PDF | This paper analyses three of the dominating discourses Anders Behring Breivik used in his It is believed Breivik posted his Manifesto on the Internet. Anders Behring Breivik since legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym . Breivik's manifesto included writings detailing how he played video games such as World of Warcraft to relax, and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. Breivik () summarises his childhood in his manifesto: 'So all in all, I consider myself privileged and I feel I have had a privileged upbringing with responsible.
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By Andrew Berwick (Anders Behring Breivik), London – . It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any other. Anders Behring Breivik's Complete Manifesto “ – A European Declaration of Our version is also better formatted because the PDF that is. It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any Karl Marx who wrote in The Communist Manifesto about the radical.
Firstly there is the question of his supposedly troubled childhood and whether this could be a cause of his radical behaviour Berge, Free Congress Foundation. I have been thinking that visits without a glass wall could be something [to consider]. Yahoo News. On 5 August, media said that Storrvik claims that the judge [scheduled to rule in the trial] is partial;  the judge was recused. Retrieved 25 August Archived from the original on 5 October
Firstly there is the question of his supposedly troubled childhood and whether this could be a cause of his radical behaviour Berge, Breivik also claims to have been attacked by Muslims; this could potentially have provided him with a cognitive opening Breivik, Breivik and his family got involved with the CWA at a young age when his mother sought help as she was struggling with being a single parent and claimed that Breivik was a difficult child Borchgrevink cited in Berge, Borchgrevink cited in Berge, ultimately argues that the reason why Breivik became a terrorist was his troubled upbringing, because the source of the hatred he feels derives from the neglect he experienced as a child.
Yet what he fails to account for is the fact that not every person with a troubled upbringing becomes a terrorist. Breivik grew up in a wealthy area in the Western part of Oslo where he himself points out there are not many Muslim immigrants; which makes it difficult to understand why this became an issue of such urgency and importance to him Gardell, ; Breivik, Breivik summarises his childhood in his manifesto: Breivik lists and explains these incidents in his manifesto, however it is questionable whether these are in fact radicalising factors, or cases he consciously uses to attempt to justify his cause.
Dalgaard-Nielsen , p. From a root cause perspective the supposed neglect he experienced as a child might have led him to search for meaning and purpose elsewhere.
He joined the right-wing Progressive Party Fremskrittspartiet and was nominated to a higher position within the party, but lost to his opponent ibid. Breivik states in his manifesto that the Islamisation of Europe has gone too far and cannot be stopped. He believes that Europeans would be the minority population within years ibid.
Heitmeyer , p. Although they are a right-wing party, Norway does lack institutionalised parties that would allow for the radical opinions Breivik wanted to present. Breivik states in his manifesto that this was indeed a radicalising factor for him; when he realised he could not stop Islamisation of Europe within the democratic system. Despite this important consideration, Breivik displayed such severe symptoms of mental illness, that the question of his psychological state could not be ignored.
As Breivik immediately confessed to the terrorist acts, the trial that followed was in large part dominated by the question of whether he should be considered sane or not.
Breivik has also frequently been described as a narcissist and of being self-obsessed Pantucci, Wessely also agrees with the second report, as he states that delusions are ideas that are not shared by others.
Structural Causes Considering the wider context in which terrorists become radicalised is important, as Post , p. However external context is also an aspect of radicalisation that should not be stressed too much, as Denoeux and Carter , p. Arguments relating to structural causes emphasise that wider context can have a significant impact on the individual Goodwin et al, , p.
Globalisation has arguably led to fragmented societies where some people increasingly see multiculturalism as a threat to their way of life Goodwin, et al, , p. Some people perceive globalisation as a threat to their culture, which Gurr , p. A way of restoring a sense of community and identity can be to join a radical group with a shared ideology and purpose Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p.
Due to these issues of globalisation, immigration and multiculturalism, Europe has in recent years seen a surge in support for radical right wing groups and institutionalised right wing political parties Goodwin et al. Nationalism is a key aspect of right wing extremism, however it is not necessarily a nationalism confined to nation-states Eatwell, p. Ideology Denoeux and Carter , p. His ideas are regrettably not ones that were taken out of thin air; they are rather ideas linked to the international issues of recession, globalisation and immigration.
Breivik is obsessed with what he perceives to be the Islamisation of Europe Pantucci, McCauley and Moskalenko , p. Ideology appears to be a key motivator in its own right, however the step from harbouring radical ideas to acting out violence usually involves some kind of socialisation Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p. Ten of these paths to radicalisation include social or group related aspects, which shows that terrorists acting alone are in the minority. When an individual encounters and joins a radical group, they are surrounded by people with views akin to their own, and exposure to opposing views is gradually diminished as members have less contact with people of different opinions Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p.
The result is isolation from society, which reinforces the radical views of the group. Breivik's far-right militant ideology is described in a collection of texts written by himself and by others, titled — A European Declaration of Independence and distributed electronically by Breivik on the day of the attacks under the anglicised pseudonym Andrew Berwick.
In it he lays out his xenophobic worldview, which includes support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, far-right Zionism and Serbian paramilitarism.
It further argues for the violent annihilation of Islam, "Eurabia", "cultural Marxism", and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe. Breivik has confessed to what he calls "atrocious but necessary" actions, but denies criminal responsibility. Breivik claimed contact with Norwegian and international far-right political movements, and claims to belong to an international anti-Islam network with two cells in Norway and more in other countries.
Police and experts doubt these claims but have not dismissed them completely. Closing arguments were held on 22 June. On 24 August , Breivik was adjudged sane and sentenced to containment —a special form of a prison sentence that can be extended indefinitely; with an approximate period of 21 years and a minimum time of 10 years, the maximum penalty in Norway.
The court said "many people share Breivik's conspiracy theory , including the Eurabia theory. The court finds that very few people, however, share Breivik's idea that the alleged ' Islamisation ' should be fought with terror.
Since Breivik has received visits from a prison visitor — a military chaplain ranked major — every two weeks. He has been enrolled since in the bachelor's degree program in political science at the University of Oslo , with a prison official providing him with materials; he does not have internet access. He is isolated from the other inmates, and only has contact with health care workers and guards.
The type of isolation that Breivik has experienced in prison, is what the ECtHR calls relative social isolation , according to a verdict of in Oslo District Court. In Europe it is not uncommon to grant compensatory measures to prisoners that are being held in isolation for several years. As of [update] , he has an electric typewriter and an Xbox without internet connection in his cell.
In November , he received an electric typewriter.
In he spent 8—10 hours per day writing. He has said that he wants to write three books: Politicians from several Norwegian parties have protested Breivik's activities in prison, which they see as him continuing to espouse his ideology and possibly encouraging further criminal acts. Since Breivik has been held at Telemark Prison. After he came to Skien Prison, 5 out of letters that he had sent had not been confiscated, he testified in court in He added, "Of the forms regarding prison visits that I have mailed, all have been confiscated.
By around 4, postal items had been sent to or from Breivik, and about 15 percent of these items had been confiscated. On 11 March political scientist Ingeborg Kjos was copied in on a letter from Breivik to the Ministry of Justice that had taken over a year and a half to reach her; the letter did not advocate violence. In November , Breivik wrote a page letter of complaint to the prison authorities about the security restrictions he was being held under, claiming that the prison director personally wanted to punish him.
Among his complaints were that his cell is not adequately heated and he has to wear three layers of clothing to stay warm, guards interfere with his strictly-planned daily schedule, his cell is poorly decorated and has no view, his reading lamp is inadequate, guards supervise him while he is brushing his teeth and shaving and put indirect mental pressure on him to finish quickly by tapping their feet while waiting, he is "not having candy" and is served cold coffee, and he is strip-searched daily, sometimes by female guards.
Authorities only lifted one minor restriction against Breivik; his rubber safety pen, which he described as an "almost indescribable manifestation of sadism," was replaced with an ordinary pen. In letters to foreign media outlets he told about his demands in to prison authorities "including easier communication with the outside world and a PlayStation 3 to replace the current PlayStation 2, because it offers more suitable games"; media reported in about demands that he would starve himself to death if refused "access to a sofa and a bigger gym"; furthermore he said that "Other inmates have access to adult games while I only have the right to play less interesting kids' games.
One example is " Rayman Revolution ", a game aimed at three year-olds," Breivik complained to prison officials. In September , Breivik again threatened a hunger strike , because of deteriorating prison conditions,  but delayed in order to sue the Norwegian Government over prison conditions. During 15—18 March, , Breivik was the plaintiff in a civil trial. The Ministry of Justice and Public Security was the defendant in court, since the Correctional Service which was being sued was subordinate to the ministry.
Breivik sued the government over his solitary confinement, and his general conditions of imprisonment, including a claim of an excessive use of handcuffs. Breivik claimed that his solitary confinement violated his human rights and asserted that he had been subjected to "degrading treatment, including hundreds of strip searches and frequent searches of his cell, including at night.
On 6 March , media said that Oslo District Court had again refused to allow the press to join a walk-through of Breivik's prison cell in the following week. The second request had included the suggestion that one person, with a gagging order in place, could represent the entire press corps, while joining the walk-through.
On 8 March, media said that parts of the trial proceedings would be closed to the general public, according to a decision by Oslo District Court, which upheld its previous ruling. On 14 March, members of the court performed a walk-through of prison cells used by Breivik at Ila Prison ; later the same week the members of the court inspected the prison facilities used by Breivik at Skien Prison.
Upon arrival, after police removed his handcuffs, Breivik shook hands with his lawyers, and thereafter faced the gallery and performed a Nazi-style salute.
On 16 March, Breivik started his testimony,  "to give his view on the strict prison regimen [that he is exposed to] and any damage done to his health while in prison as a cause of isolation". I have been thinking that visits without a glass wall could be something [to consider]. I don't think that with his image, he would be violent to someone he has [some sort of] a [working-] relationship to.
NRK reported that "The Parliamentary Ombudsman has previously reported that the regimen for serving a prison sentence at the level of particularly high security " constitutes a heightened risk of inhumane treatment.
Now it appears that Parliamentary Ombudsman will not testify". At the start of the third day of the trial, Storrvik introduced a report from the "prevention section" at [the office of] the Parliamentary Ombudsman, dated 11 November , regarding a series of visits that year by the ombudsman; the report said that Breivik was being held at a section where sometimes there was only one prisoner.
He said that in that section of the prison, it should expand the planned community between prisoners and employees and consider other measures to minimise the risk of isolation damage.
At that section the prison should evaluate alternative possibilities for recreation in fresh air, in addition to the concrete exercise yard. The report recommended that the prison should discontinue the visual surveillance of health-related conversations that occur with a glass wall between prisoner and health personnel.
Storrvik confronted Bjarkeid with a document regarding [prison] Section G being turned [in part] into a "particularly high security department". He read: Storrvik said that "The words are here, obviously there are limits to how long he shall be isolated.
This was in He is still in total isolation". Draugedalen shook hands with Breivik, with five prison officers present; all the later consultations until the trial were held with a glass wall separating them. At The sixth witness was Tore Stenshagen, also a section leader at Skien, who served during the third quarter of Stenshagen testified that sometimes he sits down [in Breivik's cell] and talks with Breivik, and sometimes they are accompanied by only one prison officer.
Iversen was asked why Breivik was transferred to Skien rather than to Ringerike Prison ; Iversen answered that he became a case-worker in , and he was not involved in the transfer.
Summing up the case for Breivik, Storrvik said: This is offensive—I do not see any alternatives". He continued: Poland point to a breach of EMK in our case". Storrvik said: Risk analyses have at an early stage come with suggestions for measures [and these have not been followed up] For example, removing the glass wall during visits and the possibility of introducing fellow prisoner, has been discussed at such an early stage that there should be a good reason for why Rosenqvist's advice has not been followed".
Storrvik compared Breivik's position as a Catch situation: If Breivik says that he has psychiatric problems, then he has picked them out of a book; if he says that he doesn't have psychiatric problems, then he doesn't have psychiatric problems. Storrvik said that there had been no inspections by agencies tasked with oversight , as far as he knew, until the Parliamentary Ombudsman came. Mestad said that "The government's primary task is to protect its citizens.
To let a convicted terrorist establish a network, is dangerous". Storrvik said Breivik's [previous] verdict "indicates a mental vulnerability. If that is not enough, Breivik appears—by my standards—confused in court". Storrvik added that [in his usage] " mental vulnerability is a very, very weak expression ". Emberland said that "Storrvik is quoting from the dissenting opinions from verdicts of the ECHR"—at least as much as he is quoting the majority opinions of the verdicts.
On 18 March after the court was adjourned, the room where the trial had been held was turned back into the prison gymnasium. Breivik's testimony about his ideology was described as incoherent. In Dagbladet , Aina Sundt Gullhaugen research advisor and psychologist said about prison superintendent Bjarkeid's opinion that Breivik is not one of the prisoners at Ila suffering [from isolation]: But those who think that Breivik is not suffering have made themselves unavailable for the documented pain that Anders partook in [during childhood] The problem is that Breivik The type of fundamental relational and emotional deficiencies that Breivik was allowed to develop, usually results in that person ending up speaking a language that others don't recognise".
In Aftenposten , Ulrik Fredrik Malt [expert witness at the trial] said that "the mass murderer is mentally quite ill, and that's being undercommunicated". Breivik could not receive the money, but his lawyer could upon the verdict being upheld. On 21 April news media said that Ole Kristoffer Borhaug the fengselsleder at Telemark Prison of which Skien Prison is an affiliate said that the prison regimen for Breivik would not be lightened, in part because the verdict has not been officially upheld, and there are regulations preventing high security prisoners from interacting with prisoners of other categories.
Other reactions to the verdict include those of former convicts: Kjell Alrich Schumann said that the verdict is most importantly about the principles regarding the application of isolation in Norwegian prisons; he added that "The decisions are evaluated by an entity at Correctional Service every six months, and they can use any kinds of arguments. The government's chief lawyer in the trial, Marius Emberland, had voiced his opinion about the verdict before the appeal; his opinion was criticized by the leader of the Norwegian Judges' Association, Ingjerd Thune: I have never heard a lawyer speak in that manner—ever.
That was surprising"; lawyer Frode Sulland said that one gets the impression that Office of the Attorney General "does not respect the justice system, and they still think that they are right, even when the court thinks they are wrong"; Emberland eventually recognised that some of his verbal comments can be interpreted as arrogant, adding that "They really weren't meant that way".
On 5 August, media said that Storrvik claims that the judge [scheduled to rule in the trial] is partial;  the judge was recused.
The appeal was heard in Borgarting lagmannsrett ,  which issued its judgment on 1 March On 8 June , Norway's Supreme Court upheld the verdict saying that there was no basis for a different conclusion than that by the Court of Appeals.
On 23 March , Breivik's mother died from complications from cancer. Breivik was permitted to move himself out from behind the glass wall of the visit room—to give his mother a farewell hug". Janne Kristiansen , then Chief of the Norwegian Police Security Service PST , said Breivik "deliberately desisted from violent exhortations on the net [and] has more or less been a moderate, and has neither been part of any extremist network.
Six hours before the attacks, Breivik posted a picture of himself as a Knight Templar officer in a uniform festooned with a gold aiguillette and multiple medals he had not been awarded.
Breivik prepared a document titled A European Declaration of Independence. It also reports that Breivik spent thousands of hours gathering email addresses from Facebook for distribution of the document, and that he rented a farm as a cover for a fake farming company buying fertilizer 3 tons for producing explosives and 3 tons of a harmless kind to avoid suspicion and as a lab.
It describes burying a crate with the armour in the woods in July , collecting it on 4 July , and abandoning his plan to replace it with survival gear because he did not have a second pistol. It also expresses support for far-right groups such as the English Defence League  and paramilitaries such as the Scorpions. In the introductory chapter of the manifesto defining " cultural Marxism " in the Frankfurt School conspiracy theory sense is a copy of Political Correctness: In his writings Breivik states that he wants to see European policies on multiculturalism and immigration more similar to those of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan  which he said are "not far from cultural conservatism and nationalism at its best".
He also expressed his admiration of the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin , finding him "a fair and resolute leader worthy of respect", though he was "unsure at this point whether he has the potential to be our best friend or our worst enemy.
Benjamin R. Teitelbaum , former professor of Nordic Studies current professor of musicology at University of Colorado , argues that several parts of the manifesto suggest that Breivik was concerned about race, not only about Western culture or Christianity, labelling him as a white nationalist. Thomas Hegghammer of the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment has described the ideologies of Breivik as "not fitting the established categories of right-wing ideology, like white supremacism , ultranationalism or Christian fundamentalism ", but more akin to macro-nationalism and a "new doctrine of civilisational war ".
In one section of the manifesto titled "Battlefield Wikipedia", Breivik explains the importance of using Wikipedia as a venue for disseminating views and information to the general public,  although the Norwegian professor Arnulf Hagen claims that this was a document that he had copied from another author and that Breivik was unlikely to be a contributor to Wikipedia. Breivik's manifesto A European Declaration of Independence circulated in online fascist forums where strategies were set and tactics debated.
Following his apprehension, Breivik was characterised by analysts as being a right-wing extremist with anti-Muslim views and a deep-seated hatred of Islam ,  who considered himself a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.
At the same time, Breivik said both during his trial and in his manifesto to have been inspired by jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda , and stated his willingness to work with groups like al-Qaeda, al-Shabaab and Iran in order to conduct attacks with weapons of mass destruction against Western targets. He was at first described by many in the media as a Christian fundamentalist , Christian terrorist , and nationalist. The manifesto urges the Hindu nationalists to drive Muslims out of India. His religious faith is Odinism.
Breivik had been active on several anti-Islamic and nationalist blogs, including document. After studying several militant groups, including the IRA , ETA and others, Breivik suggests far-right militants should adopt al-Qaeda 's methods, learn from their success, and avoid their mistakes. In a letter sent by Breivik to international media in January , Breivik states that he exploited "counterjihadist" rhetoric in order to protect "ethno-nationalists" and start a media hunt against "anti-nationalist counterjihadist"-supporters, in a strategy he calls "double psychology".
Breivik further states that he strives for a "pure Nordic ideal", advocating the establishment of a similar party in Norway to the now-defunct neo-Nazi Party of the Swedes , and identifying himself as a part of "Western Europe's fascist movement". Moreover, he states that his "support" for Israel is limited for it to function as a place to deport "disloyal Jews ".
Breivik was an active member of an Oslo shooting club between and , and since According to the club, which banned him for life after the attacks, Breivik had taken part in 13 organized training sessions and one competition since June At the time of the attacks, Breivik was a member of the Lodge of St. Olaf at the Three Columns in Oslo  and had displayed photographs of himself in partial Masonic regalia on his Facebook profile.
Skaar, issued an edict immediately excluding him from the fraternity based upon the acts he carried out and the values that appear to have motivated them. Breivik became a member of the Progress Party FrP in He paid his membership dues for the last time in , and was removed from the membership lists in After the attack, the Progress Party immediately distanced itself from Breivik's actions and ideas.
In an online discussion on the Norwegian website Document. Breivik saw this as the only way to stop left-wing radical groups like Blitz and SOS Rasisme from "harassing" Norwegian cultural conservatives.
Breivik indeed became a member of this organization under the pseudonym " Sigurd Jorsalfar ". According to Breivik, the order was established as an "anti- Jihad crusader-organisation" that "fights" against "Islamic suppression" in London in April by nine men: The compendium gives a " estimate" that there are between 15 and 80 "Justiciar Knights" in Western Europe, and an unknown number of civilian members, and Breivik expects the order to take political and military control of Western Europe.
Breivik gives his own code name in the organisation as Sigurd and that of his assigned "mentor" as Richard, after the twelfth-century crusaders and kings Sigurd Jorsalfar of Norway and Richard the Lionheart of England. After an intense investigation assisted internationally by several security agencies , the Norwegian police have not found any evidence that a PCCTS network existed, or that the alleged London meeting ever took place.
The police now view Breivik's claim as a figment of imagination in light of his schizophrenia diagnosis, and are increasingly confident that he had no accessories. The perpetrator still insists he belongs to an order and that his one-man cell was "activated" by another clandestine cell. On 14 August , several Norwegian politicians and media outlets received an email from someone claiming to be Breivik's "deputy", demanding that Breivik be released, and making more threats against Norwegian society.
On 17 August , journalist Marit Christensen informed the Norwegian press that for the last year of Wenche Behring Breivik's life, she had been her confidant, and that a book based on Christensen's interviews with her would be published as a book in late under the title The Mother.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Anders Behring Breivik. Main article: Trial of Anders Behring Breivik. See also: Knights Templar and popular culture. Criminal justice portal Terrorism portal Norway portal Fascism portal. Archived from the original PDF on 6 July Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 13 September BBC News. Right-wing extremist who killed 77 people in Norway massacre wins part of human rights case". London, England: The Independent.
The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August The Guardian. Retrieved 26 April NRK News in Norwegian. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 27 July Norway suspect wanted a revolution". Associated Press.
Retrieved 20 April Anders Breivik's chilling anti-feminism , The Guardian , 27 July The Prague Post. Archived from the original on 31 May Archived from the original on 17 January Bloomberg L. Retrieved 27 December