of visual communications in securing buy-in to your message. .. PDF. Bottomley, P., Doyle, J. (). The interactive effects of colors and products on. discuss the purposes, approaches and role of visual communication in our everyday of visual communication could be viewed and read, through analyzing of. I am grateful to John Trimbur for his interest in my visual communication seminar that led to Thanks to the graduate students in Visual Communication, fall.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|ePub File Size:||16.66 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.49 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
HANDBOOK OF VISUAL COMMUNICATION THEORY, METHODS, AND MEDIA Edited by Ken Smith University ofWyoming Sandra Moriarty University of. PDF | On Apr 1, , Shahira Fahmy and others published Visual Communication Theory and Research: A Mass Communication Perspective. How to identify, instantiate, and evaluate domain-specific design principles for creating more effective visualizations. The use of a visual communication device, the schematic depiction of the business model, capitalises on the increased memory retention and understand- ing.
The key to showing a video during a presentation is to make sure to transition smoothly into the video and to only show very short clips. Rhythm Rhythm refers to the regular repeating occurrence of elements in the scene just as in music it refers to the regular occurrence of certain musical notes over time. Photoshop is quite different when comparing images that are made and edited by craft. Presentation and. Coherence refers to the belonging together or the various parts of the artwork. Mackinlay Michael Maltz Bruce H.
His work includes important novels on the dehumanizing aspects of scientific progress, most famously Brave New World and The Art of Seeing. He described "seeing" as being the sum of sensing, selecting, and perceiving. One of his most famous quotes is "The more you see, the more you know. Max Wertheimer is said to be the father of Gestalt psychology.
Gestalt means form or shape in German, and the study of Gestalt psychology show emphasis in simplicity, as its properties group visuals by similarity in shape or colour, continuity and proximity.
Additional laws include closure and figure-ground principles in studied images is also intensively taught. Colleges for visual communications differ in their approach, but most combine theory and practice in some form. Visual communication takes place through pictures , graphs and charts , as well as through signs , signals and symbols. It may be used either independently or as an adjunct to the other methods of communication.
Visual communication contains image aspects. The interpretation of images is subjective and to understand the depth of meaning, or multiple meanings, communicated in an image requires analysis. Images can be analysed though many perspectives, for example these six major perspectives presented by Paul Martin Lester: When a viewer has an opinion about an image based on their personal thoughts.
This might be sometimes in conflict with cultural values. Also when a viewer has viewed an image with a personal perspective, it is hard to change the view of the image on the viewer, and the image can even be seen in other ways. Through times sort images have been changed, because the use of different new media. For example: The result of using the computer to edit images e. Photoshop is quite different when comparing images that are made and edited by craft.
When the view of an image is influenced by the use of lights, position and the presentation of the image. The right use of light, position and presentation of the image can improve the view of the image.
It makes the image looks better than the reality. From this perspective, the maker of the image, the viewer and the image itself must be responsible morally and ethically to the image. This perspective is also categorized in six categories: Symbolization is an important definition for this perspective. Cultural perspective involves identity of symbols. The uses of words that are related with the image, the use of heroes in the image, etc.
The cultural perspective can also be seen as the semiotic perspective. The view of images in the critical perspective is when the viewers criticize the images, but the critics have been made in interests of the society, although an individual makes the critics. This way this perspective differs from the personal perspective.
Visual aids are often used to help audiences of informative and persuasive speeches understand the topic being presented. Visual aids can play a large role in how the audience understands and takes in information that is presented.
There are many different types of visual aids that range from handouts to PowerPoints. The type of visual aid a speaker uses depends on their preference and the information they are trying to present. Each type of visual aid has pros and cons that must be evaluated to ensure it will be beneficial to the overall presentation. Before incorporating visual aids into speeches, the speaker should understand that if used incorrectly, the visual will not be an aid, but a distraction. Planning ahead is important when using visual aids.
It is necessary to choose a visual aid that is appropriate for the material and audience. The purpose of the visual aid is to enhance the presentation. Chalkboards and whiteboards are very useful visual aids, particularly when more advanced types of media are unavailable. They are cheap and also allow for much flexibility. Often, using this medium as an aid can create confusion or boredom. Particularly if a student who is not familiar with how to properly use visual aids attempts to draw on a board while they are speaking, they detract time and attention from their actual speech.
A poster is a very simple and easy visual aid. Posters can display charts, graphs, pictures, or illustrations. The biggest drawback of using a poster as a visual aid is that often a poster can appear unprofessional. Since a poster board paper is relatively flimsy, often the paper will bend or fall over. The best way to present a poster is to hang it up or tape it to a wall.
Handouts can also display charts, graphs, pictures, or illustrations. An important aspect of the use of a handout is that a person can keep a handout with them long after the presentation is over. This can help the person better remember what was discussed. Passing out handouts, however, can be extremely distracting. The person who receives the handout might be tempted to read what is on the paper, which will keep them from listening to what the speaker is saying.
If using a handout, the speaker distributes the hand out right before you reference it. A video can be a great visual aid and attention grabber, however, a video is not a replacement for an actual speech. There are several potential drawbacks to playing a video during a speech or lecture.
First, if a video is playing that includes audio, the speaker will not be able to talk. Also, if the video is very exciting and interesting, it can make what the speaker is saying appear boring and uninteresting. The key to showing a video during a presentation is to make sure to transition smoothly into the video and to only show very short clips. There are several types of projectors. These include slide projectors, PowerPoint presentations, overhead projectors, and computer projectors.
Slide projectors are the oldest form of projector, and are no longer used. PowerPoint presentations are very popular and are used often. Overhead projectors are still used but are somewhat inconvenient to use. In order to use an overhead projector, a transparency must be made of whatever is being projected onto the screen. This takes time and costs money.
Computer projectors are the most technologically advanced projectors. When using a computer projector, pictures and slides are easily taken right from a computer either online or from a saved file and are blown up and shown on a large screen. Color illusion, as an important element, can directly suggest information which is not available via non-verbal and form symbols. Color arrangements are very powerful and have enormous impact on our responses to color.
It brings coldness to viewers who will have wrong impression for the new product. In this case, the advertisement will have no effect. Hue, as presentation of culture, carries certain meaning even takes place of verbal symbols in certain circumstances. Non-verbal cues function via stimulating passion and emotion beyond verbal symbols.
Culture significance in hue has something to do with the tradition and convention of a country and nationality. Certain colors are related to certain situations, which grow from regional culture.
Lightness and color are combined in their design, which form strong visual impact and impression. Although it must be visual when emphasizing visual communication due to our impressive convention of languages and words, we have no reason to ignore the importance of written design, especially the literalness format in printing. A writing format in printing within visual communication is crucial to the success of a composition.
Visual tendency in a writing format has great deal to do with psychological physics and mental circumstances. Variations of combination of point, line, form, pattern, hue and the way in which these elements are combined have different functions respectively. Format design is the orderly and personally combination and arrangements of elements to carry information. It will have quality of aesthetics and economy as well as spiritual value. Different format design, placement of patterns and selection of media avenue are used in visual language and communication.
Visual tendency in the center, horizontal and vertical line on the page suggest plenty of attraction and impact with graceful symmetry, while visual tendency with round edges means stability, inside power and weak aggressiveness. Meanwhile, the impact of forms with smooth edges also has something to do with the concrete shape. Circle and triangle outline supply different inside power and specialties. Forms and shapes with uneasy edges are of impact, random and personal.
Shapes with open visual format have less attention and control and more separate and aggressiveness, which occupy large space. Relatively, shapes with close form are easy to recognize. The density of writing is visual with change and variation. Font, as a tool of graphic design, is of importance in application. Variation of font suggests different functions. Some font indicates humor, while some means reverence.
Also we can recognize weakness and power in font. Human impression can be found in font. A post with a serious content, for example, is not able to carry the information of reverence and power and becomes meaningless if round font is used.
Elements of Visual Communication This brief tutorial introduces the foundational elements of visual communication. The emphasis is on techniques to graphically communicate A hierarchy, B grouping and C sequence— three concepts that are critical for designing effective figures, posters, and slides. Here is an overview of the strategy: Position, color, size, shape, and orientation are variables applied to individual graphic elements.
Graphic elements are the units of information that go into making a figure, slide, or poster. These include photos, icons, paragraphs of text, and titles. Next, the graphic elements are combined into compositions where contrast, repetition, proximity, and alignment, defined below, are created.
A figure, poster, or slide is a composition of individual graphic elements. Elements have noticeably different visual characteristics then others in the composition.
Created using the variables of color, size, shape, orientation. Created using color, size, shape, and orientation. Uses the variable of position. By wisely using visual variables and creating contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity within the composition, you can communicate to the viewer the relationships among the elements of your composition. Clearly establishing hierarchy, grouping, and sequence through visual methods allows the viewer to quickly understand how the pieces of information in your figure, slide, or poster relate to each other—and therefore to more quickly understand the information itself.
A dominant-subordinate relationship among elements. A relationship that specifies the elements to be associated together. A relationship among elements that specifies first, second, third… As you examine the examples in the figure below, consider which of the compositions would communicate differently if it was turned on its side or upside down. In the top row the four compositions demonstrating hierarchy , the first three compositions could be turned without changing what is communicated.
But the fourth could not because it relies on the variable of position to communicate hierarchy. Similarly, how we interpret a sequence demonstrated in the last row relies on position, following convention of reading English from left-to-right and top-to-bottom.
Now that you have seen these principles of visual communication demonstrated using simple shapes and without any context, it is time to apply this thinking to a real design.
Below is a flyer I designed for a visual communication workshop. First, identify all the uses of alignment. Which of these alignments simply serve to give the poster a tidy appearance, and which have a role in helping to communicate the information in the poster? I chose to use two fonts are used in the flyer Trajan Pro toward the top, Gill Sans at the bottom.
Where is contrast used in the typography? Where is repetition used? What purposes do they serve? Next, describe how hierarchy, grouping, and sequence were created within the flyer: Finally, here are some tips to help you avoid common mistakes in your designs: If you try to emphasize everything, you end up emphasizing nothing.
Therefore, if you have several elements in a composition that are similar, keep them visually consistent. Other times it simply helps to reduce visual clutter, so the viewer can more easily direct his or her attention to elements of importance. As you can see in the examples I provided, color is a powerful way to attract attention to individual elements.
But when used carelessly it is a way to overwhelm and confuse your viewer. Meaning of visual communication The communication which is done through sight is called visual communication. Such as facial expression, gesture, eye contact, signals, map, chart, poster etc. Visual presentation of information and data is having an increasing impact on our practical life.
In spite of having impact on our life, visual communication is not alone sufficient for exchanging information. So, visual communication is a communication where the ideas and information can be read or viewed through the means of visual aid. Advantages of visual communication: Now-a-days, most of the business organizations are using visual techniques to present the information.
It is becoming very popular day by day. Visual presentation is beneficial for many reasons. Some of them are as follows: If the receivers are illiterate, the visual communication will be more effective to exchange information. They can easily understand the information that is presented visually. Helps in oral communication: Visual techniques can be used with oral communication. Oral communication becomes more meaningful if graphs, pictures and diagrams are used with it.
Easy explanation has made the visual techniques more popular.
Simple presentation: Complex information, data and figures can be easily presented very simply on graphs, pictures and diagrams. Prevents wastage of time: Visual techniques help to prevent the wastage of time. Written and oral communication takes much time to exchange information. But number of receivers can be communicated at a time through visual methods. Visual communication is very much popular because people do not like much speech and long explanation rather than a chart of a diagram.
Artful presentation, Ads impact to the information, quicker understanding. Disadvantages of visual communication: There are some limitations of visual communication as follows: The visual methods of communication are more costly than those of other methods. To draw maps, charts, diagram is costly. That is why only large company or organization can use this technique. Complex presentation: Sometimes visual presentation of information becomes complex.
The receivers cannot understand the meaning of the presentation. Incomplete method: This technique is considered as an incomplete method. Visual presentation is not sufficient to communicate effectively and clearly but also it can be successfully used with oral communication.
Wastage of time: Sometimes visual techniques take much time to communicate. Whereas oral communication takes no time to exchange information. Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions in visual communication. Since it uses gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, touch etc. Problem for general readers: General people are not prefers to communicate through visual communication with others.
Sometimes it cannot create an impression upon people or listeners. It is less influential and cannot be used everywhere. Ambiguity, situational problem, delays in taking decision. Visual Communication is the language of visual perception and visual expression. It enables vision as well as envisioning. Visual Communication uses visual media such as graphics, painting, photography, movie, multimedia, etc.
Visual Communication is also expressed physically; for example the deaf use, sign language as a communication medium, which is also a kind of Visual Communication.
Methods of Visual Communication. Image formation: A picture consists of different image planes: Presentation and position define the importance of the objects and people shown. The interaction of dimension, color, focus, presentation foreground, background, etc.
Pictures or series of pictures tell stories and communicate different contents. Picture language can have a documentary character if it is transported, for example, with media such as photography or movies; it can also have a symbolic or abstract expression if media such as painting, collage, or graphics are used. Facial expression, gesture, body language: The oldest and most widespread expression of Visual Communication is body language.
The facial expression transports our emotional condition, our wants and needs, and gives our speech special meaning. Gesture defines our individual style of communication, underlines the dynamic of our storytelling and visualizes situations with the body. Second, some gesture is part of collective understanding. Image analysis: Image analysis consists of image formation, artwork, and picture language.
It describes and interprets the individual and cultural expression and effectiveness of visual presentations. In addition to this knowledge, results of analysis are also influenced by individual knowledge and experiences that are reflected based on previously learned methods. Examples and practice Methods of Visual Communication encourage individual competence in perception and expression.
These situations allow for a calculated analysis and assessment of your own capacity, for a better qualification of your position in professional and private life and for coherency of cultural and social expressions. Visual Communication exists throughout our professional and private life. This is useful whether we are creating a layout or using body language to make our wants understood by a person with a different cultural background.
In these situations and projects, we try to use all of our faculties and knowledge of the methods and media of Visual Communication. In marketing and public relations, Visual Communication is implemented in media such as graphics, photography, or movies. In educational, psychological, and psychotherapeutic jobs, it is used in visual media and body language.
The sciences take great interest in image analysis, whereas in creative and cultural professions, the many possible practices for image production are much more important. Fundamental knowledge of the practice and possibilities of Visual Communication opens new perspectives and through an expansion of individual perception and consciousness, enhances chances of career or private development, among others. Even when we close our eyes, we see images that influence our minds; knowing more about our style of communication means knowing more about our self.
In Scandinavian countries, methods of Visual Communication are included in different professional areas in order to emphasize the importance of individual perception and expression for better understanding. There exists a culture within the culture and this is your individual expression of communication.
Whether straight or curved, a line leads your eye somewhere across the page, making lines inherently dynamic. COLOR- Color is used to generate emotions, define importance, create visual interest and unify branding. If you mix each of these with an equal amount of the color next to it for example,. Colors are thought to invoke emotions; for example, red means strength, fire, power; while green means organic, nature, health.
Does the organization have branded colors? Adobe has a web-based color tool that lets you create and explore palettes. Curved, rounded shapes are perceived differently than sharp, angled shapes. Circles, ovals and ellipses tend to project a positive emotional canal message such as community, friendship, love, relationships and unity. Straight edged shapes such as squares and triangles suggest stability, balance, strength, professionalism and efficiency.
Scale is the size of design elements in comparison to other elements in a layout. Changes in scale help create visual contrast, movement, and depth, as well as express hierarchies of importance.
For example, www. Many new to design will attempt to fill every last bit of space with color or graphics or content. More experienced designers will encourage you to use more space and not try to fill up every little bit. To see many more examples of clever thinking in design, check out the Pinterest board. Graphic design has the power to: Line A line represents a "path" between two points.
A line can be straight, curved, vertical, horizontal, diagonal, or zigzag. Lines imply motion and suggest direction or orientation. A line can also be implied, that is filled in by the mind when several points are positioned geometrically within a frame. Placing four dots on a page in the shape of a square can imply the points are linked as the mind searches for recognizable patterns. The direction and orientation of a line can also imply certain feelings.
Horizontal lines imply tranquility and rest, whereas vertical lines imply power and strength. Oblique lines imply movement, action and change. Curved lines or S shaped lines imply quiet, calm and sensual feelings. Lines that converge imply depth, scale and distance - a fence or roadway converges into the distance provides the illusion that a flat two-dimensional image has three-dimensional depth.
A line is an effective element of design because it can lead the viewer's eye. To create more effective photographs actively look for lines and arrange them within your viewfinder to invoke specific feelings. Shape Shapes are the result of closed lines. However shapes can be visible without lines when an artist establishes a color area or an arrangement of objects within the camera's viewfinder. Some primary shapes include circles, squares, triangles and hexagons all of which appear in nature in some form or another.
Space is defined and determined by shapes and forms. Positive space is where shapes and forms exist; negative space is the empty space around shapes and forms. For images to have a sense of balance positive and negative space can be used to counter balance each other. Form refers to the three-dimensional quality of an object, which is due in part to light, and dark areas.
When light from a single direction e. Light and dark areas within an image provide contrast that can suggest volume. Factors that can affect our feelings towards an image include the direction of the light source, from above or below, and the gentleness or abruptness of the half tones. Light coming from behind a subject can form a silhouette resulting in object that is completely black against a lighter colored background. Silhouettes appear as two-dimensional shapes lacking form. The absence of color often enhances our perception of form for instance in black and white photographs.
Light emitted from above and to the side when applied to portraits creates what is often referred to as "Rembrandt lighting". This form of lighting emphasizes edges and depth. In landscape photography oblique lighting occurs early and late in the day where it enhances the natural texture of the landscape and is often accompanied by warm or cool color casts. Color There has been a tremendous amount of research on how color affects human beings and some of this research suggests that men and women may respond to colors differently.
Color affects us emotionally, with different colors evoking different emotions. The vocabulary of color includes: Analogous colors next to each other on the color wheel "get along" and are referred to as being harmonious. Analogous colors are often used in visual design and have a soothing affect. Complementary colors: Blue-violet and yellow, represent colors positioned across from each other on the color wheel.
Complimentary colors exhibit more contrast when positioned adjacent to each other -for. In the photograph above - green and yellow are analogous colors that harmonize where as the violet color of the shooting stars appears more intense against a complementary colored background. Warm colors include: Cool colors include: Colors are called warm or cool because of our association with various elements in our surroundings. Red, yellow and orange are considered warm colors whereas blue, green and violet are considered cool colors.
These contrasts are relative since yellow-green are cool next to red, orange or yellow, but would be considered warm next to blue-violet.
Photographers can position different colors in an image to maximize contrast between them and also to provide perspective. Perceptually, cool colors tend to recede into the distance whereas warm colors appear to advance see image below.
Texture Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object - smooth, rough, soft, etc. Textures may be actual felt with touch - tactile or implied suggested by the way an artist has created the work of art -visual. Texture is often emphasized in oblique lighting as it strikes the objects from one side.
Composition Organizing the various elements within the frame of the viewfinder in order to create an effective design is more challenging than it might seem at first. A painter can position the elements where they want, whereas a photographer must search, find and organize visual elements within the camera viewfinder.
Although a photographer can sometimes "arrange" objects in a natural environment such as leaves, this often results in a contrived looking picture. Nature is not perfect and variation within organization leads to greater interest. Effective composition of natural images is always a balance between arranging elements within the view finder and allowing a certain amount of disorder.
The decision-making processes we make when taking a photograph starts first with being able to see possibilities. What we see depends on what we are interested in, what we are looking for and what our minds are prepared to show us.
Seeing, in short, involves the mind and our memory as much as it does our eyes. Improving our visual sensitivity requires quieting our minds, relaxing, and preparing by learning as much as we can about our preferred subjects. Once we see things that are of interest, then we need to isolate parts of the scene, and organize the important visual elements within our viewfinder to effectively convey how we feel about them. Unity Unity refers to an ordering of all elements in an image so that each contributes to a unified aesthetic effect so that the image is seen as a whole.
Failing to accomplish this results in the premature termination of the viewer's experience - they look away.
There are a number of ways to achieve unity to attract and keep the viewers attention. Dominance and Subordination: An artist or photographer attempts to control the sequence in which visual events in the frame are observed and the amount of attention each element receives. Making an element dominant can be done through size and color.
Large objects dominate smaller ones and warm colored objects dominate cooler pale colored objects. Another way of achieving dominance is through positioning various elements within the frame. A centrally located object will draw more attention then one at the periphery.
However the center is not the best place to position the most dominant element - usually just to one side of the center is more effective. Another method to achieve dominance is through convergence or radiation or lines.