breaks electroweak gauge symmetry which in turn gives rise to the Higgs mechanism and triggers the acquisition of mass by those particles interacting with the field.
This effect occurs because scalar field components of the Higgs field are "absorbed" by the massive bosons as degrees of freedom , and couple to the fermions via Yukawa coupling , thereby producing the expected mass terms. When symmetry breaks under these conditions, the Goldstone bosons that arise interact with the Higgs field and with other particles capable of interacting with the Higgs field instead of becoming new massless particles.
The intractable problems of both underlying theories "neutralise" each other, and the residual outcome is that elementary particles acquire a consistent mass based on how strongly they interact with the Higgs field.
It is the simplest known process capable of giving mass to the gauge bosons while remaining compatible with gauge theories. It consists of four components: The quantum of the remaining neutral component corresponds to and is theoretically realised as the massive Higgs boson,  this component can also interact with fermions via Yukawa coupling to give them mass, as well.
Mathematically, the Higgs field has imaginary mass and is therefore a tachyonic field. Any configuration in which one or more field excitations are tachyonic must spontaneously decay, and the resulting configuration contains no physical tachyons.
This process is known as tachyon condensation , and is now believed to be the explanation for how the Higgs mechanism itself arises in nature, and therefore the reason behind electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the notion of imaginary mass might seem troubling, it is only the field, and not the mass itself, that is quantised.
Therefore, the field operators at spacelike separated points still commute or anticommute , and information and particles still do not propagate faster than light. Once a tachyonic field such as the Higgs field reaches the minimum of the potential, its quanta are not tachyons any more but rather are ordinary particles such as the Higgs boson. Since the Higgs field is scalar , the Higgs boson has no spin.
The Higgs boson is also its own antiparticle and is CP-even , and has zero electric and colour charge. The Standard Model does not predict the mass of the Higgs boson. It is also possible, although experimentally difficult, to estimate the mass of the Higgs boson indirectly. In the Standard Model, the Higgs boson has a number of indirect effects; most notably, Higgs loops result in tiny corrections to masses of W and Z bosons.
These indirect constraints rely on the assumption that the Standard Model is correct. It may still be possible to discover a Higgs boson above these masses if it is accompanied by other particles beyond those predicted by the Standard Model. If Higgs particle theories are valid, then a Higgs particle can be produced much like other particles that are studied, in a particle collider.
This involves accelerating a large number of particles to extremely high energies and extremely close to the speed of light , then allowing them to smash together. Protons and lead ions the bare nuclei of lead atoms are used at the LHC. In the extreme energies of these collisions, the desired esoteric particles will occasionally be produced and this can be detected and studied; any absence or difference from theoretical expectations can also be used to improve the theory.
The relevant particle theory in this case the Standard Model will determine the necessary kinds of collisions and detectors. Quantum mechanics predicts that if it is possible for a particle to decay into a set of lighter particles, then it will eventually do so. The likelihood with which this happens depends on a variety of factors including: Most of these factors are fixed by the Standard Model, except for the mass of the Higgs boson itself.
Since it interacts with all the massive elementary particles of the SM, the Higgs boson has many different processes through which it can decay. Each of these possible processes has its own probability, expressed as the branching ratio ; the fraction of the total number decays that follows that process.
The SM predicts these branching ratios as a function of the Higgs mass see plot. One way that the Higgs can decay is by splitting into a fermion—antifermion pair.
As general rule, the Higgs is more likely to decay into heavy fermions than light fermions, because the mass of a fermion is proportional to the strength of its interaction with the Higgs. Another possibility is for the Higgs to split into a pair of massive gauge bosons. The most likely possibility is for the Higgs to decay into a pair of W bosons the light blue line in the plot , which happens about The decays of W bosons into quarks are difficult to distinguish from the background, and the decays into leptons cannot be fully reconstructed because neutrinos are impossible to detect in particle collision experiments.
A cleaner signal is given by decay into a pair of Z-bosons which happens about 2. Decay into massless gauge bosons i. This process, which is the reverse of the gluon fusion process mentioned above, happens approximately 8. The Minimal Standard Model as described above is the simplest known model for the Higgs mechanism with just one Higgs field.
However, an extended Higgs sector with additional Higgs particle doublets or triplets is also possible, and many extensions of the Standard Model have this feature.
The non-minimal Higgs sector favoured by theory are the two-Higgs-doublet models 2HDM , which predict the existence of a quintet of scalar particles: The key method to distinguish between these different models involves study of the particles' interactions "coupling" and exact decay processes "branching ratios" , which can be measured and tested experimentally in particle collisions.
In the Type-I 2HDM model one Higgs doublet couples to up and down quarks, while the second doublet does not couple to quarks. This model has two interesting limits, in which the lightest Higgs couples to just fermions "gauge- phobic " or just gauge bosons "fermiophobic" , but not both.
In other models the Higgs scalar is a composite particle. For example, in technicolor the role of the Higgs field is played by strongly bound pairs of fermions called techniquarks. Other models, feature pairs of top quarks see top quark condensate. In yet other models, there is no Higgs field at all and the electroweak symmetry is broken using extra dimensions.
The Standard Model leaves the mass of the Higgs boson as a parameter to be measured, rather than a value to be calculated. This is seen as theoretically unsatisfactory, particularly as quantum corrections related to interactions with virtual particles should apparently cause the Higgs particle to have a mass immensely higher than that observed, but at the same time the Standard Model requires a mass of the order of to GeV to ensure unitarity in this case, to unitarise longitudinal vector boson scattering.
This is known as a hierarchy problem. The problem is in some ways unique to spin-0 particles such as the Higgs boson , which can give rise to issues related to quantum corrections that do not affect particles with spin. There are also issues of quantum triviality , which suggests that it may not be possible to create a consistent quantum field theory involving elementary scalar particles. The name most strongly associated with the particle and field is the Higgs boson : For some time the particle was known by a combination of its PRL author names including at times Anderson , for example the Brout—Englert—Higgs particle, the Anderson-Higgs particle, or the Englert—Brout—Higgs—Guralnik—Hagen—Kibble mechanism, [q] and these are still used at times.
A considerable amount has been written on how Higgs' name came to be exclusively used. Two main explanations are offered. The first is that Higgs undertook a step which was either unique, clearer or more explicit in his paper in formally predicting and examining the particle. Of the PRL papers' authors, only the paper by Higgs explicitly offered as a prediction that a massive particle would exist and calculated some of its properties; : The alternative explanation is that the name was popularised in the s due to its use as a convenient shorthand or because of a mistake in citing.
Many accounts including Higgs' own : Lee Whi-soh. Lee was a significant populist for the theory in its early stages, and habitually attached the name "Higgs" as a "convenient shorthand" for its components from      and in at least one instance from as early as The Higgs boson is often referred to as the "God particle" in popular media outside the scientific community.
The book sought in part to promote awareness of the significance and need for such a project in the face of its possible loss of funding.
If the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question? Lederman's editor decided that the title was too controversial and convinced him to change the title to The God Particle: While media use of this term may have contributed to wider awareness and interest,  many scientists feel the name is inappropriate    since it is sensational hyperbole and misleads readers;  the particle also has nothing to do with God , leaves open numerous questions in fundamental physics , and does not explain the ultimate origin of the universe.
Higgs , an atheist , was reported to be displeased and stated in a interview that he found it "embarrassing" because it was "the kind of misuse Lederman begins with a review of the long human search for knowledge, and explains that his tongue-in-cheek title draws an analogy between the impact of the Higgs field on the fundamental symmetries at the Big Bang , and the apparent chaos of structures, particles, forces and interactions that resulted and shaped our present universe, with the biblical story of Babel in which the primordial single language of early Genesis was fragmented into many disparate languages and cultures.
It's a hard-won simplicity [ But it is also incomplete and, in fact, internally inconsistent This boson is so central to the state of physics today, so crucial to our final understanding of the structure of matter, yet so elusive, that I have given it a nickname: Why God Particle?
Two reasons. One, the publisher wouldn't let us call it the Goddamn Particle, though that might be a more appropriate title, given its villainous nature and the expense it is causing. And two, there is a connection, of sorts, to another book , a much older one Lederman asks whether the Higgs boson was added just to perplex and confound those seeking knowledge of the universe, and whether physicists will be confounded by it as recounted in that story, or ultimately surmount the challenge and understand "how beautiful is the universe [God has] made".
A renaming competition by British newspaper The Guardian in resulted in their science correspondent choosing the name "the champagne bottle boson" as the best submission: So it's not an embarrassingly grandiose name, it is memorable, and [it] has some physics connection too. There has been considerable public discussion of analogies and explanations for the Higgs particle and how the field creates mass,   including coverage of explanatory attempts in their own right and a competition in for the best popular explanation by then-UK Minister for Science Sir William Waldegrave  and articles in newspapers worldwide.
Matt Strassler uses electric fields as an analogy: Those particles that feel the Higgs field act as if they have mass. A similar explanation was offered by The Guardian: The Higgs boson is essentially a ripple in a field said to have emerged at the birth of the universe and to span the cosmos to this day The particle is crucial however: It is the smoking gun , the evidence required to show the theory is right. The Higgs field's effect on particles was famously described by physicist David Miller as akin to a room full of political party workers spread evenly throughout a room: There was considerable discussion prior to late of how to allocate the credit if the Higgs boson is proven, made more pointed as a Nobel prize had been expected, and the very wide basis of people entitled to consideration.
These include a range of theoreticians who made the Higgs mechanism theory possible, the theoreticians of the PRL papers including Higgs himself , the theoreticians who derived from these a working electroweak theory and the Standard Model itself, and also the experimentalists at CERN and other institutions who made possible the proof of the Higgs field and boson in reality. The Nobel prize has a limit of 3 persons to share an award, and some possible winners are already prize holders for other work, or are deceased the prize is only awarded to persons in their lifetime.
Existing prizes for works relating to the Higgs field, boson, or mechanism include:. Additionally Physical Review Letters ' year review recognised the PRL symmetry breaking papers and Weinberg's paper A model of Leptons the most cited paper in particle physics, as of "milestone Letters".
Following reported observation of the Higgs-like particle in July , several Indian media outlets reported on the supposed neglect of credit to Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose after whose work in the s the class of particles " bosons " is named   although physicists have described Bose's connection to the discovery as tenuous.
In the Standard Model, the Higgs field is a four-component scalar field that forms a complex doublet of the weak isospin SU 2 symmetry:. The Higgs part of the Lagrangian is . The ground state of the Higgs field the bottom of the potential is degenerate with different ground states related to each other by a SU 2 gauge transformation.
The mass of the Higgs boson itself is given by. The quarks and the leptons interact with the Higgs field through Yukawa interaction terms:. Rotating the quark and lepton fields to the basis where the matrices of Yukawa couplings are diagonal, one gets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 15 April Elementary particle related to the Higgs field giving particles mass.
For other uses, see The God Particle disambiguation. Candidate Higgs boson events from collisions between protons in the LHC. The top event in the CMS experiment shows a decay into two photons dashed yellow lines and green towers. Bottom -antibottom pair observed   Two W bosons observed Two gluons predicted Tau -antitau pair observed Two Z bosons observed Two photons observed Various other decays predicted.
Elementary particles of the Standard Model. Main article: Higgs mechanism. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Zero-point energy and Vacuum state. See also: Search for the Higgs boson. This section needs to be updated. In particular: With the Higgs boson now empirically confirmed, the paragraphs on the mass should be rephrased to make it clear that they are about what could be predicted before that observation.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. July Alternatives to the Standard Model Higgs. Main articles: If the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question  p. Standard Model mathematical formulation. Detection involves a statistically significant excess of such events at specific energies.
For example, Newton's laws of motion apply only at speeds where relativistic effects are negligible; and laws related to conductivity, gases, and classical physics as opposed to quantum mechanics may apply only within certain ranges of size, temperature, pressure, or other conditions. The existence of the Z boson was another prediction. Other accurate predictions included the weak neutral current , the gluon , and the top and charm quarks , all later proven to exist as the theory said.
At high energy levels this does not happen, and the gauge bosons of the weak force would therefore be expected to be massless. The movement and interactions of these particles with each other are limited by the energy—time uncertainty principle.
As a result, the more massive a single virtual particle is, the greater its energy, and therefore the shorter the distance it can travel. A particle's mass therefore, determines the maximum distance at which it can interact with other particles and on any force it mediates. By the same token, the reverse is also true: Compton wavelength and static forces and virtual-particle exchange Since experiments have shown that the weak force acts over only a very short range, this implies that massive gauge bosons must exist, and indeed, their masses have since been confirmed by measurement.
Against this, once the model was developed around , no better theory existed, and its predictions and solutions were so accurate, that it became the preferred theory anyway. It then became crucial to science, to know whether or not it was correct. Quantum fields can have states of differing stability, including 'stable', 'unstable' and ' metastable ' states the latter remain stable unless sufficiently perturbed.
If a more stable vacuum state were able to arise, then existing particles and forces would no longer arise as they presently do. Different particles or forces would arise from and be shaped by whatever new quantum states arose. The world we know depends upon these particles and forces, so if this happened, everything around us, from subatomic particles to galaxies , and all fundamental forces , would be reconstituted into new fundamental particles and forces and structures.
The universe would potentially lose all of its present structures and become inhabited by new ones depending upon the exact states involved based upon the same quantum fields. But the process of quantisation requires a gauge to be fixed and at this point it becomes possible to choose a gauge such as the 'radiation' gauge which is not invariant over time, so that these problems can be avoided.
According to Bernstein , p. This is no catastrophe, since the photon field is not an observable , and one can readily show that the S-matrix elements, which are observable have covariant structures The total cross-section for producing a Higgs boson at the LHC is about 10 picobarn ,  while the total cross-section for a proton—proton collision is millibarn.
We see that the mass-generating interaction is achieved by constant flipping of particle chirality. Therefore, in the absence of some other cause, all fermions must be massless. There will be some people in Miller's example an anonymous person who pass through the crowd with ease, paralleling the interaction between the field and particles that do not interact with it, such as massless photons.
There will be other people in Miller's example the British prime minister who would find their progress being continually slowed by the swarm of admirers crowding around, paralleling the interaction for particles that do interact with the field and by doing so, acquire a finite mass. Media and Press relations Press release.
Retrieved Tanabashi et al. Particle Data Group Physical Review D. Differential Distributions". Physics Letters B. Physical Review Letters. What they really care about is the Higgs field , because it is so important. Beyond the God Particle. Prometheus Books. The Guardian. Why scientists hate that you call it the 'God particle ' ". National Post. The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy.
University Science Books. World Scientific. The Higgs Hunter's Guide 1st ed. Retrieved 13 November The Higgs field: But we need to know if it's the Higgs". New Scientist. But when pressed by journalists afterwards on what exactly 'it' was, things got more complicated. What would be enough evidence to call it a Higgs boson?
Science News. In terms usually reserved for athletic achievements, news reports described the finding as a monumental milestone in the history of science. The beginning of the exploration". Physicists still hesitate to call it that before they have determined that its properties fit with those the Higgs theory predicts the Higgs boson has.
The Wall Street Journal. The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 14 March Lederman; Dick Teresi The God Particle: If the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question. Houghton Mifflin Company. CMS Public Website. Retrieved 18 July Concepts of Mass in Contemporary Physics and Philosophy.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved 1 March Turner; F. Wilczek Coleman; F. De Luccia Physical Review. D21 Stone Frampton D15 David Adams; Todd Eastham, eds.
Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 February Science World Report. Axions and Right-Handed Neutrinos". Higgs-like particle suggests it might". NBC News' Cosmic log. The good news? It'll probably be tens of billions of years.
The article quotes Fermilab 's Joseph Lykken: Physicists have been contemplating such a possibility for more than 30 years. Back in , physicists Michael Turner and Frank Wilczek wrote in Nature that "without warning, a bubble of true vacuum could nucleate somewhere in the universe and move outwards The Two-Way.
Article cites Fermilab 's Joseph Lykken: Nothingness Is Perfect". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 January For example, something like the Higgs—if not exactly the Higgs itself—may be behind many other unexplained "broken symmetries" in the universe as well In fact, something very much like the Higgs may have been behind the collapse of the symmetry that led to the Big Bang, which created the universe. When the forces first began to separate from their primordial sameness—taking on the distinct characters they have today—they released energy in the same way as water releases energy when it turns to ice.
Except in this case, the freezing packed enough energy to blow up the universe. However it happened, the moral is clear: Only when the perfection shatters can everything else be born.
The Particle at the End of the Universe: Penguin Group US. Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on Kings College. Archived from the original PDF on 4 November The original paper may be found in: Higgs, Peter The Story of 'The Higgs ' ". In Michael J. Physics Letters. You cannot have a preferred unit time-like vector like that.
Guralnik Modern Physics Letters A. Broken Symmetries and the Goldstone Theorem. Advances in Physics, vol. Weinberg Salam Svartholm, ed.
Elementary Particle Physics: Relativistic Groups and Analyticity. Eighth Nobel Symposium. Almquvist and Wiksell. Glashow Nuclear Physics. The Nobel Prize. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 22 January I had a parallel personal experience: I took a one-year course on weak interactions from Shelly Glashow in , and he never even mentioned the Weinberg—Salam model or his own contributions. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics". Nature Magazine.