The modern classic that inspired the beloved movie starring Tom Hanks. Six foot six, pounds, and possessed of a scant IQ of 70, Forrest Gump is the. Forrest caite.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Forrest Gump screenplay by. Eric Roth based on a novel by. Winston Groom http ://caite.info screenplay presented by.
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Forrest Gump. For Jimbo Meador and George Radcliff—who have always made a point of being kind to Forrest and his friends. There is a pleasure sure in being . funny story about Forrest Gump, a good-hearted young man from Alabama in the USA. He wins a medal for being very brave in the Vietnam war and meets the. "FORREST GUMP" Screenplay by Eric Roth Based on a novel by Winston Groom EXT. Forrest Gump is a generally domesticating or a foreignizing translation.
To Wang, that homicide, and war. San heart. Still reading of Forrest Gump because they considered in his uniform, Forrest is shoved to the front of a group of the movie a satire on American values and history. Engle- Smith, eds. By Martin Fradley. Das tional and interdisciplinary Campus Verlag. Collective on places like this.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Blockbusting history: Sabine Moller. Forrest Gump as a powerful medium of American cultural memory. Forrest Gump as a powerful medium of American cultural memory Sabine Moller Forrest Gump ranks as one of the most successful With regard to Forrest Gump, such assumptions movies ever.
It is not enough to simply call a comedy centres around the medium of cultural memory, story of the fictional Forrest such as a movie, a represen- Gump Tom Hanks , who Sabine Moller is a Lecturer in Contempo- tation of the past and situate it rary History at Humboldt University Berlin witnesses and influences who studies a broad range of media and within the political context of important moments in con- dimensions of historical consciousness, its time.
Because feature films, and politics of memory. From addressed. From ; Wineburg USA in the s. From to to this media. Certainly in the she was a Lecturer in History Didac- Wang As a result, fifteen-plus years since the tics at Oldenburg University. Forrest Gump was regarded Email: Nevertheless, the film is cal interpretation of history. How is it watched, interpreted, and like movies, memorials, museums, and textbooks remembered today?
Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. By the very act the refinements of his concept in cultural memory of thinking, Halbwachs communicates a host of studies. To explore Forrest Gump as a medium of collective memories as well as the social and cul- cultural memory I will first discuss the movie and tural schemas shaping his perceptions and memo- its attendant scholarly interpretations before exam- ries: Egyptologist Jan Assmann differ- Collective memory, cultural entiates the two modes or as Halbwachs would memory, and Forrest Gump say, two frames of remembrance.
For informal acts of memory in everyday life, such as those The question of how memory is shaped by social investigated by Halbwachs, he coined the term context was first raised at the turn of the last communicative memory. He distinguishes between century. A genuine social psychological question communicative memory and cultural memory as how groups affect individual memory was an area of material culture and organised commu- formulated by French sociologist Maurice nication Assmann , Here memory is Halbwachs  Aspects that were used metaphorically, i.
Under the terms of difficult to apply its underlying concept which Halbwachs, individual memories are recon- centres around festivals, rites, and poems to structed based on present social frameworks. Through these original, translation S. Thus, feature present experiences. Through these we-groups medium of cultural memory. Methodologically this our identity is shaped and stabilised. Each individual memory is unique, since no two people have the same place within a group.
Forrest Gump the movie Halbwachs also embraces cultural products. In describing an imaginary trip to London, he The film opens with Forrest sitting at a bus stop in explains that he never thinks of the city by itself, Savannah, Georgia, where he engages in a series of but always through the perspective of various conversations with different people waiting for the social groups.
Thus, as Halbwachs walks through bus. He recounts the episodes of his life, which are London he is accompanied by historians, archi- all closely linked to iconic moments in contempo- tects, and painters he has met through his reading, rary history.
Films as a powerful medium of cultural memory 69 In the opening scene, Forrest shares the bench kind of aberration. After learning she is ill and with a young African-American nurse.
Her chief motive is to have and offers her one. The nurse declines. Although the film was adapted from the novel One reason so much attention was paid to the of the same name by Winston Groom , there movie at the time of its release was the use of a new are differences in the way Zemeckis and screen- computer-based technique, morphing Hoberg writer Eric Roth have chosen to interpret Forrest ; Nelmes Through this technique the Gump as a character.
Being an idiot is no story, and manipulate it in such a way that the main box of chocolates. This can best be illustrated by discussing character throughout. Though he is called an an important sequence of the film.
First, it is Sequence 1: First one sees the newscaster, then people listening us to see the character as not only slow-witted but in a barbershop, before the film cross-fades to a re-enactment of the famous scene at the entrance to the University of sensitive as well. We can see students, National Guardsmen, and a towards accepting Forrest as an Everyman hero.
One student History. As he goes thereby transmitting history via word of mouth. Jenny grow up in the same small Southern town, their paths diverge and lead them to very different Thus, many important elements of the plot are life experiences. As a child, Forrest used running to over- ity, hippies, drugs, violence, and a politics of come an intellectual disadvantage; he escapes from slogans.
In this The sequence also demonstrates how way, Zemeckis refers to entwined processes: From a historical perspective his mediated through mass media and popular culture. This plot device implies a term, while in the book, it is Forrest himself who crucial decision. If one takes this pointed iconisa- feels superior to people of other races or those who tion in a negative sense, the film merely uncon- have greater disabilities Halliwell , p.
Other tive, the film is a time machine,4 an ideological footage integrated into the story includes the concoction that has one primary message: If people were asked in to name the most ceptions are shaped by media images. Postmodern significant events of the past fifty years, they would readings expect viewers to recognise and decipher point to the Second World War, the Vietnam War, such stylistic devices as ironic Donnerstag ; space exploration, the assassination of JFK, and Scott The caricature of groups and charac- the civil rights movement Schuman and Scott ters is less a kind of negative stereotyping than an From this perspec- most vividly?
As Vivian Sobchack vividly remembered historical events, allowing his , p. These iconic media images dependent for its humor and irony upon histori- were recently differentiated by the visual historian cally self- conscious viewers who have been Gerhard Paul , p. The film torical consciousness. Viewed from this perspec- thus represents a form of generational memory.
In the film Zemeckis links the films. Films as a powerful medium of cultural memory 71 showing people in front of their televisions.
As he of his true love, Jenny, rise from the crowd. They run towards enters the University of Alabama, Forrest waves at each other and are reunited in the reflecting pool in front of the the camera.
Although he is unaware of the histori- monument. When Jenny introduces Forrest to her new friends at the cal significance of the moment, he seems to under- Black Panther headquarters, they are not greeted warmly. Ejected from history in the same way the characters do in the the gathering, Forrest and Jenny spend the night walking film: The sequence ends with Jenny boarding a bus to prosthetic memory to describe how historical Berkeley with her boyfriend, and saying goodbye to Forrest once again.
Panther headquarters, was criticised for it simpli- Landsberg explains this phenomenon by examples fied and failed to address historical questions from experiential museums, historical re- regarding gender and race.
Thomas Byers , enactments, and historical feature films. Film p. To Wang, that homicide, and war. Burgoyne does not quarters was no coincidence: However one interprets Black Panthers but rather her white boyfriend, and this process, the substitution of memory for history that even greater violence of Jenny took place at becomes clearer when one examines a second, the hands of her white father in Alabama.
While more controversial sequence from the film. Still reading of Forrest Gump because they considered in his uniform, Forrest is shoved to the front of a group of the movie a satire on American values and history.
He invites Forrest to come up and report on the to make it difficult simply to exclude this possibil- war himself. Forrest is just The most critical and cinepsychoanalytical ending his speech when the sound is turned back on.
One white men. But there are vari- you define the concept of self-reliance as a narrative ations on such a psychoanalytical reading. In a template, it is possible to view the representation of later analysis, the Vietnam War and AIDS will race in Forrest Gump less as an act of repression become central traumas for Forrest Gump both the than an acceptance of the American past: As Gump narrates this background, we see footage of the general leading the Klan.
Chumo , p. Indeed, contradictory readings one thing can be stated incontrovertibly: Films as a powerful medium of cultural memory 73 These films are imbued with sentimentality, spectacle and a Marcus , p. First, caused by dysfunctional or incomplete families usually with there is the possible generational imprint of the absent or dead fathers , about childish wishes and nightmares magically coming true. Second, as a tool for teaching history, the film skims significant events of con- temporary American history.
But another belonged to the genre of family adventure. At that aspect was pointed out by Wineburg: This meant social studies and The Lion King It is symptomatic that the main char- Along with family and school, Forrest Gump acters in most of these movies come from divorced has been successful in many contexts. It has or single-parent families.
Very few films can boast a their own experiences and generational imprints similar impact on political debate and scholarly and pass them on to their children. While such an discussions. He discovered that Forrest but for reasons of marketing input Lavery Restaurants, Inc. Shrimp Restaurants, twenty-two in the USA alone.
Another study, carried out by educational They are constructed like movie museums, exhib- scholar Allan Marcus, reported that 78 per cent of iting cinematic memorabilia in glass cases along participating students reported they had seen with screens showing the movie. It sombrely noted enduring appeal.
King, Jr Fitzpatrick On same racist roots, can transcend the ugly aspects of video platforms like YouTube, MySpace etc. United States. In addition to musical performances tion. If you were to see the movie with an imagi- Abraham Lincoln.
His presence was reported on nary Hayden White, your inner communication television, in newspapers and on the Internet: The same is true for an Another speaker was actor Tom Hanks, who as Forrest Gump famously gave a speech at the monument steps and jumped imagined audience. Some scholars ponder the into the reflecting pool. Barrett 9 self-conscious spectator, while others envision its viewers as white, ignorant males.
The openness Even in , Forrest Gump remained a powerful and transparence of Forrest Gump dovetail per- medium for cultural memory.
Once again, the movie has to serve as a kind of blueprint for historical was sold in a special DVD edition complete with consciousness. As history, memory, and historical a box of chocolates and yet another appreciative consciousness take place in the present, so each reading appeared, this time by well-known film spectator will approach this technically clever and scholar Thomas Elsaesser Films as a powerful medium of cultural memory 75 Notes 1. The American Film Institute example of how films, unlike the shrimping business together in and again in books, make use of a whole range after the war.
In the movie had a fan site most important American i. Most detailed infor- tory levels; see Hickethier ; http: Critics have chosen this meta- accessed 5 January This found at IMDb http: Now, the accessed 22 February This article is part of the larger For videos see 5.
An exception might be Number http: February Education Group for several years. Bubba Mykelti Williamson is accessed 27 February See Erll and Wodianka See Classen The star image is a good become friends and plan to enter References Additional references common to Anniversary edition. Available at http: The cognitive [accessed 10 August ].
Sym- Aden, R. Beck, C. Dreams are born Assmann, J. Collective on places like this.
New interpretive community formation at German critique, 65, — Bellah, R. Six foot six, pounds, and possessed of a scant IQ of 70, Forrest Gump is the lovable, surprisingly savvy hero of this classic comic tale.
With a voice all his own, Forrest is telling all in a madcap romp through three decades of American history. He lives with his wife and daughter… More about Winston Groom. Join Reader Rewards and earn your way to a free book! Join Reader Rewards and earn points when you purchase this book from your favorite retailer. Literary Fiction Historical Fiction Category: Literary Fiction Historical Fiction.
Paperback —. Buy the Ebook: Add to Cart. Also in Vintage Contemporaries. Also by Winston Groom. Product Details. Inspired by Your Browsing History.