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1) What is the difference between the QA and software testing? The role of QA ( Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the "process". Software Testing Interview Questions for fresher and experienced with a list of frequently asked questions and answers in interviews. List most important 30 interview questions about software testing with answers. Also refer the pdf file with a list of sample basic 32 interview questions.
WebLoad RadView: What is Green Box Testing? Explain any two? Every build has a number for identification purpose. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing.
While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the functionality of final product meets the user's requirement. Testware is test artifacts like test cases, test data, test plans needed to design and execute a test. It is a number given to Installable software that is given to the testing team by the development team. It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to the customer by the tester or developer. Mastering the automation tool Reusability of Automation script Adaptability of test case for automation Automating complex test cases.
Bug release is when software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release.
During this the priority and severity of bug is low, as bug can be removed before the final handover. Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end users or customer, and not detected by the testing team while testing the software. Data driven testing is an automation testing framework, which tests the different input values on the AUT.
These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. Once the bug is identified by the tester, it is assigned to the development manager in open status If the bug is a valid defect the development team will fix it.
If it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected The next step will be to check whether it is in scope. The test strategy includes an introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed.
Unit testing Integration testing and regression testing Shakeout testing Smoke testing Functional testing Performance testing White box and Black box testing Alpha and Beta testing Load testing and stress testing System testing 10 What is branch testing and what is boundary testing?
The testing of all the branches of the code, which is tested once, is known as branch testing. While the testing, that is focused on the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing. Testing objectives Testing scope Testing the frame The environment Reason for testing The criteria for entrance and exit Deliverables Risk factors 12 What is Agile testing and what is the importance of Agile testing?
Agile testing is software testing, is testing using Agile Methodology. The importance of this testing is that, unlike normal testing process, this testing does not wait for the development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both goes simultaneously. It requires continuous customer interaction.
Test case is a specific condition to check against the Application Under Test. It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment, and outputs. The strategy for Automation Test Plan Preparation of Automation Test Plan Recording the scenario Error handler incorporation Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs Debugging the script and fixing the issues Rerunning the script Reporting the result 15 What is quality audit?
The systematic and independent examination for determining the effectiveness of quality control procedures is known as the quality audit. Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing. Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc. Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing. Volume Testing: The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc.
Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of a software should be complete, clear and agreed by all The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development. Use rapid prototype during design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect Use of group communication tools 19 What is a 'USE' case and what does it include?
The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case. It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions. A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels. It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project.
Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management. It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system's functionality. It can include negative testing as well.
Explain what is testing type and what are the commonly used testing type? To get an expected test outcome, a standard procedure is followed which is referred to as Testing Type. Commonly used testing types are Unit Testing: Test the smallest code of an application API Testing: Individual software modules are combined and tested System Testing: Testing through Agile technique While monitoring your project what all things you have to consider?
The things that have to be taken in considerations are Is your project on schedule Are you over budget Are you working towards the same career goal Have you got enough resources Are there any warning signs of impending problems Is there any pressure from management to complete the project sooner What are the common mistakes which create issues?
Matching resources to wrong projects Test manager lack of skills Not listening to others Poor Scheduling Underestimating Ignoring the small problems Not following the process What does a typical test report contain? What are the benefits of test reports? A test report contains the following things: Current status of project and quality of product are informed If required, stakeholder and customer can take corrective action A final document helps to decide whether the product is ready for release What is test management review and why it is important?
SQA focusses more on the software process rather than the software work products. It is a set of activities designed to make sure that the project manager follows the standard process. SQA helps test manager to benchmark the project against the set standards. What are the best practices for software quality assurance? RTM is prepared before test case designing. Requirements should be traceable from review activities. What is the difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?
Test Matrix: Test matrix is used to capture actual quality, effort, the plan, resources and time required to capture all phases of software testing Traceability Matrix: Mapping between test cases and customer requirements is known as Traceability Matrix In manual testing what are stubs and drivers?
Both stubs and drivers are part of incremental testing.
In incremental testing, there are two approaches namely bottom-up and top-down approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing and stub is used for a top-down approach. In order to test the main module, the stub is used, which is a dummy code or program. What is the step you would follow once you find the defect? Once a defect is found you would follow the step a Recreate the defect b Attach the screenshot c Log the defect This technique uses the actual test case document developed by testers using a spreadsheet containing special "key Words".
The key words control the processing. When a "flow of data" through an information system is graphically represented, then it is known as Data Flow Diagram. It is also used for the visualization of data processing. LCSAJ stands for 'linear code sequence and jump. The cycle is repeated unless there are no errors found. What is Fuzz testing and when it is used? Fuzz testing is used to detect security loopholes and coding errors in software. In this technique, random data is added to the system in an attempt to crash the system.
If vulnerability persists, a tool called fuzz tester is used to determine potential causes. This technique is more useful for bigger projects but only detects a major fault. Mention what the main advantages of statement coverage metric of software testing are? The benefit of statement coverage metric is that a It does not require processing source code and can be applied directly to object code b Bugs are distributed evenly through the code, due to which percentage of executable statements covered reflects the percentage of faults discovered How to generate test cases for "replace a string" method?
Junk characters should not be added c Spaces after and before the string should not be deleted d String should be replaced only for the first occurrence of the string How will you handle a conflict amongst your team members? I will talk individually to each person and note their concerns I will find a solution to the common problems raised by team members I will hold a team meeting, reveal the solution and ask people to co-operate Mention what are the categories of defects? Mainly there are three defect categories Wrong: When a requirement is implemented incorrectly Missing: It is a variance from the specification, an indication that a specification was not implemented or a requirement of the customer is not met Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer.
It is considered as a defect because it is a variance from the existing requirements Explain how does a test coverage tool work? The code coverage testing tool runs parallel while performing testing on the actual product.
The code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source code. When the final testing is done, we get a complete report of the pending statements and also get the coverage percentage. Mention what the difference between a "defect" and a "failure" in software testing is? In simple terms when a defect reaches the end customer, it is called a failure while the defect is identified internally and resolved; then it is referred to as a defect.
Explain how to test documents in a project that span across the software development lifecycle? It is the main test plan that outlines the complete test strategy of the project. This plan is used till the end of the software development lifecycle Acceptance test plan: This document begins during the requirement phase and is completed at the final delivery System test plan: This plan starts during the design plan and proceeds until the end of the project Integration and Unit test plan: Both these test plans start during the execution phase and last until the final delivery Explain which test cases are written first black boxes or white boxes?
Black box test cases are written first as to write black box test cases; it requires project plan and requirement document all these documents are easily available at the beginning of the project.
While writing white box test cases requires more architectural understanding and is not available at the start of the project.
Explain what the difference between latent and masked defects is? A latent defect is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because the sets of conditions were never met Masked defect: It is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed Mention what bottom-up testing is?
Bottom-up testing is an approach to integration testing, where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
Mention what the different types of test coverage techniques are? Different types of test coverage techniques include Statement Coverage: It verifies that each line of source code has been executed and tested Decision Coverage: It ensures that every decision in the source code is executed and tested Path Coverage: It ensures that every possible route through a given part of the code is executed and tested Mention what the meaning of breath testing is?
Breath testing is a test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail Explain what the meaning of Code Walk Through is? Code Walk Through is the informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques Mention what the basic components of defect report format are? Mention what the purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is?
End-to-end testing is done after functional testing. The purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is that To validate the software requirements and integration with external interfaces Testing application in real-world environment scenario Testing of interaction between application and database Explain what it means by test harness? A test harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, and it involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.
Explain in a testing project what testing activities would you automate? In testing project testing activities, you would automate are Tests that need to be run for every build of the application Tests that use multiple data for the same set of actions Identical tests that need to be executed using different browsers Mission critical pages A transaction with pages that do not change in a short time What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?
It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code. What is risk-based testing?
Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.
What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing? Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced. What is the purpose of exit criteria? The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed. What determines the level of risk? The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event determine the level of risk.
When is used Decision table testing? Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table, the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.
Why we use decision tables? The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface.
The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables, and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things e. This technique is sometimes also referred to as a 'cause-effect' table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called 'cause-effect graphing' which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?
To identify defects in any software work product. Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification. Test case specification defines the expected results of a test. What is the benefit of test independence? It avoids author bias in defining effective tests.
As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria? The exit criteria are determined on the bases of 'Test Planning'. What is Alpha testing? Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer's site. What is beta testing? Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations. Mention what the difference between Pilot and Beta testing is? The difference between a pilot and beta testing is that pilot testing is actually done using the product by the group of users before the final deployment, and in beta testing, we do not input real data, but it is installed at the end customer to validate if the product can be used in production.
None, existing test cases can be used. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools? Testing technique: Testing Tools: The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing Learn More About Testing Tools here We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing … User Acceptance Test Cases Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component: Regression Testing A wholesaler sells printer cartridges.
The minimum order quantity is 5. You have been asked to prepare test cases using various values for the number of printer cartridges ordered.
Which of the following groups contain three test inputs that would be generated using Boundary Value Analysis? What is component testing? Component testing, also known as unit, module, and program testing, searches for defects in and verifies the functioning of software e. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system.
Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components simply. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested. Here is an awesome video on Unit Testing What is functional system testing? Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole is defined as a functional system testing. What are the benefits of Independent Testing?
Independent testers are unbiased and identify different defects at the same time. The bulk of the test design work begun after the software or system has been produced. What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model? There are currently seven different agile methodologies that I am aware of: Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?
A 'Test Analysis' and 'Design' includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system. What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts? Because testing everything is not feasible. When is it used? Random testing is often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input, the system is tested, and results are analyzed accordingly.
These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects. Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports?
Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation, and correction as necessary. Provide ideas for test process improvement. Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence. Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test. Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques? Equivalence Partitioning. Use Case Testing. Data Flow Analysis. Exploratory Testing.
Decision Testing. Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary? Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find. What are the phases of a formal review? In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps: What is the role of moderator in the review process? The moderator or review leader leads the review process.
He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.
Learn More about Review process in Video Tutorial here What is an equivalence partition also known as an equivalence class? An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case. When should configuration management procedures be implemented? During test planning.
A Type of Functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to the detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders? Security Testing Testing wherein we subject the target of the test, to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and the ability of the target and the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads? Load Testing Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is?
Integration Level Testing What are the Structure-based white-box testing techniques? Structure-based testing techniques which are also dynamic rather than static use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called 'white-box' or 'glass-box' techniques implying you can see into the system since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works.
For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times.
This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software. When should "Regression Testing" be performed? After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed.
What is negative and positive testing? A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While positive testing is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion? The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing What can static analysis NOT find?
For example memory leaks. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing? Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects. What are the Experience-based testing techniques? In experience-based techniques, people's knowledge, skills, and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases.
The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing. What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?
Inspection Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?