statistics 4th edition by utts jessica m | by jessica m utts seeing through through statistics | solutions to seeing through statistics 3rd edition pdf | seeing through. Seeing through statistics by Jessica M Utts · Seeing through statistics. by Jessica M Utts. Print book. English. Fourth ed. Belmont: Cengage Learning, Inc. #PDF Info. Fixed Layout. Read Anywhere Info. Read Anywhere % Offline Seeing Through Statistics 4th Edition by Jessica M. Utts and Publisher Cengage .
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If instead they ranged from 15 to 40 with one grade and 17 to 42 with the other, it would be harder to notice the difference. Home About Help Search. The other piece of data was amount of barking and this was measured for the dogs as a group, not for each individual dog. For instance, maybe those who are already healthier are more likely to attend cultural events. It's an observational study, since people are not randomly assigned to meditate or not. Do you think you are treated fairly or unfairly by them? The idea is that one question might suggest a topic that is then considered important or informative for the second question, whereas if the wording had been reversed the topic may not have come to mind.
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Second, those who bothered to call would not even be representative of those who were watching the show. People who want the show to remain on the air would be most likely to call. Results could be extended to the dogs of owners who would respond to a similar ad.
Notice that this is not necessarily the same as all dogs, since there may be a level of concern in these owners that is not present in all owners. Thus, their dogs may be treated differently in other ways. Having the prison guards themselves asking the prisoners would surely bias the results. Hiring outside interviewers would be best. A biased version would be something like "You don't have any complaints about how you are treated, do you?
Do you think you are treated fairly or unfairly by them? People who would prefer to answer that they don't know, but are forced to choose an answer, will use something other than an informed opinion to do so. For example, if a question were to ask "Do you support the new tax bill in Congress? The lack of "don't know" as a possible response would be uncovered by Component 4, "the exact So that the interviewers don't change the wording slightly to encourage answers that support their own opinions.
Component 3: Presumably the babies were all infants born during a certain time in one hospital. There should be nothing particularly different about these infants.
Component 4: The measurement of interest was weight gain or loss. Component 5: The setting in which the measurements were taking may have been somewhat of a problem because all of the infants were in a common nursery. Therefore, if one infant cried excessively it may have impacted the entire group. It would have been ideal to test each infant in a separate setting, but that was not practical.
Component 6: There should have been no additional differences in the two groups of infants, since they were born at the same hospital and therefore presumably treated equally except for the heartbeat sound. Absolutely not. If respondents know who is funding the study, they may try to answer to please the interviewer, who they may assume works for that company.
Reports of research results should always reveal the source of their funding. No, unless the instructions are very strict about how to conduct the interviews. Even then, the interviewers are likely to try to solicit opinions to please their "employer. Version 2 would be more compelling. Lung-cancer patients would be highly motivated to quit already. Not unless it would be unethical for them to participate without knowing the purpose, such as if the purpose was dangerous or harmful.
Otherwise, knowing the purpose might bias their answers or behaviors to try to satisfy that purpose.
Components 3 to 7 would all qualify. Probably most important would be 7, knowing by how much it raised cholesterol. Component 3 would be important in order to know if results extend to people of your age, gender and medical type; from component 4 you would learn how "coffee drinking" was defined; from component 5 you might learn about other changes in the environment of the participants, like if they were part of a larger study about healthier diets; from component 6 you would learn whether or not the noncoffee drinkers were different from the coffee drinkers in ways that could affect cholesterol, like amount of exercise or fat in their diets.
A discussion of any three of these is sufficient. A statistical difference may not be a meaningful one.
Exercise 9b provides a good example. One piece of data was whether the dog was given the drug yes or no and this was measured on each dog individually. The other piece of data was amount of barking and this was measured for the dogs as a group, not for each individual dog. In comparing test results across countries, states, years, etc. Often, differences in results can be explained by the fact that the groups taking them are different on other measures.
The contradiction is resolved by examining Component 3, the individuals and how they were selected.
In the first case, respondents were not a random sample; they were readers who felt strongly enough to write a letter about the issue. In the Newsday study, a random sample was used so the results should not contain a bias in favor of those with strong feelings.
The participants should have been randomly selected from among typical NordicTrack users. The participants should have been weighed by the researchers rather than reporting weight loss themselves. The NordicTrack should have been used in a natural setting, at home, rather than in a lab where someone else would be making sure participants used it regularly. The advertisement would be misleading if there were major differences between the group tested and the typical user.
For example, if the users in the study started out grossly overweight or if they were on a lean diet at the same time they would not be representative of all users. Males aged 12 to 23 who played basketball within the past year are not representative of all people who are likely to buy basketballs. Make sure all of the components are discussed, and that obvious biases or problems are identified. Mini-Project 2. Make sure the following issues are discussed: Not For Sale Mini-Project 2.
For instance, news reports about polls often omit the exact wording of the question, yet studies have shown that subtle changes in wording can produce drastic changes in results. Reports about observational studies often omit a description of the group used for comparison, or do not explain the extraneous differences between the groups. Questions that are unintentionally biased usually involve ambiguous wording. For example, asking "Do you exercise at least three times a week?
For instance the former group might not consider riding a bicycle for transportation as exercise, while the latter group does. Terms need to be clearly defined. Unnecessarily complex questions often are ones that ask more than one question but allow only one answer, like "Do you support doing away with subsidized school lunches and giving food vouchers to the poor?
Questions that require knowledge people aren't likely to have, or questions that have socially desirable or even illegal answers are likely to cause respondents to lie. For example, "How many times in the past year have you used illegal drugs?
Pitfall 1, deliberate bias is present. The form of the question indicates that the person asking it does think marijuana should be legal. D you think hat the use of marijuana should be legal, or not legal?
Pitfalls 1 deliberate bias and 5 unnecessary complexity both may be present. The question suggests that there is a good reason to support banning prayers, thus encouraging people to agree they should be banned. It also asks a more complicated question than simply whether the respondent supports banning prayers.
Do you support or not support banning prayers in schools? Pitfall 3, desire to please, is probably most relevant, although pitfalls 1 deliberate bias and 6 order of questions, in this case, order of information presented may also apply. The statement preceding the question indicates that consuming one drink may actually be good for you, so people would be more likely to admit that they drink. The second part of the current version can be used: How many alcoholic drinks do you consume daily?
It might make sense to present categories like "none, 0 to 1 per day, 2 to 4 per day, 5 or more per day. As discussed in Case Study 2. Also, desire to please would certainly be a factor in a face-to-face interview like this one, especially in a question like "How long have you known about Brooks Running Shoes? Although only one-fifth favored forbidding public speeches version A , almost one-half did not want to allow them version B. The idea is that one question might suggest a topic that is then considered important or informative for the second question, whereas if the wording had been reversed the topic may not have come to mind.
As an example, in the study by Brooks Shoes Case Study 2. Please tell me what brand you think it is. The order of the questions most likely influenced the answer to the second one.
Since the majority of.
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