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Cricket wikipedia pdf

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Cricket is a sport which is played between two teams of eleven players each who score runs (points) by running between two sets of three small, wooden posts. Although there are many more rules in cricket than in many other sports, it is well worth your time learning them as it is a most rewarding sport. Whether you are. Official documents outlining ICC cricket rules and regulations. Information for players, members, officials, and personnel to maintain standards of play.


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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the "Summary of changes to the Laws of Cricket Code" (PDF). The Laws of Cricket is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket worldwide. "Laws of Cricket, Code 6th Edition – " (PDF). MCC. The sport of cricket has a known history beginning in the late 16th century. Having originated in .. "The Seventeenth Century Game of Cricket: A Reconstruction of the Game" (PDF). SportsLibrary. Archived from the original ( PDF) on

The follow-on. These are widely used to determine the status of individual matches, teams, venues and players. References to these games confirm that they drew up Articles of Agreement between them to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. In test cricket there is no limit to the innings length. In this form, although each team may have from one to six players, there is only one batsman in at a time and he must face every delivery bowled while his innings lasts.

Through consistent practice and by applying these skills to the elements of cricket, such as a batsman watching the ball at all times, you will see a dramatic improvement in your game. Bob Woolmer, former head coach of the South African cricket team, wrote in "The Art and Science of Cricket," that batting has five basic principles: Your grip on the bat should feel natural, using the same tension as when you pick the bat up from the ground.

Try to relax at the crease since tension will restrict your movement and have a negative impact on your technique. Lift the bat up as the bowler approaches, keep your head still, focus on the ball and commit fully to the shot you select. Whether you're a fast bowler, medium-paced bowler who swings the ball in the air or spin bowler who gets the ball to move dramatically off the pitch, bowling has a foundation of skills that each player must learn.

Woolmer wrote that by focusing on "momentum, balance and timing" within the context of the run-up, the set-up, the unfold, the delivery and the follow through, bowlers will become consistent and accurate and will be able to take wickets. Bowlers should start off slowly and gain speed and momentum as the run-up progresses into the set-up. Point your left arm -- if you're a right-handed bowler -- in the direction you want the ball to land.

As your action begins to unfold, your bowling arm will begin a degree rotation. Fix your eyes on the target and place your left foot on the popping crease to begin the delivery.

Your momentum will naturally bring your arm through to release the ball. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that basically involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement; others include baseball , golf , hockey , tennis , squash , badminton , and table tennis. It is generally believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period.

The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a year-old coroner , John Derrick , who gave witness that: Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word " cryce " or " cricc " meaning a crutch or staff.

In Samuel Johnson 's Dictionary , he derived cricket from " cryce , Saxon, a stick". Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs , the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects. The ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick ; the batsman defended a low, two-stump wicket ; and runs were called "notches" because the scorers recorded them by notching tally sticks.

In , the year Cotgrave's dictionary was published, ecclesiastical court records at Sidlesham in Sussex state that two parishioners, Bartholomew Wyatt and Richard Latter, failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket. They were fined 12 d each and ordered to do penance. Cricket remained a low-key local pursuit for much of the century.

Pdf cricket wikipedia

According to the social historian Derek Birley , there was a "great upsurge of sport after the Restoration " in The game underwent major development in the 18th century to become England's national sport. This caused a revolution in bat design because, to deal with the bouncing ball , it was necessary to introduce the modern straight bat in place of the old "hockey stick" shape. The Hambledon Club was founded in the s and, for the next twenty years until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club MCC and the opening of Lord's Old Ground in , Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point.

New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and leg before wicket lbw. The 19th century saw underarm bowling superseded by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were controversial. The most famous player of the 19th century was W.

Wikipedia pdf cricket

Grace , who started his long and influential career in It was especially during the career of Grace that the distinction between amateurs and professionals became blurred by the existence of players like him who were nominally amateur but, in terms of their financial gain, de facto professional.

Grace himself was said to have been paid more money for playing cricket than any professional. It is a nostalgic name prompted by the collective sense of loss resulting from the war, but the period did produce some great players and memorable matches, especially as organised competition at county and Test level developed.

Meanwhile, the British Empire had been instrumental in spreading the game overseas and by the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in Australia, the Caribbean, India, New Zealand, North America and South Africa.

In , an English team made the first tour of Australia. In —77, an England team took part in what was retrospectively recognised as the first-ever Test match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. The inter-war years were dominated by Australia's Don Bradman , statistically the greatest Test batsman of all time.

Skills in Cricket

Test cricket continued to expand during the 20th century with the addition of the West Indies , New Zealand and India before the Second World War and then Pakistan , Sri Lanka , Zimbabwe and Bangladesh in the post-war period. Cricket entered a new era in when English counties introduced the limited overs variant. In cricket, the rules of the game are specified in a code called The Laws of Cricket hereinafter called "the Laws" which has a global remit. There are 42 Laws always written with a capital "L".

The earliest known version of the code was drafted in and, since , it has been owned and maintained by its custodian, the Marylebone Cricket Club MCC in London.

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played on a cricket field see image, right between two teams of eleven players each. Each wicket is made of three wooden stumps topped by two bails. As illustrated above, the pitch is marked at each end with four white painted lines: The three stumps are aligned centrally on the bowling crease, which is eight feet eight inches long.

The popping crease is drawn four feet in front of the bowling crease and parallel to it; although it is drawn as a twelve-foot line six feet either side of the wicket , it is in fact unlimited in length. The return creases are drawn at right angles to the popping crease so that they intersect the ends of the bowling crease; each return crease is drawn as an eight-foot line, so that it extends four feet behind the bowling crease, but is also in fact unlimited in length.

Before a match begins, the team captains who are also players toss a coin to decide which team will bat first and so take the first innings. A match with four scheduled innings is played over three to five days; a match with two scheduled innings is usually completed in a single day. The main objective of each team is to score more runs than their opponents but, in some forms of cricket, it is also necessary to dismiss all of the opposition batsmen in their final innings in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn.

If the team that bats last scores enough runs to win, it is said to have "won by n wickets", where n is the number of wickets left to fall. For example, a team that passes its opponents' total having lost six wickets i. In a two-innings-a-side match, one team's combined first and second innings total may be less than the other side's first innings total. The team with the greater score is then said to have "won by an innings and n runs", and does not need to bat again: If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number of runs, then the match is a tie ; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings a side with only 62 happening in first-class matches from the earliest known instance in until January In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match expires before either side can win, then the game is declared a draw.

If the match has only a single innings per side, then a maximum number of overs applies to each innings. Such a match is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a draw cannot occur.

If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-Lewis method after its developers, is often used to recalculate a new target score. A one-day match can also be declared a "no-result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible; for example, wet weather.

In all forms of cricket, the umpires can abandon the match if bad light or rain makes it impossible to continue. White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket , especially in matches played at night, under floodlights left. The essence of the sport is that a bowler delivers i. Basic gameplay. The bat is made of wood, usually salix alba white willow , and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle.

The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid , with a circumference of The ball has a "seam": The seam on a new ball is prominent, and helps the bowler propel it in a less predictable manner. During matches, the quality of the ball deteriorates to a point where it is no longer usable, and during the course of this deterioration its behaviour in flight will change and can influence the outcome of the match.

Players will therefore attempt to modify the ball's behaviour by modifying its physical properties. Polishing the ball and wetting it with sweat or saliva is legal, even when the polishing is deliberately done on one side only to increase the ball's swing through the air , but the acts of rubbing other substances into the ball, scratching the surface or picking at the seam is illegal ball tampering.

During normal play, thirteen players and two umpires are on the field. Two of the players are batsmen and the rest are all eleven members of the fielding team. The other nine players in the batting team are off the field in the pavilion. The image with overlay below shows what is happening when a ball is being bowled and which of the personnel are on or close to the pitch.

One of the two umpires 1; wearing white hat is stationed behind the wicket 2 at the bowler's 4 end of the pitch. The bowler 4 is bowling the ball 5 from his end of the pitch to the batsman 8 at the other end who is called the "striker". The other batsman 3 at the bowling end is called the "non-striker".

A cricket bat's journey

The wicket-keeper 10 , who is a specialist, is positioned behind the striker's wicket 9 and behind him stands one of the fielders in a position called " first slip " While the bowler and the first slip are wearing conventional kit only, the two batsmen and the wicket-keeper are wearing protective gear including safety helmets, padded gloves and leg guards pads.

While the umpire 1 in shot stands at the bowler's end of the pitch, his colleague stands in the outfield, usually in or near the fielding position called " square leg ", so that he is in line with the popping crease 7 at the striker's end of the pitch.

The bowling crease not numbered is the one on which the wicket is located between the return creases The bowler 4 intends to hit the wicket 9 with the ball 5 or, at least, to prevent the striker 8 from scoring runs.

The striker 8 intends, by using his bat, to defend his wicket and, if possible, to hit the ball away from the pitch in order to score runs. Some players are skilled in both batting and bowling so are termed all-rounders. Bowlers are also classified according to their style, generally as fast bowlers , medium pace seam bowlers or, like Muttiah Muralitharan pictured above, spinners.

Batsmen are classified according to whether they are right-handed or left-handed. Of the eleven fielders, three are in shot in the image above. The other eight are elsewhere on the field, their positions determined on a tactical basis by the captain or the bowler. Fielders often change position between deliveries, again as directed by the captain or bowler. If a fielder is injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him, but the substitute cannot bowl or act as a captain.

The substitute leaves the field when the injured player is fit to return. The captain is often the most experienced player in the team, certainly the most tactically astute, and can possess any of the main skillsets as a batsman, a bowler or a wicket-keeper. Within the Laws, the captain has certain responsibilities in terms of nominating his players to the umpires before the match and ensuring that his players conduct themselves "within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws".

The wicket-keeper sometimes called simply the "keeper" is a specialist fielder subject to various rules within the Laws about his equipment and demeanour.

He is the only member of the fielding side who can effect a stumping and is the only one permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards. Generally, a team will include five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers, plus the wicket-keeper. Protective clothing includes pads designed to protect the knees and shins , batting gloves or wicket-keeper's gloves for the hands, a safety helmet for the head and a box for male players inside the trousers to protect the crotch area.

The only fielders allowed to wear protective gear are those in positions very close to the batsman i.

Laws of Cricket - Wikipedia

Subject to certain variations, on-field clothing generally includes a collared shirt with short or long sleeves; long trousers; woollen pullover if needed ; cricket cap for fielding or a safety helmet; and spiked shoes or boots to increase traction. The kit is traditionally all white and this remains the case in Test and first-class cricket but, in limited overs cricket, team colours are worn instead.

The innings ending with 's' in both singular and plural form is the term used for each phase of play during a match. Depending on the type of match being played, each team has either one or two innings. Sometimes all eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end before they have all done so.

The innings terminates if the batting team is "all out", a term defined by the Laws: An innings may end early while there are still two not out batsmen: The Laws state that, throughout an innings, "the ball shall be bowled from each end alternately in overs of 6 balls".

At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not. A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can and usually does bowl alternate overs, from the same end, for several overs which are termed a "spell". The batsmen do not change ends at the end of the over, and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice-versa.

The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at "square leg" now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker's end and vice-versa. The game on the field is regulated by the two umpires , one of whom stands behind the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg" which is about 15—20 metres away from the batsman on strike and in line with the popping crease on which he is taking guard. The umpires have several responsibilities including adjudication on whether a ball has been correctly bowled i.

The umpires are authorised to interrupt or even abandon a match due to circumstances likely to endanger the players, such as a damp pitch or deterioration of the light. Off the field in televised matches, there is usually a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence.

The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test and Limited Overs International matches played between two ICC full member countries. These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the Laws and the spirit of the game. The match details, including runs and dismissals, are recorded by two official scorers , one representing each team. The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire see image, right.

For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out has been dismissed ; he raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs. The scorers are required by the Laws to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled; in practice, they also note significant amounts of additional data relating to the game. A match's statistics are summarised on a scorecard.

Prior to the popularisation of scorecards, most scoring was done by men sitting on vantage points cuttings notches on tally sticks and runs were originally called notches. Pratt of Sevenoaks and soon came into general use. Besides observing the Laws, cricketers must respect the "Spirit of Cricket," which is the "Preamble to the Laws," first published in the code, and updated in , and now opens with this statement: The Preamble is a short statement that emphasises the "Positive behaviours that make cricket an exciting game that encourages leadership,friendship and teamwork.

The major responsibility for ensuring fair play is placed firmly on the captains, but extends to all players, umpires, teachers, coaches and parents involved. The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play. They are required under the Laws to intervene in case of dangerous or unfair play or in cases of unacceptable conduct by a player.

Previous versions of the Spirit identified actions that were deemed contrary for example, appealing knowing that the batsman is not out but all specifics are now covered in the Laws of Cricket, the relevant governing playing regulations and disciplinary codes, or left to the judgement of the umpires, captains, their clubs and governing bodies.

The terse expression of the Spirit of Cricket now avoids the diversity of cultural conventions that exist on the detail of sportsmanship — or its absence. Most bowlers are considered specialists in that they are selected for the team because of their skill as a bowler, although some are all-rounders and even specialist batsmen bowl occasionally.

The specialist bowlers are active multiple times during an innings, but may not bowl two overs consecutively. If the captain wants a bowler to "change ends", another bowler must temporarily fill in so that the change is not immediate.

A bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a "run-up" and an over is deemed to have begun when the bowler starts his run-up for the first delivery of that over, the ball then being "in play". This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into miscuing his shot, for example, so that the ball just touches the edge of the bat and can then be "caught behind" by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.

Wikipedia pdf cricket

A spinner will often "buy his wicket" by "tossing one up" in a slower, steeper parabolic path to lure the batsman into making a poor shot. The batsman has to be very wary of such deliveries as they are often "flighted" or spun so that the ball will not behave quite as he expects and he could be "trapped" into getting himself out.

There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed: The common forms of dismissal are bowled , [91] caught , [92] leg before wicket lbw , [93] run out [94] and stumped.

If the batsman is out, the umpire raises a forefinger and says "Out! Batsmen take turns to bat via a batting order which is decided beforehand by the team captain and presented to the umpires, though the order remains flexible when the captain officially nominates the team.

Wikipedia pdf cricket

A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode. The idea is to hit the ball to best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade. If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an " edge ".

Although there are many more rules in cricket than in many other sports, it is well worth your time learning them as it is a most rewarding sport. Whether you are looking to play in the backyard with a mate or join a club Cricket-Rules will help you learn the basics and begin to enjoy one of the most popular sports in the world.

The game is ever popular, with many fans attending to watch their local and national teams, the craze is always growing. Cricket is a game played with a bat and ball on a large field, known as a ground, between two teams of 11 players each. The object of the game is to score runs when at bat and to put out, or dismiss, the opposing batsmen when in the field. However there are other formats of the game eg. Cricket is a game played between two teams made up of eleven players each.

History of cricket

The twelfth man is not allowed to bowl, bat, wicket keep or captain the team. His sole duty is to act as a substitute fielder. The original player is free to return to the game as soon as they have recovered from their injury.

To apply the law and make sure the cricket rules are upheld throughout the game there are two umpires in place during games. Umpires are responsible for making decisions and notifying the scorers of these decisions.

Two umpires are in place on the playing field while there is also a third umpire off the field who is in charge of video decisions. This is where the call is too close for the on field umpires and they refer it to the third umpire who reviews slow motion video replays to make a decision. Test cricket is a game that spans over two innings. This means that one team needs to bowl the other team out twice and score more runs then them to win the match.

Another key difference between test cricket and other forms of cricket is the length of the innings.