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Quick review cards for medical laboratory science pdf

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Quick-Review-Cards-for-Medical-Laboratory-Science-Polansky- caite.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book . Home · Topics · Documents · Quick-Review-Cards-for-Medical-Laboratory- caite.info Download. Title: FREE [P.D.F] Quick Review Cards for Medical Laboratory Science READ ONLINE by Valerie Dietz Polansky, Author: polyswarms


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of his time with his objective of distilling a complex subject into a concise presentation Ganong's Review of Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, . Quick Review Cards for Medical. Laboratory Science Second Edition. Valerie Dietz Polansky, MEd,. MLS(ASCP)CM. Program Director. Medical Laboratory. Quick Review Cards for Medical Laboratory Science - Polansky, Valerie Dietz - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Quick.

Yes No. If a dilution is run. For prolonged transit. All of the tumor markers above are measured by immunoassay. Store frozen. From Arneson W. Avoid hemolysis.

Manufactured to strict standards. Only for noncritical measurements. Used for noncritical measurements. Not accurate enough for critical measurements. Single calibration mark. Graduated cylinder graduates Upright. Use graduate closest in size to volume to be measured. Most are TD. Graduation marks down to tip. Similar to volumetric pipet.

Filled by capillary action. Not accurate enough for measuring samples or standards. Small pipetting bulb is used. Etched ring means blowout.

Ostwald-Folin Transfer pipet. Must be rinsed out with diluent to deliver exact amount. Micropipet Disposable pipet for volumes ranging from 1—1. Serological Graduated or measuring pipet. Not widely used. Mohr Graduated or measuring pipet. Tips are reusable. Most accurate method for calibration is gravimetric method weight of distilled water delivered. Secondary method is spectrophotometric absorbance of potassium dichromate or p-nitrophenol delivered.

With 2-stop. Seals require periodic lubrication. No carryover. Pharmacopeia or National Formulary. Ultra pure Spectrograde. Not injurious to health. Used for gas chromatography. Impurities that could contaminate washed labware or solutions in autoclave are removed. Not for use in other applications. Commercially bottled. Instrument feed water Used in automated analyzers for rinsing. Water supplied by a method manufacturer Water provided by manufacturer for use in particular test system.

Pure enough for most routine testing.. Replacement for previously designated type III water. Replaces previously designated type I and type II water. Laboratory Operations Review Objects appear dark against white background Depth of focus Distance throughout which all parts of specimen are in focus simultaneously. Used for most routine clinical work. Field of view Area of specimen that can be seen. Type B high viscosity is commonly used.

Immersion oil Used to help objective gather light from a wide numerical aperture. Condenser Focuses light on specimen. Provides high resolution. Binocular microscope One with 2 oculars. The higher the NA. Ocular Eye piece. Rheostat Light control knob. Numerical aperture NA Mathematical expression of light admitted by lens. Objectives Lenses attached to revolving nosepiece. Virtual image Image seen through microscope.

Objects that can refract light birefringent appear white against black background. Objects appear green. Good for living cells. Objects appear white against black background. Manual platelet counts. Science of processing data for storage.

ROM Read-only memory. Store data.. Executes software instructions. RAM Random access memory. Database Application program to organize. Browser Program that provides access to Internet. Microsoft Internet Explorer. Used to write letters. Hospital information system HIS Information system to handle all informational needs of hospital. Required by regulatory agencies. Can provide patient information. Can apply rules to automate processes.

Bidirectional interface Interface that transmits electronic information in 2 directions. Middleware Interface between an analyzer and LIS.

System validation Documentation that LIS functions as expected. Unidirectional interface Interface that transmits electronic information in 1 direction. Extranet Extension of a private network onto the Internet where it can be accessed by authorized clients. Access is usually restricted to employees.

Internet Internet Global system of interconnected computer networks Intranet Computer network within an organization. Originally developed as transfer protocol for Internet. Health Level 7 standard HL7 Standardized message protocol that facilitates exchange of medical data among computer systems. Preanalytical QA Everything that precedes test performance.

Analytical QA Everything related to assay. Postanalytical QA Everything that comes after test analysis. Term also used for QC that extends beyond lab. For nonwaived quantitative tests. Equivalent QC Labs may reduce frequency of testing external QC materials for certain test systems if they can demonstrate through a CMS-approved QC evaluation process that test system is stable.

Monitors precision of test system. Internal monitoring systems Electronic. For qualitative tests. External QC Testing control material not built into test system. CLIA requires at least 2 levels of controls each day test is performed. Standard deviation SD Statistical expression of dispersion of values around mean. Average of all observations.. Mean Sum of all observations divided by number of observations. Requires a minimum of 20 values.

Measurements of precision. Levey-Jennings chart Normal distribution curve lying on its side. Levey-Jennings chart showing in-control results. This is anticipated part of normal variation. Urinalysis and Body Fluids. From Strasinger SK.

Di Lorenzo MS.. Levey-Jennings chart showing shift. Di Lorenzo MS. Modified from Strasinger SK. Levey-Jennings chart showing outlier.

Shift 6 consecutive control values on same side of mean.

If it occurs more than once in 20 successive runs. May be due to chance or may indicate problem in test system. FA Davis.. Levey-Jennings chart showing trend.. Use of Westgard rules minimizes false rejections. Requires investigation to determine cause. False rejection Rejection of run because QC results indicate problem when none is present. Usually a 1-time error. Indicated by trend or shift on Levey-Jennings chart. If no violation of other rules.

If control is still out. Once resolved. Value might have been due to expected random error. Ensure accuracy of reported results.

Rerun control 1 time only. Calibration may have shifted. Supervisor or service rep may be able to determine problem. Consider reagents low. If a control value is inaccurate. Control might have been outdated. Provides a record for future reference. Formerly called standard. Test 3 levels—high. Calibrator Reference material with known concentration of analyte.

Required every 6 months. A procedure can be precise but not accurate. Precision Reproducibility. Also known as linearity. How close results are when same sample is tested multiple times. Reference interval Formerly called normal value. Reportable range Range of values over which lab can verify accuracy of test system. Accuracy How close measurement is to true value. Lab tests samples of known values controls. Determined by manufacturer. Analytical sensitivity Same as detection limit.

Desirable in screening tests. Lowest concentration of substance that can be detected by test method. Information helps physicians interpret results. Documentation required. Requires a minimum of 40 patient samples representing wide range of concentrations. List typically includes glucose. Critical values Test results that indicate a potentially life-threatening situation.. Delta checks Comparison of patient data with previous results.

When limit is exceeded. Reference values existing method are plotted on x axis. Preventive maintenance Schedule of maintenance to keep equipment in peak operating condition. Also known as procedure manual. Standard operating procedure SOP Set of instructions for methods used in the laboratory. Unknowns must not receive preferential treatment..

Results reported to agency. Reference intervals Pertinent literature references Step-by-step performance of the procedure. Reportable range for patient test results 7. Control procedures 8. Procedures for microscopic examinations. Preparation of slides.

Limitations in methodology. Requirements for patient preparation. Imminently life-threatening laboratory results critical values Restriction of access to information to those who have authorization and a need to know. Action implies consent for venipuncture. Expressed consent Written or verbal consent.. May be expressed or implied. HIPAA requires health-care providers to establish extensive security measures to ensure privacy.

Implied consent Consent that is inferred from action or signs. Malpractice Misconduct or negligence that results in injury to patient. Specimen may be transported in locked box to prevent tampering. Chain of custody Procedure to guarantee integrity of specimen to court. What value should be reported? Possible dilution of other analytes. Refer to reagent package inserts. Cl— depending on IV. Amount of light absorbed is directly proportional to concentration of analyte.

More sensitive than colorimetry.. Used to measure trace metals. Light source mercury or xenon arc lamp. Used for many routine chemistry assays. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry Measures light absorbed by ground-state atoms.

Light source tungsten lamp for visible range. Hollow cathode lamp. Used to measure drugs. Light source. Nephelometry Similar to turbidity. Usually involves oxidation of luminol. Reagent probes. Turbidimetry Measures reduction in light transmission by particles in suspension. Extremely sensitive. Used for immunoassays. Gas chromatography GC Gas. Area of peak is proportional to concentration.

Anions move to positively charged pole anode. Vapor depression osmometers not widely used in clinical labs. The greater the charge. Reference electrode. Cooling bath. Power supply. Vitros uses dry slides. CO2 Hepatic function panel Albumin. HDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol Optimal: Requires fasting specimen. Triglycerides Desirable: HDL cholesterol Desirable: Enzymatic methods using lipase.

Hexokinase considered more accurate. Synthesized by liver.. Albumin 3. Measure by dye binding. Alkaline copper reagent reacts with peptide bonds. Immunoassays on hr urine. Alternative is albumin-to-creatinine ratio on random sample. Biuret method. Regulates osmotic pressure. Stimulates glycogenolysis. Secondary Growth hormone Insulin antagonist.

Inhibits glycolysis. Primary Cortisol Insulin antagonist. Secondary Thyroxine Increases glucose absorption from GI tract. Increases gluconeogenesis. Increases glycogenesis. Acute onset. Associated with obesity. Not dependent on exogenous insulin. Usually Dx during latter half of pregnancy. Risk of intrauterine death or neonatal complications macrosomia.

Some develop type 2 diabetes years later. Not prone to ketoacidosis or diabetic complications. Most common type. Usual onset was after age 40 yr but being seen in obese youth. Insulin secretory defect of beta cells. Most develop before age 25 yr. Gestational diabetes mellitus GDM Placental lactogen inhibits action of insulin.

Dependency on injected insulin. Type 2 formerly type II. Only for use in patients with symptoms of hyperglycemia. Originally only used to monitor therapy. Performed at 24—28 wk of gestation. Hemoglobin A1c None. Now accepted for Dx except in patients with hemoglobinopathies or abnormal RBC turnover. Point-of-care assays currently not accurate enough for diagnosis.

Quick Review Cards for Medical Laboratory Science

Recurring kidney stones. Diapers stain black due to homogentisic acid in urine. Test urine with cyanide nitroprusside. Burnt-sugar odor to urine. Later in life. Guthrie bacterial inhibition assay. Failure to thrive. Guthrie test. Mental retardation. All newborns are screened Tyrosinemia Disorder of tyrosine catabolism. Buildup of homogentisic acid.

CSF has a prealbumin band. Coomassie brilliant blue Charge At pH 8. Hematology in Practice. From Ciesla B. Creatinine 0.

Collect in EDTA or heparin.

273835147-Quick-Review-Cards-for-Medical-Laboratory-Science-Polansky-Valerie-Dietz.pdf

Uric acid M: Avoid contamination from ammonia in detergents or water. Dilute urine 1: High levels are neurotoxic. Normal BUN: Analyze ASAP. Adjust urine pH to 7. Excreted by kidneys. Chill immediately. Urease reagent. Uricase method. Major extracellular cation. Causes weakness. Can cause muscle weakness. Ion-selective electrode ISE is most common method. Most common method is ISE with valinomycin membrane. Causes tremors.

Due to renal or extrarenal loss vomiting. Levels regulated by aldosterone. Major intracellular cation. Contributes almost half to plasma osmolality. Serum values 0. From prolonged vomiting. Most common method is ISE. Keep sample capped to prevent loss of CO2. HCO3— important in maintaining acid-base balance. Sweat chloride test for Dx of cystic fibrosis. Helps maintain osmolality. Measured by ISE or enzymatic method. Most abundant mineral in body. Regulated by parathyroid hormone PTH.

Leads to tetany muscle spasms. Can cause cardiac abnormalities. Colorimetric methods are most common Can cause weakness. Essential cofactor for many enzymes. Rare in nonhospitalized patients. Avoid hemolysis. GI disorders. Measured by ISE. GI symptoms.

Can lead to cardiac arrhythmias. Limited value alone. Important reservoir of energy ATP. Best not to use tourniquet. Higher in children. EDTA interfere. Lactate lactic acid 4. Enzymatic methods.

Separate promptly. By product of anaerobic metabolism. Mostly in bones. More in RBCs than plasma. Major intracellular anion. Component of nucleic acids. Hemolysis interferes. Transported by transferrin. Earlymorning specimen preferred because of diurnal variation. Excess removed. Ferritin M: Iron content determined. Rough estimate of body iron content. Colorimetric methods. NAD does not. Inorganic cofactors e. Inhibitors Interfere with rxn..

Most rxn occur at pH 7—8. Either required for or enhance rxn. Reaction rate proportional to [substrate]. Reaction rate proportional to [enzyme].

Assays are zero-order excess substrate. NADH has absorbance at nm. Zero-order kinetics: Rxn commonly used in enzyme determinations: Unit of measure is international unit IU. May serve as 2nd substrate in rxn. Cofactors Nonprotein molecules that participate in rxn. Organic cofactors e. Must be present in excess. Aspartate aminotransferase AST Many. Highest in liver. Levels higher in biliary tract obstruction than in hepatocellular disorders hepatitis.

Treatment centers use to monitor abstention from alcohol. Highest levels with obstructive disorders. Alanine aminotransferase ALT Liver. Gamma glutamyl transferase GGT Liver. Highest levels with pernicious anemia. Some anticoagulants interfere. Most sensitive enzyme for skeletal muscle disease.

Highest levels with muscular dystrophy. Inhibited by all anticoagulants except heparin. Breaks down starch to simple sugars. Best single biomarker for predicting cardiovascular events. Test on 2 occasions because of individual variability. Limited value for predicting risk of CAD by itself. Protect sample from light. Jendrassik-Grof method. Diazo reagent. Accelerator added so conjugated bilirubin reacts.

Bilirubinometry for neonates only.

Protect from light. No accelerator required. Regulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH from hypothalamus. Diurnal variation: Collect on ice. Store frozen. Regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH from hypothalamus. Maturation of follicles, ovulation, production of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone. Regulated by GnRH from hypothalamus. Regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH from hypothalamus. Produced in hypothalamus. Stored in posterior pituitary.

Principle thyroid hormone. Contains 4 atoms of I. Regulated by TSH. Most bound to thyroxine-binding globulin TBG. Most formed from deiodination of T4 by tissues. Contains 3 atoms of I. Biologically active form of T3. Usually not helpful in Dx of hypothyroidism because last test to become abnormal.

Review for quick science laboratory cards pdf medical

Thyroid tests are immunoassays. Diurnal variation. Highest in am. Maintenance of pregnancy Estradiol E2 is major estrogen produced by ovaries. Regulation of menstrual cycle. Progesterone Preparation of uterus for ovum implantation. Also produced in adrenal cortex. Metabolite is pregnanediol. Development of fetal gonads Used to detect pregnancy. Ovaries Estrogens Testes Testosterone. Development of mammary glands Used to assess placental function. Decreases plasma glucose levels.

Increases plasma glucose levels. Glucagon Glycogenolysis. Pharmacokinetics Rates of absorption. Reached just before next scheduled dose.

Quick Review Cards for Medical Laboratory Science by Polansky, Valerie Dietz - PDF Drive

Drawn immediately on achievement of steady state. Cancer antigen CA Pancreatic Stage disease. Also gestational trophoblastic diseases Aid Dx. Antithyroglobulin antibodies should be measured at same time. Some patients with cancer do not have elevated tumor markers. Can interfere with assays. All of the tumor markers above are measured by immunoassay.

Most are not useful for screening. Increasing levels following treatment might indicate a recurrence. With successful treatment. Serial testing is more useful than a single test. Screening asymptomatic men is controversial. Thyroglobulin Thyroid Monitor therapy. Proton donor. Directly related to amount of dissolved CO Minimizes changes in pH. Proton acceptor or base. Second largest fraction of anions.. Proton donor or weak acid. Regulated by kidneys Carbonic acid H2CO3. H2CO3 ratio. Normal Kidneys compensate for respiratory problem.

Directly related to amount of dissolved CO2. Measure of respiratory component inversely proportional to respiration PO2 Partial pressure of O2. Low levels inhibit release of O2 to tissues Oxygen saturation Amount of O2 that is combined with hemoglobin. Measurement is potentiometric. Oxygen saturation. Store at RT. Measurement is potentiometric change in voltage indicates activity of analyte. Some also measure carboxyhemoglobin. Useful QC check. Postrenal conditions: Direct measurements now available.

LDL cholesterol Friedewald formula: Prerenal conditions: Used to Dx poisonings. One of colligative properties. Electrolytes contribute most. What is the glucose concentration of the patient? If a dilution is run. Atomic weights: Coxiella burnetii. Lassa virus. Mycobacterium gordonae. Limited access. No special equipment. Personal protective equipment PPE. No vaccine or therapy Ebola virus. Most micro labs fall in this category. III High Those that may cause serious or lethal disease via inhalation.

May be transmitted by aerosols. Rickettsia rickettsii. Autoclave must be available. II Moderate Common human pathogens E. IV Extreme Those that pose high risk of life-threatening disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Clostridium botulinum toxin. Burkholderia pseudomallei. Chlamydia psittaci. Burkholderia mallei. Rickettsia prowazekii. Yersinia pestis. Clostridium perfringens toxin. Francisella tularensis. Vibrio cholerae. Machupo B 2nd highest Moderately easy to disseminate Moderate illness. Used in labs that work with extremely hazardous organisms.

Gloves are attached to front. Provides minimal personnel protection. III Completely enclosed. Provides maximum protection. Type most commonly used in hospital micro labs.

Unsterilized room air enters. Negative pressure. Filtration Used to sterilize liquids that are thermolabile e. Liquid is heated to Radiation UV light. Chlorine Sodium hypochlorite household bleach. Spores may not be killed. Kills spores. Prepare daily. Exposure must be monitored. Pasteurization Used in food industry to kill foodborne pathogens. Hot air sterilization Used when steam may damage or fail to penetrate.

Used in BSC. Boiling Not reliable. Formalin Aqueous solution of formaldehyde. Used for cold sterilization of items damaged by heat. Yes No Converted to toxoid?

Yes No. Sample appropriate site. Deliver to lab within 30 min of collection. Aspirates or tissues are preferred to swabs.

Transport in secondary container plastic bag marked with biohazard symbol. For anaerobes. Properly label container. Frequently used as tubing. Polystyrene Rigid. Can be autoclaved. Used for pipet tips. Polyethylene Relatively inert chemically. TC To contain.. Meets high standards for accuracy. TD To deliver. Not accurate enough for critical measurements.

Long neck with single calibration mark. Use graduate closest in size to volume to be measured. Single calibration mark.

Used for noncritical measurements. Most are TD. Only for noncritical measurements. Manufactured to strict standards. Used to hold liquids. Graduated cylinder graduates Upright. Graduated markings. Etched ring means blowout. Micropipet Disposable pipet for volumes ranging from 1—1. Graduation marks down to tip. Ostwald-Folin Transfer pipet. Not accurate enough for measuring samples or standards.

Small pipetting bulb is used. Mohr Graduated or measuring pipet. Filled by capillary action. Serological Graduated or measuring pipet. Must be rinsed out with diluent to deliver exact amount.

Not widely used. Similar to volumetric pipet. Most accurate method for calibration is gravimetric method weight of distilled water delivered. Secondary method is spectropho- tometric absorbance of potassium dichromate or p-nitrophenol delivered. With 2-stop. Tips are reusable. Seals require periodic lubrication.

No carryover. Pharmacopeia or National Formulary. Used for gas chromatography. Ultra pure Spectrograde. Not injurious to health. Replaces previously designated type I and type II water. Not for use in other applications. Commercially bottled. Impurities that could contaminate washed labware or solutions in autoclave are removed. Instrument feed water Used in automated analyzers for rinsing. Pure enough for most routine testing. Water supplied by a method manufacturer Water provided by manufacturer for use in particular test system.

Replacement for previously designated type III water. Field of view Area of specimen that can be seen. Provides high resolution. Depth of focus Distance throughout which all parts of specimen are in focus simultaneously. Used for most routine clinical work. Immersion oil Used to help objective gather light from a wide numerical aperture. Condenser Focuses light on specimen.. Type B high viscosity is commonly used. Binocular microscope One with 2 oculars.

Objects appear dark against white background.. Ocular Eye piece. Objectives Lenses attached to revolving nosepiece. Numerical aperture NA Mathematical expression of light admitted by lens. Rheostat Light control knob. The higher the NA. Virtual image Image seen through microscope. Wet mounts denser. Objects that can refract light birefringent appear in urine sediment.

Manual platelet counts. Good for living cells. Objects appear green. Scanning Beam of electrons strikes surface of specimen. Science of processing data for storage. ROM Read-only memory. RAM Random access memory. Store data.. Executes software instructions. Browser Program that provides access to Internet. Used to write letters. Microsoft Internet Explorer. Database Application program to organize. Can apply rules to automate processes.

System validation Documentation that LIS functions as expected. Required by regulatory agencies. Bidirectional interface Interface that transmits electronic information in 2 directions. Middleware Interface between an analyzer and LIS. Can provide patient informa- tion. Hospital information system HIS Information system to handle all informational needs of hospital.

Unidirectional interface Interface that transmits electronic information in 1 direction. Originally developed as transfer protocol for Internet. Internet Internet Global system of interconnected computer networks Intranet Computer network within an organization.

Health Level 7 standard HL7 Standardized message protocol that facilitates exchange of medical data among computer systems. Access is usually restricted to employees.. Extranet Extension of a private network onto the Internet where it can be accessed by authorized clients. Postanalytical QA Everything that comes after test analysis.

Preanalytical QA Everything that precedes test performance. Analytical QA Everything related to assay. For qualitative tests. Internal monitoring systems Electronic. For nonwaived quantitative tests. External QC Testing control material not built into test system. Equivalent QC Labs may reduce frequency of testing external QC materials for certain test systems if they can demonstrate through a CMS-approved QC evaluation process that test system is stable.

Term also used for QC that extends beyond lab. Monitors precision of test system. CLIA requires at least 2 levels of controls each day test is performed. Requires a minimum of 20 values.. Measurements of precision. Mean Sum of all observations divided by number of observations. Standard deviation SD Statistical expression of dispersion of values around mean. Average of all observations. Di Lorenzo MS. Levey-Jennings chart Normal distribution curve lying on its side.

From Strasinger SK. This is anticipated part of normal variation.. Urinalysis and Body Fluids. Levey-Jennings chart showing in-control results. Modified from Strasinger SK. If it occurs more than once in 20 successive runs. Levey-Jennings chart showing outlier. Shift 6 consecutive control values on same side of mean. May be due to chance or may indicate problem in test system. Levey-Jennings chart showing shift.

Usually a 1-time error. Levey-Jennings chart showing trend. Indicated by trend or shift on Levey-Jennings chart. Use of Westgard rules minimizes false rejections. Requires investigation to determine cause. False rejection Rejection of run because QC results indicate problem when none is present. If no violation of change in accuracy or precision. Rerun control 1 time only. If control is still out. Provides a record for future reference. Calibration may have shifted.

Supervisor or service rep may be able to determine problem. Control might have been outdated. Value might have been due to expected random error. Once resolved. If a control value is inaccurate. Formerly called standard. Required every 6 months. Test 3 levels—high. Calibrator Reference material with known concentration of analyte. Reference interval Formerly called normal value. Established used. Precision Reproducibility. Accuracy How close measurement is to true value.

Also known as linearity. Lab tests samples of known values controls. Lowest concentration of Determined by manufacturer. FDA-approved tests. Analytical sensitivity Same as detection limit.

Determined by manufacturer. Desirable in screening tests. Information helps physicians interpret results. Documentation required. Preventive maintenance Schedule of maintenance to keep equipment in peak operating condition. List typically includes glucose. Critical values Test results that indicate a potentially life-threatening situation. Reference values existing method are plotted on x axis.

Requires a minimum of 40 patient samples representing wide range of concen- trations. Delta checks Comparison of patient data with previous results. When limit is exceeded. Unknowns must not receive pref- erential treatment. Standard operating procedure SOP Set of instructions for methods used in the laboratory. Results reported to agency. Also known as procedure manual. Step-by-step performance of the procedure. Pertinent literature references collection.

Reportable range for patient test results 7. Action to take if test system becomes inoperable 2. Control procedures 8. Imminently life-threatening laboratory results critical values 1. Procedures for microscopic examinations. Limitations in methodology. Requirements for patient preparation. Preparation of slides. HIPAA requires health-care providers to establish extensive security measures to ensure privacy. Expressed consent Written or verbal consent..

Action implies consent for venipuncture. Implied consent Consent that is inferred from action or signs. Malpractice Misconduct or negligence that results in injury to patient. Restriction of access to information to those who have authorization and a need to know. May be expressed or implied. Specimen may be transported in locked box to prevent tampering.

Chain of custody Procedure to guarantee integrity of specimen to court.. Value obtained for diluted A specimen for glucose is diluted 1: What value should be reported? Cl— depending on IV. Refer to reagent package inserts. Possible dilution of other analytes. Amount of UV. Used to measure trace metals. Used to detector. Hollow cathode lamp with spectrophotometry ground-state atoms.

More sen- energy. Extremely sensitive. Nephelometry Similar to turbidity. Used to measure proteins in transmission by particles in photodetector. Used for immunoassays. Used to measure ag-ab rxn. Turbidimetry Measures reduction in light Light source. Reagent probes. Separation of thermolabile Concentration determined by chromatography column.

Separation of volatile com. Area of peak is propor- can be made volatile. Gas chromatography Gas. High-performance liquid Solvent.

The greater the charge. Electrophoresis Separation of charged particles in electrical Power supply. Anions move to positively charged medium. Vapor depression osmometers not widely used in clinical labs. Vitros uses dry slides. HDL cholesterol. CO2 Hepatic function panel Albumin. LDL cholesterol.

Science quick review medical laboratory cards pdf for

Glucose acute stress. Major source of cellular energy. LDL cholesterol Optimal: Hexokinase considered more accurate. Triglycerides Desirable: Risk factor for CAD Main form of lipid storage. Limited value for predicting risk of Enzymatic methods most common.. Requires fasting specimen. Alternative is albumin-to-creatinine ratio on random sample.

Immunoassays on hr urine. Regulates osmotic pressure. Measure by nephrotic syndrome. Stimulates glycogenolysis. Primary Cortisol Insulin antagonist. Secondary Growth hormone Insulin antagonist. Inhibits glycolysis. Secondary Thyroxine Increases glucose absorption from GI tract. Increases gluconeogenesis. Increases glycogenesis. Gestational diabetes Placental lactogen inhibits action of insulin. Dependency on injected insulin.

Most develop before age 25 yr. Risk of intrauterine death or neonatal complications macrosomia. Usually Dx during latter half of pregnancy. Acute onset. Usual onset was after age 40 yr formerly type II. Prone to diabetes. Genetic predis. Most common type.

Not dependent on diabetes. Not prone to ketoacidosis or diabetes mellitus diabetic complications. Some mellitus GDM develop type 2 diabetes years later. Only for use in patients with symptoms of hyperglycemia. Now accepted for Dx except in patients with hemoglo- binopathies or abnormal RBC turnover. Originally only used to monitor therapy.

Point-of-care assays currently not accurate enough for diagnosis. Hemoglobin A1c None. Urine has Guthrie bacterial inhibition phenylalanine to tyrosine. All newborns are screened Tyrosinemia Disorder of tyrosine catabolism. Cystinuria Increased excretion of cystine due to Recurring kidney stones. Later in life. Test urine with cyanide nitro- defect in renal reabsorption.

Failure to thrive. CSF has a prealbumin band. Coomassie brilliant blue Charge At pH 8. Hematology in Practice. From Ciesla B. Avoid contamination from ammonia in detergents or water.

Produced in GI tract. Dilute urine 1: Creatinine 0. Analyze ASAP. Chill immediately. Uric acid M: Normal BUN: Collect in renal failure. Excreted by kidneys. Adjust urine pH to nucleoprotein diet. High levels are neurotoxic. Uricase F: Levels Causes tremors. Can thrombocytosis. Causes weak- ness. Serum values 0. Potassium 3. Maintains normal excessive sweating. Normal loss vomiting. Due to renal or extrarenal ISE is most common method.

Most common method is ISE with valinomycin membrane. Major intracellular cation. Can cause muscle weakness. Due to same conditions as Major extracellular ion. Most common diabetic ketoacidosis. From prolonged vomiting. Measured by ISE or enzymatic method.

Sweat chloride test for Dx salt-losing renal diseases. Anticoagu- calculi. Leads to tetany muscle spasms. Essential cofactor for many enzymes.. Most abundant mineral in body. Can cause cardiac hemolysis. GI disorders. Rare in non- hospitalized patients. Measured by ISE. Regulated by parathyroid hormone 5. GI symptoms. Can lead to cardiac arrhythmias.

Avoid endocrine disorders. Can cause bones. Calcium Total: Best not to use tourniquet. Limited value alone. By product of anaerobic metabolism. Separate promptly. Important reservoir of energy ATP. More in RBCs than plasma. EDTA interfere. Enzymatic methods. Higher in children. Avoid hemolysis. Lactate lactic acid 4. Mostly in bones. Major intracellular anion. Colorimetric methods. Hemolysis interferes. Necessary for hgb synthesis.

Storage form of iron. Transported F: Calculated value. Iron content determined. Rough estimate of F: May serve as 2nd substrate in rxn. NADH has absorbance at nm. Assays are zero-order excess substrate. Inhibitors Interfere with rxn. Reaction rate proportional to [enzyme]. Zero-order kinetics: Must Rxn commonly used in enzyme determinations: Enzyme concentration Velocity of rxn proportional to [enzyme] as long as Unit of measure is international unit IU.

Either required for or enhance rxn. Most rxn occur at pH 7—8. Cofactors Nonprotein molecules that participate in rxn. Organic cofactors e. Reaction rate proportional to [substrate]. Highest levels with obstructive disorders. Most sensitive enzyme for all types of liver dis- transferase GGT pancreas ders. Treatment centers use to monitor abstention from alcohol.

ALP higher in biliary tract obstruc.. Gamma glutamyl Liver. Avoid dehydrogenase LD heart, skeletal nicious anemia hemolysis. Some anticoagulants interfere. Most sensitive enzyme for skeletal muscle disease. Highest levels with muscular dystrophy. Inhibited by all anticoagulants ex- cept heparin. Best single biomarker for predicting cardiovascular events. Test on 2 occasions because of individual variability. Total cholesterol Limited value for predicting risk of CAD by itself.

Low levels are risk factor. Primary target of therapy. Desirable level: Heme 1 iron Bilirubin Metabolism. Unconjugated bilirubin Glucuronyl transferase Conjugated direct bilirubin. Fecal urobilinogen 1 urobilin Clinical Chemistry Review Jendrassik-Grof method. Diazo ated with brain damage reagent. Accelerator added so conjugated kernicterus bilirubin reacts. Bilirubinometry for neonates only. Protect from light.

Diazo reagent. No accelerator required. Total bili — direct bili. No Yes Present in urine? Pituitary Hormones Clinical Chemistry Review Diurnal variation: Collect on ice.

Store frozen. Stored in posterior pituitary. Oxytocin Uterine contractions during Produced in hypothalamus. Not childbirth, lactation clinically useful. Contains 4 atoms of I. Regulated by TSH. Most bound to thyroxine-binding globulin TBG.

Contains 3 atoms of I. If normal, no further testing. Usually not helpful in Dx of hypothyroidism because last test to become abnor- mal. Thyroid tests are immunoassays. Cortisol Carbohydrate. Diurnal variation. Highest in am. Maintenance of pregnancy Progesterone Preparation of uterus for ovum implantation. Regulation of most potent estrogen. Development of fetal gonads ease e. Also produced by placenta. Also produced in adrenal cortex..

Metabolite is pregnanediol. Decreases plasma glucose levels. Increases plasma glucose levels. Glucagon Glycogenolysis. Drawn immediately on achievement of steady state. Reached just before next scheduled dose. Pharmacokinetics Rates of absorption.

Cancer antigen Ovarian Aid Dx. Aid Dx. Cancer antigen Breast Stage disease. Also gesta.. CA Carcinoembryonic Colorectal Monitor therapy.

With successful treatment. Screening asymptomatic men is controversial. Thyroglobulin Thyroid Monitor therapy. Some patients with cancer do not have elevated tumor markers.

Most are not useful for screening. Can inter- fere with assays. All of the tumor markers above are measured by immunoassay. Serial testing is more useful than a single test. Increasing levels following treatment might indicate a recurrence. Second largest fraction of anions. Proton donor. Proton donor or weak acid..

Regulated by kidneys Carbonic acid H2CO3. Proton acceptor or base. Directly related to amount of dissolved CO2. Minimizes changes in pH. H2CO3 ratio. Kidneys compensate for respiratory problem.

Normal Low levels inhibit release of O2 to 2. Measure of respiratory component inversely proportional to respiration PO2 Partial pressure of O2. Measurement is potentiomet.

Co-oximeter Spectrophotometer that reads absorbance or Oxygen saturation. Measurement is potentiometric. Useful QC check. Direct measurements now available. Postrenal conditions: Used to Dx poisonings. Electrolytes osmolality contribute most. If a dilution is run.

What is the glucose concentration of the patient? Atomic weights: Mycobacterium Standard microbiological practices. Autoclave must be available. Limited access. Lassa virus. Most micro labs fall in this category. Rickettsia sealed windows. II Moderate Common human E. Coxiella burnetii. May be transmitted independent unit with specialized by aerosols.

Machupo B 2nd highest Moderately easy to Moderate illness. Clostridium perfringens toxin. Chlamydia psittaci. Burkholderia pseudomallei. Nipah virus. Rickettsia prowazekii. Yersinia pestis. Clostridium botulinum toxin. Vibrio cholerae. Francisella transmitted from person major public health impact tularensis. Gloves are attached to front. Unsterilized room air enters. Air passes Type most commonly used in hospital micro labs. Provides minimal personnel protection. Air passes through high.

Negative pressure. III Completely enclosed. Filtration Used to sterilize liquids that are thermolabile e. Formalin Aqueous solution of formaldehyde.

Boiling Not reliable. Kills spores. Exposure must be monitored. Spores may not be killed.. Prepare daily. Pasteurization Used in food industry to kill foodborne pathogens. Liquid is heated to Used in BSC. Radiation UV light.

Chlorine Sodium hypochlorite household bleach. Hot air sterilization Used when steam may damage or fail to penetrate. Used for cold sterilization of items damaged by heat.

Yes No Converted to toxoid? Yes No. Soft alcohol PVA. Best to process without delay. Gram negative Thin peptidoglycan layer covered with proteins. Primary stain crystal violet washes out. Teichoic acid cross-links prevent decolorization in Gram stain. Hektoen enteric gram pos HE. XLD on certain biochemical rxn e Columbia colistin—nalidixic acid CNA agar. Media may be of more than 1 type.. Lactose fermenters LF green-black or purple. Eosin methylene blue EMB S. Sorbitol MacConkey S E. NLF colorless.

Some labs have stopped using because non-O serotypes can be pathogens. Colorless SMAC agar colonies. LF pink. Non—lactose fermenters NLF colorless. Gram-negative broth GN E. Some salmonellae may not produce H2S. Use of enrichment broths for stool cultures is decreasing.

NLF green to blue-green. Xylose lysine deoxycholate S. Nonpathogens orange to salmon pink. Some shigellae may be inhibited. Salmonella produces H2S black center. H2S-pos colonies have black precipitate.