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“They say / I say”: the Moves that Matter in Academic Writing / Gerald Graff, Cathy readings index of templates vii caite.info vii to the Third Edition Even as we have revised and added to “They Say / I Say,”. SECOND. EDITION. They. Say. Say. The Moves That. Matter in. Academic Writing "The best tribute to 'They Say / I Say I've heard is this, from a student: "This is. They say i say the moves that matter in academic writing with readings (third edition) pdf. Book Details Author: Gerald Graff,Cathy Birkenstein,Russel Durst Pages: Publisher: W. W. “They Say / I Say” with Readings shows that writing well means mastering some key.
Examine some of the exchanges that appear there and evaluate the quality of the responses. Strik- ing this delicate balance can be tricky, since it means facing two ways at once: Go to other blogs on topics that interest you and ask these same questions. What we are suggesting, then, is that you think of your text as two texts joined at the hip: X argues for stricter gun control legislation, saying that the crime rate is on the rise and that we need to restrict the circulation of guns. These are his exact words.
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Read the following passage by the cultural critic Eric Schlosser. Do it for him. Insert a brief paragraph stating an objection to his argument and then responding to the objection as he might. The United States must declare an end to the war on drugs. It has created a multibillion-dollar black market, enriched organized crime groups and promoted the corruption of government officials throughout the world.
And it has not stemmed the widespread use of illegal drugs. By any rational measure, this war has been a total failure. We must develop public policies on substance abuse that are guided not by moral righteousness or political expediency but by common sense. The United States should immediately decriminal- ize the cultivation and possession of small amounts of marijuana for personal use.
We must shift our entire approach to drug abuse from the criminal justice system to the public health system. Congress should appoint an independent commission to study the harm-reduction policies that have been adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands.
The commission should recommend policies for the United States based on one important criterion: Like the rest of American society, our drug policy would greatly benefit from less punishment and more compassion. If not, revise your text to do so. If so, have you anticipated all the likely objections?
Who if anyone have you attributed the objections to? Have you represented the objections fairly? Have you answered them well enough, or do you think you now need to qualify your own argu- ment? Could you use any of the language suggested in this chapter? Does the introduction of a naysayer strengthen your argument? Why, or why not? Bernini was the best sculptor of the baroque period. All writing is conversational.
So what? Why does any of this matter? How many times have you had reason to ask these ques- tions? Regardless of how interesting a topic may be to you as a writer, readers always need to know what is at stake in a text and why they should care.
All too often, however, these ques- tions are left unanswered—mainly because writers and speakers assume that audiences will know the answers already or will figure them out on their own. The problem is not necessarily that the speakers lack a clear, well-focused thesis or that the thesis is inadequately supported with evidence. That this question is so often left unaddressed is unfortunate since the speakers generally could offer interesting, engaging answers.
Yet many academics fail to identify these reasons and consequences explicitly in what they say and write. Not everyone can claim to have a cure for cancer or a solution to end poverty. In one sense, the two questions get at the same thing: Yet they get at this significance in different ways. Writing in the New York Times, she explains some of the latest research into fat cells. Scientists used to think body fat and the cells it was made of were pretty much inert, just an oily storage compartment.
But within the past decade research has shown that fat cells act like chemical factories and that body fat is potent stuff: By referring to these scientists, Grady implicitly acknowledges that her text is part of a larger con- versation and shows who besides herself has an interest in what she says.
Within the past few decades research has shown that fat cells act like chemical factories and that body fat is potent stuff: Though this statement is clear and easy to follow, it lacks any indication that anyone needs to hear it. Okay, one nods while reading this passage, fat is an active, potent thing. But does anyone really care? Who, if anyone, is interested? But recently [or within the past few decades] experts suggest that it can be counterproductive. Who besides me and a handful of recent researchers has a stake in these claims?
At the very least, the researchers who formerly believed should care. To gain greater authority as a writer, it can help to name spe- cific people or groups who have a stake in your claims and to go into some detail about their views. For instance, one eminent scholar of cell biology, , assumed in , her seminal work on cell structures and functions, that fat cells.
Ultimately, when it came to the nature of fat, the basic assumption was that. But a new body of research shows that fat cells are far more complex and that. In other cases, you might refer to certain people or groups who should care about your claims. However, new research shows.
But on closer inspection. Ultimately, such templates help you create a dramatic tension or clash of views in your writing that readers will feel invested in and want to see resolved.
Why should anyone besides a few specialists in the field care about such disputes? What, if anything, hinges on them? The best way to answer such questions about the larger con- sequences of your claims is to appeal to something that your audience already figures to care about.
Researchers trying to decipher the biology of fat cells hope to find new ways to help people get rid of excess fat or, at least, prevent obesity from destroying their health. In an increasingly obese world, their efforts have taken on added importance. Internationally, more than a billion people are overweight. For example, a sociologist ana- lyzing back-to-nature movements of the past thirty years might make the following statement. In a world increasingly dominated by cellphones and sophisticated computer technologies, these attempts to return to nature appear futile.
All these templates help you hook your readers. By suggesting the real-world applications of your claims, the templates not only demonstrate that others care about your claims but also tell your readers why they should care. You also need to frame it in a way that helps readers care about it.
Does it really need to be spelled out? And why should I care about supporting a family? Nevertheless, we urge you to go as far as possible in answering such questions. And though some expert readers might already know why your claims matter, even they need to be reminded. When you step back from the text and explain why it matters, you are urging your audience to keep reading, pay attention, and care.
Find several texts scholarly essays, newspaper articles, emails, memos, blogs, etc. What difference does it make whether they do or do not? How do the authors who answer these questions do so? Do they use any strategies or techniques that you could borrow for your own writing? You might use the following template to get started. My point here that should interest those who. Beyond this limited audience, however, my point should speak to anyone who cares about the larger issue of.
Spot is a good dog. He has fleas. Can you connect them in some logical way? Spot is a good dog, but he has fleas. Spot is a good dog, even though he has fleas. And yet Bill did focus well on his subjects. When he men- tioned Spot the dog or Plato, or any other topic in one sen- tence, we could count on Spot or Plato being the topic of the following sentence as well. But because Bill neglected to mark his con- nections, his writing was as frustrating to read as theirs.
In all these cases, we had to struggle to figure out on our own how the sentences and paragraphs connected or failed to connect with one another. What makes such writers so hard to read, in other words, is that they never gesture back to what they have just said or forward to what they plan to say.
Each sentence basically starts a new thought, rather than growing out of or extending the thought of the previous sentence. When Bill talked about his writing habits, he acknowl- edged that he never went back and read what he had written. Indeed, he told us that, other than using his computer software to check for spelling errors and make sure that his tenses were all aligned, he never actually reread what he wrote before turn- ing it in.
As Bill seemed to picture it, writing was something one did while sitting at a computer, whereas reading was a separate activity generally reserved for an easy chair, book in hand. It had never occurred to Bill that to write a good sentence he had to think about how it connected to those that came before and after; that he had to think hard about how that sentence fit into the sentences that surrounded it. Each sentence for Bill existed in a sort of tunnel isolated from every other sentence on the page.
What we suggest in this chapter, then, is that you converse not only with others in your writing but with yourself: This chapter addresses the issue of how to connect all the parts of your writing. The best compositions establish a sense of momentum and direction by making explicit connections among their different parts, so that what is said in one sentence or paragraph both sets up what is to come and is clearly informed by what has already been said.
It may help to think of each sentence you write as having arms that reach backward and forward, as the figure below suggests. When your sentences reach outward like this, they establish con- nections that help your writing flow smoothly in a way readers appreciate. Conversely, when writing lacks such connections and moves in fits and starts, readers repeatedly have to go back over the sentences and guess at the connections on their own. This chapter offers several strategies you can use to put this principle into action: All these moves require that you always look back and, in crafting any one sentence, think hard about those that precede it.
Notice how we ourselves have used such connecting devices thus far in this chapter. If you look through this book, you should be able to find many sentences that contain some word or phrase that explicitly hooks them back to some- thing said earlier, to something about to be said, or both.
And many sentences in this chapter repeat key terms related to the idea of connection: Transitions are usually placed at or near the start of sentences so they can signal to readers where your text is going: The following is a list of commonly used transitions, catego- rized according to their different functions.
But even though such terms should function unobtrusively in your writing, they can be among the most powerful tools in your vocabulary. Notice that some transitions can help you not only to move from one sentence to another, but to combine two or more sen- tences into one.
Combining sentences in this way helps prevent the choppy, staccato effect that arises when too many short sen- tences are strung together, one after the other. And if you draw on them frequently enough, using them should eventually become sec- ond nature. To be sure, it is possible to overuse transitions, so take time to read over your drafts carefully and eliminate any transitions that are unnecessary.
Seasoned writers sometimes omit explicit transitions, but only because they rely heavily on the other types of connect- ing devices that we turn to in the rest of this chapter. Choosing transition terms should involve a bit of mental sweat, since the whole point of using them is to make your writing more reader-friendly, not less. For example, he has fleas.
Like transitions, however, pointing words need to be used carefully. Alexis de Tocqueville was highly critical of democratic societ- ies, which he saw as tending toward mob rule. At the same time, he accorded democratic societies grudging respect. You can fix problems caused by a free-floating pointer by making sure there is one and only one possible object in the vicinity that the pointer could be referring to.
When used effectively, your key terms should be items that readers could extract from your text in order to get a solid sense of your topic.
Playing with key terms also can be a good way to come up with a title and appropriate section headings for your text.
Notice how often Martin Luther King Jr. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.
In fact, these key terms help build a sense of momentum in the paragraph and bind it together. In a variety of ways, the mass media helped make us the cultural schizophrenics we are today, women who rebel against yet submit to prevailing images about what a desirable, worthwhile woman should be.
We are ambivalent toward feminin- ity on the one hand and feminism on the other. When I open Vogue, for example, I am simultaneously infu- riated and seduced. I adore the materialism; I despise the materialism. I want to look beautiful; I think wanting to look beautiful is about the most dumb-ass goal you could have. The magazine stokes my desire; the magazine triggers my bile. To explain this schizophrenia. Susan Douglas, Where the Girls Are: In so doing, they bind the passage together into a unified whole that, despite its complexity and sophistication, stays focused over its entire length.
To effectively connect the parts of your argument and keep it mov- ing forward, be careful not to leap from one idea to a different idea or introduce new ideas cold. Key terms, pointing terms, and even many transitions can be used in a way that not only brings something forward from the previous sentence but in some way alters it.
We would even go so far as to suggest that after your first sentence, almost every sentence you write should refer back to previous statements in some way.
Cheyenne loved basketball. Nevertheless, she feared her height would put her at a disadvantage. It too requires repetition to help readers shift gears with you and follow your train of thought. Repetition, in short, is the central means by which you can move from point A to point B in a text.
To introduce one last analogy, think of the way experienced rock climbers move up a steep slope. Instead of jumping or lurching from one handhold to the next, good climbers get a secure handhold on the position they have established before reaching for the next ledge. The same thing applies to writing. In this way, your writing remains focused while simultaneously moving forward. On the one hand, writers certainly can run into trouble if they merely repeat themselves and nothing more.
On the other hand, repetition is key to creat- ing continuity in writing. The trick therefore is not to avoid repeating yourself but to repeat yourself in varied and interesting enough ways that you advance your argument without sounding tedious.
Annotate the connecting devices by underlining the transitions, circling the key terms, and putting boxes around the pointing terms.
Our civilisation. The machines that keep us alive, and the machines that make the machines, are all directly or indirectly dependent upon coal. In the metabolism of the Western world the coal-miner is second in importance only to the man who ploughs the soil. He is a sort of grimy cary- atid upon whose shoulders nearly everything that is not grimy is supported. For this reason the actual process by which coal is extracted is well worth watching, if you get the chance and are willing to take the trouble.
This is not easy, because when the mine is working visitors are a nuisance and are not encouraged, but if you go at any other time, it is possible to come away with a totally wrong impression. On a Sunday, for instance, a mine seems almost peaceful. The time to go there is when the machines are roaring and the air is black with coal dust, and when you can actually see what the miners have to do. At those times the place is like hell, or at any rate like my own mental picture of hell.
Most of the things one imagines in hell are there—heat, noise, confusion, darkness, foul air, and, above all, unbearably cramped space. Everything except the fire, for there is no fire down there except the feeble beams of Davy lamps and electric torches which scarcely penetrate the clouds of coal dust. I will explain that in a moment—you crawl through the last line of pit props and see opposite you a shiny black wall three or four feet high.
This is the coal face. Overhead is the smooth ceiling made by the rock from which the coal has been cut; underneath is the rock again, so that the gallery you are in is only as high as the ledge of coal itself, probably not much more than a yard.
The first impression of all, overmastering everything else for a while, is the frightful, deafening din from the conveyor belt which carries the coal away. You cannot see very far, because the fog of coal dust throws back the beam of your lamp, but you can see on either side of you the line of half-naked kneeling men, one to every four or five yards, driving their shovels under the fallen coal and flinging it swiftly over their left shoulders.
Underline all the transitions, pointing terms, key terms, and repetition. Do you see any patterns? Do you rely on certain devices more than others? Are there any passages that are hard to follow—and if so, can you make them easier to read by trying any of the other devices discussed in this chapter?
That to impress your instructors you need to use big words, long sentences, and complex sentence structures? On the contrary, academic writing can—and in our view should—be relaxed, easy to follow, and even a little bit fun.
In this chapter, we want to show you how you can write effective academic arguments while holding on to some of your own voice. This point is important, since you may well become turned off from writing if you think your everyday language practices have to be checked at the classroom door.
Nor is it to suggest that you may fall back on colloquial usage as an excuse for not learning more rigorous forms of expression. After all, learning these more rigorous forms of expression and developing a more intellectual self is a major reason for getting an education.
We do, however, wish to suggest that relaxed, colloquial language can often enliven academic writing and even enhance its rigor and precision. Such informal language also helps you connect with readers in a personal as well as an intellectual way. In our view, then, it is a mistake to assume that the academic and the everyday are completely separate languages that can never be used together. Consider, for instance, the following passage from a scholarly article about the way teachers respond to errors in student writing.
Marking and judging formal and mechanical errors in student papers is one area in which composition studies seems to have a multiple-personality disorder. On the one hand, our mellow, student-centered, process-based selves tend to condemn mark- ing formal errors at all.
Doing it represents the Bad Old Days. Fidditch and Mr. Flutesnoot with sharpened red pencils, spill- ing innocent blood across the page. Useless detail work. Joseph Williams has pointed out how arbi- trary and context-bound our judgments of formal error are. Second, to give vivid, concrete form to their discussion of grading disciplinarians, Connors and Lunsford conjure up such archetypal, imaginary figures as the stuffy, old-fashioned taskmasters Ms. Flutes- noot. Through such imaginative uses of language, Connors and Lunsford inject greater force into what might otherwise have been dry, scholarly prose.
Notice how the food industry critic Eric Schlosser describes some changes in the city of Colorado Springs in his best-selling book on fast foods in the United States. Another example of writing that blends the informal with the formal comes from an essay on the American novelist Willa Cather by the literary critic Judith Fetterley. Above all else, she is self-conscious. Indeed, her passage offers a simple recipe for blending the high and the low: While one effect of blending languages like this is to give your writing more punch, another is to make a political statement— about the way, for example, society unfairly overvalues some dialects and devalues others.
For instance, in the titles of two of her books, Talkin and Testifyin: Here are three typical passages. In Black America, the oral tradition has served as a fundamen- tal vehicle for gittin ovuh. That tradition preserves the Afro- American heritage and reflects the collective spirit of the race. Geneva Smitherman, Talkin and Testifyin: You can always experiment with your language and improve it. You can always dress it up, dress it down, or some combination of both.
Is it always appropriate to mix styles? And when you do so, how do you know when enough is enough? In all situations, think carefully about your audience and purpose. On such occasions, it is usually best to err on the safe side, conforming as closely as possible to the conventions of standard written English. In other situations for other audiences, however, there is room to be more creative—in this book, for example.
Although it may have been in the past, academic writing in most disciplines today is no longer the linguistic equivalent of a black-tie affair. To succeed as a writer in college, then, you need not always limit your language to the strictly formal.
Although academic writing does rely on complex sentence patterns and on specialized, disciplinary vocabularies, it is surprising how often such writing draws on the languages of the street, popular culture, our ethnic communities, and home.
Take a paragraph from this book and dress it down, rewrit- ing it in informal colloquial language. Then rewrite the same paragraph again by dressing it up, making it much more for- mal. Then rewrite the paragraph one more time in a way that blends the two styles. Share your paragraphs with a classmate, and discuss which versions are most effective and why. Be sure to keep your audience and purpose in mind, and use language that will be appropriate to both.
In short, then, metacommentary is a way of commenting on your claims and telling others how—and how not—to think about them. Think of metacommentary as a sort of second text that stands along- side your main text and explains what it means. What we are suggesting, then, is that you think of your text as two texts joined at the hip: The figure below demonstrates what we mean.
The answer is that, no matter how clear and precise your writing is, readers can still fail to understand it in any number of ways. Readers may also fail to see what follows from your argument, or they may follow your reasoning and examples yet fail to see the larger conclusion you draw from them. As a result, no matter how straightforward a writer you are, readers still need you to help them grasp what you really mean. Because the written word is prone to so much mischief and can be interpreted in so many different ways, we need metacommentary to keep misinterpre- tations and other communication misfires at bay.
Another reason to master the art of metacommentary is that it will help you develop your ideas and generate more text. If you have ever had trouble producing the required number of pages for a writing project, metacommentary can help you add both length and depth to your writing.
When these students learn to use metacommentary, however, they get more out of their ideas and write longer, more substantial texts. In sum, metacommentary can help you extract the full potential from your ideas, draw- ing out important implications, explaining ideas from different perspectives, and so forth.
It is my intention in this book to show that a great. With this in view, my task in the chapters ahead is straightforward.
I appreci- ate junk as much as the next fellow, and I know full well that the printing press has generated enough of it to fill the Grand Canyon to overflowing. Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business To see what we mean by metacommentary, look at the phrases above that we have italicized. With these moves, Postman essentially stands apart from his main ideas to help readers follow and understand what he is arguing.
He previews what he will argue: It is my intention in this book to show. He spells out how he will make his argument: With this in view, my task in these chapters.
I must, first, dem- onstrate. He distinguishes his argument from other arguments it may easily be confused with: But to avoid the possibility that my analysis will be interpreted as. I must first explain that. Titles, in fact, are one of the most important forms of metacommentary, functioning rather like carnival barkers telling passersby what they can expect if they go inside. Sub- titles, too, function as metacommentary, further explaining or elaborating on the main title.
Essays with vague titles or no titles send the message that the writer has simply not bothered to reflect on what he or she is saying and is uninterested in guiding or orienting readers. In this chapter we have tried to show that the most persuasive writing often doubles back and comments on its own claims in ways that help readers negotiate and process them.
But even the strongest arguments will flounder unless writers use metacommentary to prevent potential misreadings and make their arguments shine. Read an essay or article and annotate it to indicate the different ways the author uses metacommentary.
Use the templates on pp. How does the author use metacommentary? Did you find any forms of metacommentary not discussed in this chapter? If so, can you identify them, name them, and perhaps devise templates based on them for use in your own writing? Complete each of the following metacommentary templates in any way that makes sense.
In this article, I will also. But let me back up and explain how I arrived at this conclu- sion: In this way, I came to believe that this war is a big mistake. The challenge is to figure out what needs work—and then what exactly you need to do.
The list of guidelines below offers help and points you back to relevant advice and templates in this book. Do you present your argument as a response to what others say? Do you make reference to other views besides your own? Do you use voice markers to distinguish clearly for readers between your views and those of others?
The checklist below follows the order of chapters in this book. Do you start with what others say? If not, try revising to do so. See pp.
If so, have you represented their views accurately—and adequately? Do you quote others? Do you frame each quotation successfully, integrating it into your text? Does the quotation support your argument? Do you explain in your own words what the quotation means? Do you then clearly indicate how the quotation bears on your own argument? Have you documented all summaries and quotations, both with parenthetical documentation in your text and a references or works cited list?
If not, see pp. What Do You Say? Have you said so explicitly? If you disagree, do you give reasons why you disagree? If you agree, what more have you added to the conversation?
If you both agree and disagree, do you do so without confusing readers or seeming evasive? Have you stated your position and the one it responds to as a connected unit? See Chapter 8 for tips on how to do so. Will readers be able to distinguish what you say from what others say? Have you acknowledged likely objections to your argument? If so, have you represented these views fairly—and responded to them persuasively? See Chapter 6 for tips on how to do so.
If not, think about what other perspectives exist on your topic, and incorporate them into your draft.
Do you have a title? If so, does it tell readers what your main point or issue is, and does it do so in a lively manner? Should you add a subtitle to elaborate on the title? Can readers follow your argument from one sentence and para- graph to the next and see how each successive point supports your overall argument?
Check your use of pointing words. Be sure that you have told them why. See Chapter 7 if you need help. In her revised version, after doing further research, Peacocke identified those with whom she disagreed and responded to them at length, as the essay itself illustrates. In making these revisions she gave her own spin to several templates in this book. We hope studying her essay and our annotations will suggest how you might craft and revise your own writing. Antonia Peacocke wrote this essay in the summer between high school and her first year at Harvard.
Responds to what they say I say that you should be. Seriously—stay with me here. I know every website that streams the show for free, and I still refuse to return the five Family Guy DVDs a friend lent me in Before I was such a devotee, however, I was adamantly opposed to the program for its particular brand of humor.
It will come as no surprise that I was not alone in this view; many still denounce Family Guy as bigoted and crude. Dubner did not know about all the trouble Family Guy has had.
In fact, it must be one of the few television shows in history that has been canceled not just once, but twice. Richardson W.
Schell, that Fox shelved it until July Weinraub. Still afraid of causing a commotion, though, Fox had the cartoon censored and irregularly scheduled; as a result, its ratings fell so low that saw its second cancellation Weinraub. Family Guy has found trouble more recently, too. The suit came after MacFarlane had made the Charwoman into a cleaning woman for a pornography store in one episode of Family Guy.
Burnett lost, but U. I must admit, I can see how parts of the show might Represents seem offensive if taken at face value. Vapid music plays in the background. A businessman speaks to the camera. Irrational and emotionally fragile by nature, female coworkers are a peculiar animal. They are very insecure about their appearance.
He grins at the camera, raising one eyebrow knowingly, and winks. She smiles, looking flattered. He grins at the camera again as the music comes to an end. I agreed with but with a difference Dubner, and I failed to see how anyone could laugh at such Chapter 4 jokes without feeling at least slightly ashamed.
Soon, though, I found myself forced to give Family Guy a chance. It was simply everywhere: On Facebook, skepticism Chapter 6 the universal forum for my generation, there are currently 23 separate Family Guy fan groups with a combined member- ship of 1, people compared with only 6 groups protesting against Family Guy, with members total. PDF file. Third edition, MLA update. New York W. Norton et They say i say the moves that matter in academic writing with readings Why Templates?
Academic writing requires presenting your sources and your ideas effectively to readers. According to Graff and. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, They Say, I Say - Chapter Is there some other view of the subject that this writer is responding to?
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In order for them to understand your view point you need to reconstruct the unstated "They Say" by explaining the writers argument so that your readers can understand what you are responding to.