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A Bridge Too Far Author(s): Michael Gibbons Source: Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Summer, ), p. 35 Published by: Wordwell Ltd. Stable URL. Free Download. PDF version of A Bridge Too Far by Bryan Britton. Apple, Android and Kindle formats also available. PDF | On Jan 1, , Emmet Mcelhatton and others published Georgia: A Bridge Too Far.
Download pdf. In Further to your recent articles on the importance of the writings of historical information, suggesting prehistoric times it would have intertidal survey in Strangford Classical authors like Caesar, the validity of linking the been over twice its present size, Lough, it is worth the Strabo and Pliny about the Celts and bringing ancient the modern. Automatyczne logowanie. He therefore proposed Operation Comet, a limited airborne operation that was to be launched on 2nd September By the end of August, 18, men, including 5, prisoners of war, were engaged on railway construction projects. Gavin, would drop northeast and further into German held territory in order to take the bridges at Grave and Nijmegen.
Throughout the book limestone country of south Mayo. Dr Green illustrates Druids and and archaeological largest lakes in Connacht. In Further to your recent articles on the importance of the writings of historical information, suggesting prehistoric times it would have intertidal survey in Strangford Classical authors like Caesar, the validity of linking the been over twice its present size, Lough, it is worth the Strabo and Pliny about the Celts and bringing ancient the modern.
But x forming the northern side of following points to your attention in Gaul in forming our there is very little critical Lough Mask. In I of theDruids and indeed of the valid link. For example, this is implications for the issue of Archaeological Survey has Abbey Bay, namely the stone fish where the traditional association which version of the past does uncovered a massive timber traps and the Celtic the between the very word Druid and one credence to.
Do we fish-traps, give just at one bridge of the narrowest tide mills and the salt cups and the the oak in Indo-European 'dm' give up on all that archaeological parts of the lake, approximately monk's house etc. I was then as a sacred tree come from.
The invited by the editors of Citeaux The archaeological evidence antiquarians like and Stukeley timber now bridge, surviving in Commentarii Cistercienses to for the Druids and their were Vallencey right? The combined length the Irish Sea Link', which was continuity of the tradition, to receive from and inspiration of the east and west sections is subsequently published in Citeaux particularly in Ireland.
There is a be in contact with supernatural over metres. The central Commentarii Cistercienses vol. I the Classical accounts allied to rather than setting them off as dated by dendrochronology at have given talks about them in the the growth in antiquarianism.
It something exotic and strange. I was perhaps inevitable in this After all, what religion when providing estimated felling dates provide the above information in context that a link was forged viewed from the outside by non of ? Canille, activities of the Druids. Belfast BT 11 8LF.
Page 35 This content downloaded from Related Papers.
A Glimpse of Sligo's Prehistory. By Michael Gibbons. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. By David M Banica. By John Horsfield. From Paganism to Christianity. By Barbara Percival. In the north during the first week of September, the British 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was advancing on a line running from Antwerp to the northern border of Belgium.
To the south, the U.
First Army in support of Montgomery's advance on the Ruhr, the U. Patton was moving eastward towards the Saar.
Finally the U. Devers was advancing north east towards Germany after their landings in southern France. In the north Allied supply sources were still limited to the original invasion beaches, the nearby deep water port of Cherbourg at the tip of the Cotentin peninsula and some minor ports in Normandy. These sources had been adequate for the campaign in Normandy however as the Allied pursuit across France and Belgium continued the lines soon became over extended, a situation which was compounded by soaring fuel consumption as the armies moved further north and eastwards.
By 28th August the situation was becoming critical and Communications Zone reported it could no longer guarantee fuel deliveries. There was some prospect of salvation when the massive port of Antwerp was captured by Montgomery's troops on September 4, but frustratingly much of the Scheldt estuary leading to the port still remained under German control.
Other important ports on the English Channel coast such as Dunkirk were never captured during the war and in fact remained in German hands until the surrender in May Although over-the-beach supply operations in Normandy outperformed all expectations, September brought deteriorating weather conditions and rising seas.
The effectiveness of expedient measures such as the Mulberry Harbour was clearly in sight. Deep-water ports were therefore required. The Overlord plan had foreseen this, calling for the exploitation of ports in Brittany and Eisenhower sticking slavishly to the plan persisted with his efforts to capture the Brittany ports despite the fact that the shift in focus of the campaign made the capture of strong points such as Le Havre even more unnecessary.
Although in terms of volume there were enough supplies being landed to support Allied operations, it was the desperate shortage of transport to move these supplies forward which was creating a bottleneck.
In an effort to ease the transport situation the advancing divisions of the US 12th Army Group were forced to leave all their heavy artillery and half their medium artillery west of the Seine in order to free their trucks to move supplies for infantry units. Four British truck companies were also loaned to the Americans. The creation of the famous Red Ball Express supply route did much to lessen the impact of the transport shortage but this ad hoc operation could not solve the overall strategic problem.
Railway transport was the obvious solution and represented by far the most economical form of transport but the allies own efforts had contributed to their own downfall in this respect. The pre- invasion air strikes had badly damaged the rail lines and destroyed huge numbers of locomotives.
The frantic reconstruction effort could simply not keep pace. By the end of August, 18, men, including 5, prisoners of war, were engaged on railway construction projects. Fortunately, the system had not been nearly so badly damaged east of the Seine and after many delays, the first trainload of supplies reached the US Third Army depot at Le Mans on 17 August. With supplies continuing to pile up at the ports they simply could not be moved fast enough, the result was chaos in the docks and on 30th August the decision was taken to suspend imports entirely.
In the meantime it was ordered that 21st Army Group would draw on its reserve supplies in Normandy until the more northerly ports of Dieppe and Boulogne-sur- Mer could be opened.
This difficult situation was exacerbated by the fact that 1, British three-ton trucks were found to be useless because of faulty pistons in their engines — these vehicles could otherwise have moved tons per day, enough for two entire divisions.
Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, favoured pursuit of the battered German armies eastwards to the Rhine on the broadest possible front.
He agreed however that Montgomery's drive towards the Ruhr should have priority. Eisenhower also maintained that it was important to get Patton and his stalled forces moving again as soon as possible. Eisenhower was relying upon on a speedy advance but this placed even more strain on the hard pushed logistics services which even Eisenhower now conceded were stretched to the limit. The expansive front strategy made life even more difficult for the formations fighting the north and was fiercely contested by Montgomery, who argued that with the supply situation deteriorating, he would not be able to reach the Ruhr on a broad front.
Instead he argued for a narrow thrust up the road corridor through Holland and stated that "a relocation of our present resources of every description would be adequate to get one thrust to Berlin". Operation Comet Following their successful deployment in Normandy the allied airborne forces had been withdrawn to rest and refit in England and in the process had been formed into the First Allied Airborne Army which comprised two British, three U.
The First Allied Airborne Army had been created on 16th August as the result of repeated British requests for a coordinated headquarters for airborne operations. The concept was approved by General Eisenhower on 20th June.
British hopes that Browning, the most obvious British candidate for commander, would be appointed its first commander were soon dashed. Eisenhower took the reasonable view that as the bulk of both troops and aircraft were American, then an American should be in overall command. Brereton, a U. As the British pointed out a great length, Brereton had no experience in airborne operations, Eisenhower countered that he did have extensive command experience at the air force level which had been gained in several theatres, above all he had most recently been commander of Ninth Air Force, which gave him a working knowledge of the operations of IX Troop Carrier Command.
Despite the squabbling over command, the fact remained that this highly trained and effective force was completely underutilized. Following the battle for Normandy, plans for eighteen airborne operations had been drafted and approved only to be cancelled at short notice, usually as a result of Allied ground forces overrunning the intended objectives.
Montgomery was all too aware of this large and highly trained paratroop force which was available to him.
He therefore proposed Operation Comet, a limited airborne operation that was to be launched on 2nd September The operation was fully planned and ready for launching when consecutive days of poor weather and Montgomery's concerns over increasing levels of German resistance caused him to postpone the operation before cancelling it altogether on 10th September.
Operation Market-Garden In mid September the relatively limited objectives of Operation Comet were replaced by an altogether more grand and ambitious plan to bypass the Siegfried Line by hooking around its northern end, allowing the Allies to cross the Rhine with large forces and trap the German Fifteenth Army between Arnhem and the North Sea.
There was little accord with regard to Operation Market-Garden in the ranks of the allied commanders and on 10th September Dempsey firmly expressed to Montgomery his severe reservations concerning this new operational plan. Dempsey championed an advance north-eastwards between the Reichswald forest and the Ruhr to Wesel which clearly had a number of merits.
Montgomery however countered with the explanation that he had just received a signal from London that something urgently must be done to destroy the V-2 launch sites around the Hague which were being used to bombard London. It was mainly on this evidence that the decision was taken that Operation Market-Garden must proceed in any event. Montgomery flew to Brussels on the afternoon of 10th September to meet Eisenhower.