Experiencing Architecture RasmussenFullPDF - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. [PDF] DOWNLOAD Experiencing Architecture (MIT Press) BY - Steen Eiler Rasmussen Full Books. 1. [PDF] DOWNLOAD Experiencing. PDF | This paper is an attempt to understand the influence of architectural settings on people; why certain architectural experiences stays with us whereas others.
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Experiencing. Arch i t ectu r e by Steen Eiler Rasmussen. The M. I. T. Press. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. CAMBRIDGE. File:Rasmussen Steen Eiler Experiencing Architecture pdf Rasmussen_Steen_Eiler_Experiencing_Architecture_pdf (file size. Steen Eiler Rasmussen. Experiencing Architecture. Page 2. 2. Page 3. 3. Page 4. 4. Page 5. 5. Page 6. 6. Page 7. 7. Page 8. 8. Page 9. 9. Page Page
Broadly speaking we can say that his imagination is twoits dimensional where ours has three dimensions. Scale i of. Detail of S. The monumental edifice became even more effective when was placed in a row of ordinary structures. But even more important is the way the entire design the life is based on the functions of the building.
The large living room has cupants their a stone floor. Wisconsin on a plain they spread out horizontally. He often produces an impression of extra weight and volume by letting solid bodies penetrate into architectural space. He also works with contrasting forms. In his desire to obtain unusual effects he creates a Mannerism of his own with accentuations. Frank Lloyd Wright: Interior of Johnson Wax Company's building in Racine.
Just as the house over the waterfall has traits in common with Fontana Trevi. But the horizontal ones. Mossehaus in Berlin.
The exterior is a play on the same effects that were used by Baroque architects in Rome: The building-line swings back in a great curve to form a small forecourt.
It was materialized in his museum building in the town of Faaborg. In this small provincial large body there is a cavity —the deep-cut hole of the entrance. This is penetrated by the main wing which projects its mass into the concavity.
Police Copenhagen Police Headquarters. There are utilizing visual effects problems which are best solved by there are architects and who do their best work in dramatic archi- tecture of this kind.
But still they belong under architecture. Sky and water merge into a appear simply as floating horizontal sphere in the middle of which dark fishing boats glide and the low islands stripes.
Very distant objects often seem completely Many cloud forma- tions are seen only as two-dimensional figures against the back- ground of the sky. Where other lively cities. You see the outlines its but have no impression of depth. Even Manhattan. In bygone days Venice must have looked even more At that time. A distant stretch of coast coming into view across water appears merely as a silhouette. And old. Venice itself looms like a mirage. And when it decked itself in festive array no other European city could rival its magnificence.
Here the Orient began. The entire north. The From the Orient Venice had learned how to transform her houses and create an atmosphere of splendor by hanging from her windows. Still costly rugs today during the great festivals you can see the buildings surrounding S.
May fortified a mountain top with thick walls without a single open- ing. North S. Mark's Square adorned in this ordinary Even without such ornament the buildings are extramonuments of a unique city culture.
Instead of emphasizing weight and Venice allured with gaiety and movement. On the street level stories with between columns. Contrary to all walls are massive above and completely. Instead of a richly sculptured block the building is transformed into a collection of figured color planes. After having seen this decoration you feel that you understand many of the other buildings better. Note window which is more like an exterior decoration —a hanging prayer rug tL'ith brackets like heavy zceights on each side than like a — hole in a wall side.
They are attempts to make The mosaic floors in S. Corner of 85 Palazzo Danieli. But most remarkable architectural rules its is the Doges' Palace. But this of top-heaviness. They are so thin that they no sunlight surface. The large. For centuries the canal dwellers have taken pleasure in decorating their houses with flowers.
In Venice the very opposite was done. Venetian palace icith fafade tuhich resembles a set-piece of Oriental rugs: They are deeper than they are wide. Along the Canal Grande one great palazzo lies beside the pther. The Canale Grande above all a place of festivity. These Hght palaces are not.
Venetian art too glowed with intense color. The buildings of the two periods are the same. Even the windows seem to be surface ornaments rather than openings in walls. There seems to be a connection between the colorfulness of Venetian architecture and the special light that prevails in Venice where there are so many the water.
During the period when architecture was light and colorful. Mark's Square — and here too attempts have been made make the decoration permanent.
They are simply divided by narrow mouldings. Pointed arch field so that openings are inscribed in a rectangular prayer rugs hung on the fa9ade. But the Gothic of the palaces merely ornamental. Also the Venetian buildings of the early Renaissance. In Gentile Bellini's painting one of the buildings still to be seen in Venice seems to be entirely textile pattern. The wall surface has a the windows resemble prayer rugs and between another rug seems to be hung.
In reality Wright's mannerism is no more alien to the old Venetian It architecture than the late Renaissance was. Canal Grande Venice. Buildings were no longer to depend on color planes for effects but on relief.
The and interior of the later the taste of a Doges' Palace was gutted by fire in enormous rooms were decorated according to the new era. To the left the base of the Renaissance palace. In our time a Venetian facade commission prevented the erection of a house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright on the ground that it did not harmonize with the general character of the city.
The building. But just actually as a building can is. In Venice we learn a that buildings can be is formed so that the thick. Renaissance were like such boxes. Or if. Lightness was all right for tents and other temporary structures but a house should be solid and look solid. During the late Renaissance and the following periods a building which appeared light was not considered real architecture.
And if an edifice was to be grander than its neighbors was made so by added weight and added ornament. If all wooden box were planed away and all crev- and tell flat and smooth. The ceilings were relief and given so much ornament.
As to the form itself. An illuminating example of this is a villa built in in a pine could be. During the following decades several attempts were made to produce tecture. English Regency and German Bieder- meyer created buildings completely covered with smooth stucco painted in pale colors.
Quite by chance these theoretical experiments worked with contrasting came. But in such a house you go it in constant fear of burglars. The entire west side of the living room is one long glass wall which can be shoved aside when the sun shines and closed when it is cold.
During the decade before the first world war a school of painting had arisen which. Wigs went out of fashion. I Out here. But this phase lasted only a short time and heaviness and ornament returned once more.
I have no treasures. It was lighter and more open than anyone hitherto had imagined the house of a wealthy man The owner. Artists who were serv- ing in a French battery at the end of began painting their position in order to conceal it from the enemy.
Luckhardt Brothers: The heavy hulls became and airy in their new harlequin dress. Am Riipen- horn. One of these was the German film. Where before the colors had been bright they were straight hnes now muddy. Buildings too were constructed with bizarre lines and shapes. They were color composi- tions without weight. This becomes apparent when it is compared with the camouinstead of the flage painting of the second world war. Le Corbusier's work in the second half of the nineteen-twenties clarity.
But by the time the war was over everybody was familiar with them and new experiments with cubist forms were made in architecture as well as other arts. Compared to the dogged experiments of the Germans to create a new style during the years following the war.
Caligari's Cabinet. Speaking of a housing project he was designing for the town of Pessac. But all these strange forms were only transitional phenomena which left no permanent traces. These houses represented the utmost that can be done to give an illusion of absolutely weightless ele- ments. For most people the cubist camouflage was a demonstration of visual eff"ects they had never seen before. Behind An oblong hole was cut out of the plane exactly like the one I teas looking and to the right of the green house were row-houses with coffee-brown fafades and cream-colored sides and behind them rose the tops of blue "sky-scrapers".
The only purpose of was be perceived as houses only with great difficulty. Sitting tree. The buildings opposite could the left loas simply a light-green plane without cornice or gutter. Le Corbusier: Houses in the in Pessac near Bordeaux. The construction. What you see are not supported and sup- porting elements. The housing estate in Pessac was the most consistent attempt but not the only one. He does not work with cavities. Mies van der Rohe is the son of a stone-mason and his work has always borne the stamp of precision.
But while Le Corbusier's buildings were like artistic sketches in color. His buildings do not eliminate their substance They consist of screens between the planes and ceiling. Other to divest architecture of its mass. Mies van der Rohe also employs simple proportions. In they they could be experienced as one huge color composition. The windo'ws formed long building instead of along the building-line.
Ludwig Mies' are carefully worked out to the last detail and composed of the finest in are interesting examples. Le Corbusier seemed to float liked to set his houses on slim pillars so that on air. Le Corbusier used reinforced concrete for buildings in which the floors were supported by a few pillars standing inside the The outer walls rested They were meant only as a protective curtain and therefore it was in keeping with the facts when they appeared to be merely thin screens.
It is a world of screens which may give a certain background for a group of furniture but can never create a closed and intimate interior. Their creators also shunned quiet could be found.
Haus Tugendhat in Brno. The lightis reflecting materials multiply the geometrical forms. Mies van der Robe's architecture is cold and crisp. Rohe's sier's It is is akin to certain photographs. The glass showcases on the wall inside the shop continue out through the glass fafade and tempt passers-by with elegant bottles gleaming in the sun Other.
But there are more modern ideas behind Mies van der art. During these years the way of living also underwent a change from the pompous to the unpretentious. They photographs formed as a sort of collage of several negatives de- picting a confusion of semi-transparent buildings merging into each other in a highly incredible fashion. This was true not only of the temporary fairyland of great expositions but also of the ordinary shop-front which requires fascinating materials and the apparent elimination of the barrier between inside and out in order to attract the passer-by..
The elegant architect could now solve many modern problems in an manner — for example. The idea of. Many of the screens can be slid aside. They do not enclose rooms but form light frames around the inhabitants and their few possessions. He forms his houses of posts screens: The Japanese has difficulty in thinking in terms of perspective and when he puts houses in his pictures they become a system of abstract ture.
There they have a pictorial art without perspective or line and color with strange. This also characterizes his real architec- not that he has gotten heavy walls to look thin.
It is lines. The walls are thin. We must have meat and bread and butter. With their verandas. The white man is always seeking stability. Broadly speaking we can say that his imagination is twoits dimensional where ours has three dimensions. But within limits It Japanese art has reached the highest state of refinement.
The not land itself is a land of impermanence. Japanese They have wooden legs which raise the matting-covered floors above the soil. He makes in himself dependent on is But Japan everything in motion. His house must all be constructed to endure. The entire mode of life and the philosophy of the Japanese have something of the emancipation that we are striving for. It forces reflection upon the useless multiplicity of our daily wants. The European learned some- thing during the Renaissance which the Japanese has never grasped.
No his one has interpreted the Japanese pattern of life better than Lafcadio Hearn. Think moment how important an Occidental attire is shirt. We have given up many other superfluous things and in return have come to appreciate nature much more.
It is interesting to note how much closer we have approached each other since that time. The starched white shirt is no longer a common article of dress simply because we have become much more mobile than we were. Yet the so-called 'badge of a gentleman. California kets: Today there are many American dwellings —especially on the west coast—which in materials and light planning resemble Japanese houses more closely than they do European.
This busier's buildings were conceived — not in them color and cutting them off sharply. You can trace it. He drew attention to the planes by giving room or the outside wall. If gave a vivid at example of a third we look once more the two- dimensional figure that can be seen as either a vase or two profiles.
If you try to copy you will particularly observe all changes in direction and more than likely exaggerate them.
This is apparent our houses and their design. And it was the boundaries that interested him. They expected architecture to as they form either masses or cavities saw neither one nor the they concluded that his other in his buildings and as. When Le They saw perceive it Corbusier designed his houses in the nineteen- twenties there were many people who could had been and see nothing in them. The Japanese have a similar conception of architecture though not quite so categori-.
Le Corit busier's work was particularly interesting because possibility. When ordinary' people try to draw plans for a house the parti- tions are usually represented limit of the by a single line which indicates the is the way Le Corvolume but in mathematically designed planes which formed the boundary lines of certain volumes.
They are wooden is structures elegantly designed on the "open plan. But his early work effect had an emancipating tionally trod. It on other architects. I03 wooden style which are highly at substantial. But others have taken up the problem. Since then the English people have learned to appreciate them. In their houses you experience innumerable planes but also posts. The first reaction to these non-traditional buildings was a feeling that they were not "real" architecture because they seemed so light.
While at that time buildings are was abstract painting which inspired him. Through it they discovered that there were other paths to follow than those tradi- was incompatible with Le Corbusier's restless nature that he should create the rational architecture of colored elements which he had envisioned. When Hertfordshire. Le Corbusier himself he created it abandoned the the close of the twenties. The truth is. As long is as no one was able it to explain what happens when a tone produced and how affects the listener.
This could be demonstrated that it as regards music and also. This led him ferent lengths to experiment with tautly stretched strings of dif- related to each other in the ratios of small and he ascertained that when the lengths were numbers the strings produced harmonious sounds. But was obvious that man was it in pos- session of a special intuition which made possible for him to perceive simple mathematical proportions in the physical world.
They ears with delight. But whatever the Greeks' reasoning. He went three in to investigate and discovered that the lengths of the hammer-heads were related to each other in the ratio of 6: This true. Tones with simple frequency ratios have the same overtones and when they are sounded simultaneously a will result new.
The truth comparison of architectural proportions with musical consonances can only be. It has been That scale is and proportion play a very im- portant role in architecture visual proportions as those unquestionable. The result will be a tone of a weird. But there are no effect which have the same spontaneous call on us in which we ordinarily harmonies and disharmonies music.
The tones of music differ from other. But if sound waves of slightly different periods of vibration are set in motion the sound pro- duced is incoherent and often directly unpleasant. Vibrations which result from striking a chord constitute a keynote with a definite rate of frequency series of overtones etc. A sensitive lis- may actually get a is stomachache from hearing such dis- But there nothing analogous to this in the visual world.
If strings with lengths in the relation of This tions produce extra large oscilla- and between these strong blasts there will be points where the vibrations annihilate each other so that they become practically inaudible. If two sound a waves with frequency ratio of Nevertheless innumerable attempts have been made to work out principles of architectural proportioning scales.
This may sound somewhat complicated but easily grasped when seen in diagram. If we call is the two parts a and respectively. If we sub Until recently an ordinary Danish match box. This can be drawn in a diagram but these lengths cannot be expressed as rational numbers. By connecting the a the five points of the same as the pentagram In this new pentagon is formed. Unfortunately for try Denmark the economic situation of the coun- made is it necessary to reduce the length of matchsticks and is therefore Tordenskjold's portrait now placed in a rectangle.
Formerly the various paper were also often based on the golden section and the same was true of letter-press printing.
These are i.. To Pythagoras the pentagram was a mystical and holy symbol. On the other hand. The relation between the length of one of the sides of a is pentagram's point and the side of a pentagon golden section. In Norway Frederick Macody Lund published his great work "Ad Quadratum" in which he sought to prove that the great historical works of architecture were based on the proportions of the golden section. The remarkable it thing about this series is that the ratio. Ivar Bentsen: Project for a philharmonic building in Copenhagen.
In Denmark the architect Ivar Bentsen designed a large project for a philharmonic building in which the proportions were based was to be built on the above-mentioned golden section rule. He suggested therefore that those proportions should be used in the reconstruction of Trondhjem Cathedral. It on a square grid in plan and in elevation to be proportioned according to the The distance between the balusters on the roof was the smallest unit. The width is 5 of the pilat five.
By that time Palladio had been to ruins of antiquity architecture that in proportions. Colin Rowe. Even when this has been explained. From room the garden. The windows in Ivar Bentsen's building.
Palladio's villa. But the whorls grow in several dimensions so that they continue to have the same proportions. On either side of this central hall lie three absolutely symmetrical lesser rooms. But in-. This was in keeping with the Venetian custom of grouping the bedrooms and living rooms round a large. From here you enter the main a great barrel-vaulted hall. Rome where and he now saw it he had studied the great as his mission to create was just as sublime in composition and simple From the architectural world of pure harmonies in all its phases.
Many snail shells. Behind it. It lies between a larger and a smaller rectangular room. Palladio placed great emphasis on these simple ratios: Main entrance fafode. Villa Foscari. Palladio grafted a classic temple front onto the fa9ade of the villa. Within the house.
Above the basement the outer walls present a pattern of large blocks in dimensions corresponding to the thickness of the walls both outer and inner. The pediment in front corresponds to the loggia on the garden fafade shotvn on the opposite page Stead of the Venetian loggia. Malcontenta near Venice. At either end of the cross-arm of the central hall is a square room measuring i6x 1 6 feet.
The fafade design reflects the interior disposition in tvhich a large barrel- vaulted central hall rises to the height of the pediment. III Malcontenta.
Nothing is trivial — great and whole. The an- swer is yes — not the exact measurements but the fundamental You receive an impression of a noble. Its length The width is less of the central hall is also based on exact because the thickness of the walls must be added produced by its to the simple dimensions of the rooms. You also feel that the all is rooms are related in size. The is special effect of the hall in this firmly interlocked composition great height.
Garden front with loggia tvith enormous columns standing out from the body of the building musical harmony. Le Corbusier himself has: Villa in Garches the outer walls hide the pillars on which it stands.
Colin Rowe points out that these pillars form nodal points in a geometric net which is divided in a system very similar to the one that could be Villa Foscari's supporting walls. That which the floors. Le Corbusier has.
Le Corbusier worked with rooms of widely. Palladio worked with simple mathematical ratios corresponding to the harmonic ratios of music and he probably never thought of the golden section. There is no similarity in the principles of composition in the two buildings.
Since then Le Corbusier has gone much golden section. Le Modular. All figure. His height divided according golden section gives to the cm corresponding to navel height which reaching height. Originally modLe Corbusier placed the average man's. This represents. The man is cm tall and with raised arm cm. With hands outstretched he can reach the circle's periphery: There was believed to be a deeper meaning in the fact that man.
This figure he divided according to the golden section rule and got cm. Like Leonardo da Vinci and other Renaissance theorists he found that this corresponds to the height floor to man's navel. He also found sance — likewise in accordance with the masters of — that man's height with upraised arm was i. Le Corbusier then divided his navel height in the same way and continued with sub-divisions until he obtained a whole harmonic series of diminishing measurements. Leonardo da Vinci's ideal man.
It must be admitted that this measure- ment seems of greater importance to the architect than navel. What he cannot find in one he is almost sure to find in the other. In this way he obtained two to be very fortunate. In a diagram he has shown how the various measurements.
But this did not deter Le Corbusier. Therefore he resolutely established cm as the definitive quantity from then which all other measurements were to be derived.
But for a still you would seek vainly measurement for anything so simple as the height of a door or the length of a bed. Man's height of somewhat higher And the raised arm as the ceiling height height of cm. He worked out his two final series of figures which give a great many variations. Cross-section and plans of flats. As pointed earlier. Le Corbusier himself feels that the two series are of great service to him. The Marseille block. In reality.
The columns. The domestic it buildings also had their definite rules of proportioning but they were less elastic. Peter's in Rome must have felt like Gulliver in the land of the giants.
The pilgrim who came to S. Everything was in harmony but adapted to ultralarge columns. Instead of a small cornice cor- responding to the proportions in one stores there now came huge crowning cornices proportioned in relation to the entire building. The monumental edifice became even more effective when was placed in a row of ordinary structures. From then on there was an essential difference between the proportioning of monumental architecture and that of domestic buildings.
But Michelangelo and Palladio introduced columns in "large orders" comprising several stories. During the early Renaissance buildings were constructed in layers with a new set of columns and entablatures for each story. You feel that the house was origi- nally built for such giants in with their and that later ordinary people moved household goods. There were rules the smallest details. These ratios were laid down and illustrated in handy pattern-books of the "five orders. Windows and doors must be easy to order so that they will exactly fit the openings that have been prepared for them.
A foot can be divided into two. The timber which the carpenter prepares in his lumberyard must fit the brickwork which the mason has built up on the site. When we it consider how a building is produced we realize that is fairly necessary to work with standard units. The stonecutter's work. Two bays equalled an ordinary room. In England. We are generally In the Baroque period told that these palaces were built on such a huge all scale to gratify the vanity of princes.
In other countries with other methods of construction there were other subdivisions. But with the Rococo period the small room official came into its own. In others six.
Even for residences the proportioning employed and in castles and palaces privacy and comfort were now preferred to pageantry and splendor.
And they all fitted requiring any further adjustment at the building In Dena high mark half-timber construction the country. The columns and pilasters of exterior architecture now entered the rooms and dominated them.
In the stable the width of a bay cor- responded to a in the house to the narrowest room either a pantry or a corridor. The subdivision here was on a in houses — of sixteen feet each —instead of in bays. This gave a room depth of eighteen feet a bed plus a passage space plus a bed and a distance of nine feet from bed center to bed center.
At every other intervening space a window was wall. This was placed at 6 x 3 feet. He subdivided the ground. In this building. The beds were it to stand with the head-ends against a wall so that to would be possible approach them from either side and from the foot with one row standing out from the window wall and one from the opposite There was to be six feet between beds in both directions.
In the course of four years until his death in he drew up the plans for an entire neighborhood. Their dimensions were determined by the basic element of a hospital the bed. This is only one example of the way Eigtved worked.
He can do this because the tones that are available have to a tone with been firmly established and each note corresponds which he is completely familiar. In his earlier studies he had found that many of the things we use were already standardized without our being aware of These included bed sheets.
Klint formula that would solve all and the heights of tables was not trying to find a magic problems. By a happy accident in the twentieth century Kaare Klint was chosen to restore the hospital building designed by Eigtved in the eighteenth.
Klint had made exhaustive studies of the dimensions of covered that centimeters all sorts of domestic articles as a basis for general architectural proportioning. In his work on the hospital he dis- when it the buildings were measured in meters and their proportioning. You can tity as design a new pattern for the handles of spoons but a tablespoonful and a teaspoonful must remain an invariable quan- long as liquid medicine is given in spoonfuls. This was possible only because he. Today many other In a world in which mass-production it is such a dominating simply the factor absolutely necessary to is work out standards based on It is human proportions.
But this nothing new.
Proportion studies for factory-made furniture. But this does not mean that there are certain proportions which are the only right ones for architecture. For individual objects. In the Gothic cathedral a breath-taking effect was obtained by bays that were many But when times higher than they were broad.
It is composition of four parallel lines on which a number of birds are perched against a white ground. These houses. You can almost hear their joyful chirps.
But within the rigid rectilinear pattern the continuous flashing and fluttering of the birds are variations on a theme which give little a completely cinematographic impression of the flock in vivacious activity. It may be a row of houses in an old street where dwellings of the same type and period were built individually within the framework of a general plan. In the world of architecture you can also experience delightful examples of subtle variation within strict regularity.
Rome It sometimes happens that a sensitive effects artist dehberately at- tempts to create spontaneous. Detail of Quirinal Palace. If a housing block is planned and built as a unit the street will not resemble old streets with rows of houses that were built individually.
Le Corbusier. For while the painter may fill a plane within his composition with continuously changing usually forced to create a regular details. Man has brought order out of chaos. Quirinal Street. It says nothing them and in yet it is a classic example of man's special contribu- tion to orderliness.
Many people entirely too simple to mean anything at all. And if from down there you airier go up to the Quirinal. Its details. The windows are formed two squares. It represents a regularity and precision found seeks to create. Along the north side its of the street lies the Quirinal Palace. Ahead of you stretches the long Quirinal Street in an undeviating straight line. It is just as by the diversity of the medieval just as difficult to find variegated and your way about in as a piece of Nature that has been allowed to grow wild.
The Quirinal is a good starting point for one who wants to experience Rome to as an architectural whole. This continuous repetition is like is exhila- rating rather than tiresome.
It gives you something it with. New It would otherwise The rhythm Egypt and Detroit. Kith rear of Palace of the Patriarch Typical Venetian window rhythm moldings expressively characteristic of the ideals of the period. Fondamenta di Canonica. The distances between windows.
It the opening chords of a great for symphony which. In the same way the Rue de Rivoli introduces a large scale into Paris. And York Rockefeller Center. Perhaps the wall space was necessary to make room for a fireplace with an outdoor chimney between the windows. No one knows what started this custom. It arose because the Venetians Hke closely joined. At any rate it led to fa9ades with windows coupled together two and two with a narrow pier between. The ordinary London terraced house from the eightat eenth century has three bays with the entrance door.
The coupled windows belong to different rooms. Most people probably imagine that the rooms behind these fa9ades have two windows and again. When a number of one-family houses are built time according to a single plan.
Each flat was in two storys. The it is Calle dei Preti. Ever since the Middle Ages the Venetians have built rows of uniform houses for the lower There floor still exists a in the fifteenth row of four-storied.
Each story had strict regularity across the entire own rhythm which was repeated row. The architectural details are just as systematically and firmly placed on the fa9ades is like swallows are freely scattered on the four wires. But on our measured drawing of the facades stands forth very clearly. Thefafades its were probably more uniform originally.
There they stand. The two rhythms — — coincided at great intervals. H i8 Rafn never had the opportunity to erect a building with such an interesting rhythm In 1 91 8 the Danish architect Aage Rafn submitted had a very unusual design for a court house for a small Danish town unusual.
Proposal for a courthouse in Kolding. It just as exciting a window rhythm as the Venetian houses and a form which like so many Venetian houses almost craved mirroring water to give balance. And yet if them what rhythm in architecture means it for them to explain. The term rhythm is borrowed from other arts involving a time element and based on movement. I am quite sure that most people would notice that all of these fa9ades are rhythmically divided.
The ground floor had a regular rhythm with alternating round and rectangular windows while the floor above had uniform windows and alternating pier widths. Architecture would then come to him in great visions. Wright told him that when he saw architecture which moved him he heard music in his inner ear. Bach's rhythms put him in a special state which seemed to shut out the everyday world and at the same time release his creative imagination.
What interests us here is not that the set to the muscles are restored but that the change from one other takes place with such regularity that it is unnecessary to begin all over again each time. A person music experiences the rhythm as something beyond something existing within himself. Eric Mendelsohn has described how he used to listen to Bach recordings when he had a new project to work on.
Such regular "work. His sketches show that they were not ordinary. A man who feels that moves rhythmically controls it. It carries him along. I work is called rhythm —and by mean is is every kind of muscular exercise. The motions are so nicely ad- justed that one seems to give rise to the next without conscious effort. Rhythmic motion gives a feeling of heightened energy. A job cannot be done one stretch is accomplished when carried out in short. During a visit to Frank Lloyd Wright in the twenties — he learned that the opposite was true of his American col- league.
It is well known at that physical work becomes easily easier to perform that it is when the motions involved are regularly alternated. Rhythmic experience spreads easily from one person to another. A crowd of people who are gathered together to watch dancing or some sporting event. Architecture itself has no time dimension.
This results in a regu- which may be very express in words but which felt by those who have the same sense of rhythm. The person who hears music or watches dancing does none of the physical work himself but in perceiving the performance he experiences the rhythm of it as though it were in the chitecture — in his own body. For these two men.
At one time those garments were the most natural thing in the world and now they seem cumbersome and we often hampering. There was intimate connection between the way those people conducted themselves and the things they wore and used. Often the man who forms difficult to architecture also works rhythmically in the creative process larity is itself.
They move in the same way. When we see wonder how anyone could have worn them. If you feel that way you can experience arby the process of re-creation that a line is rhythmic it means by following it with your eyes you have an experience that can be compared with the experience of rhythmic ice-skating.
In much the same is. But to experience ardemands time. This can only be explained by the fact that the people who wore them moved in a rhythm that was different from ours. But is is obviously a connection be- 1 35 it still does not explain what meant by rhythm in architecture. The slope was too steep for a ramp. This role of his was clearly expressed in the. With its bends and turns. If we believe that the object of architecture for people's lives. They knew little about walking but so see Rome lying at their feet.
Though Rome had many examples of create a link between the low-lying Piazza di monumental stairways such as the long. In ancient China the emperor was also the chief priest who made the official offerings on which it was believed the welfare of the country depended. In the Spanish Steps in Rome as depicted example of this. Piranesi's engraving gives a faint idea of how the men and women of that day conducted themselves.
The entire journey was marked by rigid. When they are seen as part of one con-. It Temple processional axis. Peking was monumentally laid out around a great processional road which led straight city through the to the from the great throne hall of the imperial palace was an extremely broad road paved with great slabs of stone.
From pillar to pillar. It in- dicates the direction of the great religious processions and of the to attention of the worshippers. Peking's central axis formed as a great processional road from palace to temple plan and entire structure of the capital. In the same way many sacred buildings of other cults are formed around pageants and trance to the altar. In a cathedral the west-east axis. The processions moved on foot. The bays are very tall and narrow and cannot be perceived singly but must be experienced as a continuous rhythm.
The strange thing about this kind of edifice built as a is framework sion. They are less ecstatic. Like the tones of the organ. The aim of the Renaissance archi- Chancel wall in Beauvais Cathedral. They circle. Instead of pointed arches they employed semi-circular ones. Renaissance architecture was based on When planned building. Vaults in S. Giorgio Maggiore church in Venice by Palladio The building is composed of ideal forms: The axis extends into the campagna by means of due to the symmetrically arranged gardens.
This counter-test proves that Palladio's rooms are rhythmically related in scale and order. Instead of unity and harmony. The rhythm employed by one in generation in the visual arts and ornament is often so generally accepted by the following gener-. The royal residence was formed like an eel trap. If into such a firmly integrated composition you introduced new rooms existing.
In the same way the monumental architecture of the period was based on dynamic spatial planning with rhythmical series of rooms in which none is treated as an independent unit. Though Baroque layouts were not like Peking and — used for processions.
This was whole system of Absolutism. But even though his ar- by dividing those already fectly chitecture is strictly symmetrical it does not give the impression of having been created for pageantry or ceremonies. With the culmination of the Baroque a more restless rhythm appeared again. When you are in it you feel no compulsion to move on but are satisfied to contemplate your surroundings from there. But you would feel that they did not belong there. A skilled designer with a sense of rhythm would be able to draw.
In Christiansborg Palace the architect transferred this rhythm its to an entire colonnade. Copenhagen Museum ation that it is adapted to entire structures. The in a stables beneath the old court theater ful perspectives of vaulted rooms divided by marble columns and sweeping tense.
Baroque doors and windows were surrounded by frames and moldings which seemed to flow in alternating rhythms from curve to straight line and then. They follow a rhythmic line. But the colonnades along the inner side of the buildings are even more impressive.
Before The flow was very like the sharply etched swing of ice-skating. He un- doubtedly enjoyed tracing movement on his drawing-board. Drazving of riding-ground behind Christiansborg Danish National Castle. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views.
Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: Steen Eiler Rasmussen Pages: MIT Press Language: English ISBN Description this book A classic examination of superb design through the centuries. Widely regarded as a classic in the field, Experiencing Architecture explores the history and promise of good design. Generously illustrated with historical examples of designing excellence -- ranging from teacups, riding boots, and golf balls to the villas of Palladio and the fish- feeding pavilion of Beijing s Winter Palace -- Rasmussen s accessible guide invites us to appreciate architecture not only as a profession, but as an art that shapes everyday experience.
In the past, Rasmussen argues, architecture was not just an individual pursuit, but a community undertaking. Dwellings were built with a natural feeling for place, materials and use, resulting in "a remarkably suitable comeliness. An understanding of good design comes not only from one s professional experience of architecture as an abstract, individual pursuit, but also from one s shared, everyday experience of architecture in real time -- its particular use of light, color, shape, scale, texture, rhythm and sound.
Experiencing Architecture reminds us 4. Wide-ranging and approachable, it is for anyone who has ever wondered "what instrument the architect plays on.
Generously illustrated with historical examples of designing excellence -- ranging from teacups, riding boots, and golf balls to the villas of Palladio and the fish-feeding pavilion of Beijing s Winter Palace -- Rasmussen s accessible guide invites us to appreciate architecture not only as a profession, but as an art that shapes everyday experience.
Experiencing Architecture reminds us of what good architectural design has accomplished over time, what it can accomplish still, and why it is worth pursuing. If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 6. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.