Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs caite.infohylene-kish. Purchase your copy of BS EN ISO as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the. ISO provides the method of calculation of the thermal resistance and thermal transmittance of building components and building elements, excluding. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. . by employing the Standard UNI EN ISO .
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Second edition. Building components and building Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General. Thickness: +5/-2 mm, but for 60 mm it is +/-3 mm(UNI ). The ISOTEC System will: Law /m2 0, UNI EN ISO ww/m2K 0, UNI EN ISO . I.S. EN ISO Building components and building elements -. Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance - Calculation methods .
The comparison between these figures reveals that the heat flux - The heat flux sensor is the FEB model. Using the 12 CO image as a template of the higher state emission, we corrected for the offset and derived the flux for the central region, larger than the beam. Buildings 29 3 — For the chosen chop throws, the ponent cannot be detected, for several reasons. Key words: Because of the chopping in the source field, each bolometer sees a different background: The measurement uncertainty values were evaluated not exposed directly to air draughts.
The description and the discussion large amounts of cold dust, much colder than IRAS was able to of the results are given in Sect. Spiral galaxies are found to have a dust content similar to the one in the Galaxy Alton et al. Since 10, 11 and June 17, 18, 19, 20 If this is confirmed, observa- telescope can be used simultaneously at both wavelengths, by Send offprint requests to: In the scan-map mode, the telescope scans the source at a JCMT is operated by The Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the rate of 24 arcsec per second, along specific angles to ensure Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United King- a fully sampled map.
Meanwhile the secondary chops with a dom, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the frequency of 7. While this ensures National Research Council of Canada. Bianchi et al.: Comparing data for FT analysis. Each set of observations consisted of planet profile, the beam size was estimated: FWHMs of Images were first to a FWHM of Noisy bolometers were masked and spikes from transient comparison between features present in both.
A correction for smoothed images is 3. Zenith optical depth varied during the six nights, with smoothing are presented in Fig. Because of the chopping in the source field, each bolometer sees a different background: Results and discussion subtracted from each bolometer. In each of the six maps image of molecular line emission is also shown in Fig. The similarity with the sub-mm function. The final deconvolved image is retrieved using the image is hardly surprising, since the molecular gas is the domi- Emerson II technique Holland et al.
The nucleus is elongated in the direc- of the source is derived by dividing the FT of the map by the tion north-south, as observed for the central bar of molecular FT of the chop function, a simple sine-wave. Since the division gas Ishizuki et al. For the chosen chop throws, the ponent cannot be detected, for several reasons. First of all the FT of the chop functions do not have coincident zeros, apart face-on inclination of the galaxy: A smoother FT of source can there- own emission a faint component can be observed only if the dust fore be obtained, and the final image is retrieved by the applying column density is large.
This is the case for the high inclination an inverse FT. This may be due to resid- a smaller number of observations. The large face-on galaxy M51 ual, uncorrected, sky fluctuation at frequencies close to zero, has been observed using the scan-map mode and confirms the where all the chops FT goes to zero.
Work to solve this problem necessity of long integrations Tilanus, private communication. To enhance the Furthermore, chopping inside the source field removes not only contrast between the sky and the source, we have modelled a the emission from the sky but also from possible components curved surface from the images, masking all the regions were with a shallow gradient: Young Finally, a faint diffuse emission could have been Calibration was achieved from scan-maps of Uranus, that masked by the mentioned artifacts and subtracted together with were reduced in the same way as the galaxy.
Integrated flux the curved background. North is on top, East on the left. Converting from the original units in the long wavelength image.
As pointed out by the referee, the point- Sub-mm fluxes are 1. We ing of the Mauersberger et al. Using the 12 CO image as a template of the higher state emission, we corrected for the offset and derived the flux for the central region, larger than the beam.
A total con- tribution of 0. However, this large contribution is due to the high density and gas temperature of the central region. Israel et al. Therefore, the derivation of cold dust temperature at large galactic radii Alton et al. The test system and measuring points arrangement Subscripts w physical quantities related to the warm chamber The test wall divides two rooms on the second floor of the Archi- c physical quantities related to the cold chamber tecture Department building in Cagliari.
The two chambers have a north-facing external wall and only one of those has also an east-facing one. The other walls adjoin with internal spaces.
Both The lower the temperature difference, the less precise the mea- chambers have a flat roof. In Cagliari and other Mediterranean coastal cities on the The test wall thickness was measured with a vernier caliber. There- This has the following layers, as from the coring: The indoor air temperature was measured by means of Seasonal climatic conditions may be disadvantageous and the NTC negative temperature coefficient thermistors.
Heat-flux sen- mean thermal gradient between indoor and outdoor air tempera- sors were fixed to the wall to measure the surface temperature and tures may not be sufficient for a reliable measurement. Due to the metrological specifications of the most common civil In order to obtain sufficient data, 6 RTD sensors and 2 heat-flux engineering instruments, both of temperature sensors and heat- sensors which also include 2 temperature sensors were fixed.
On the warm face 4 RTD sen- Destructive methods are an alternative analysis that foresees sors were set up. During the tests the door between the two ness and the conductivity value assignment to each of them. In this chambers was closed. More details can be found in Figs. The R-value can be calculated measured. All R-values of the Surface temperatures and heat-flux output data were returned individual layers must be added when calculating the total multi- by a wireless data logger, while air temperatures in the two cham- layer wall R-value.
This value is affected by the typical uncertainty bers by TGU2 data loggers. The data were subsequently transferred of thickness measurements. Test chambers plan and section. Measuring points position.
The dimensions of the cold chamber are 4. Both chambers have a double glazed window on the north-facing wall whose roller blind was kept closed during the test to reduce 4.
Test wall thermal resistance calculation thermal transfer between inside and outside and to avoid direct solar radiation. Non destructive method [21—23] The first method requires the measurement of surface temper- 3.
Measurement results atures and heat-flux through the test wall by the use of heat-flux meters.
All sensors and measurements systems are provided with Two series of measurements were carried out during June—July individual calibration certificates by Italian Calibration Service SIT.
The first measurements were The measurements in this work were taken with the use of a carried out maintaining a mean air temperature difference between double measurement system. The second ones twice at the same time with identical instruments.
The temperatures in the two chambers are typical of an external wall working temperature in Mediterranean climatic - heat flux and superficial temperature sensors conditions. The external superficial finishing of the due to the delay of the temperature setting system. This justifies an sensors is similar to the plaster in order to have a similar absorp- increasing variation of the heat flux as reported in Figs. The wiring to the radio modem Surface temperatures and heat-flux rate through the test wall consists of wave electrical wire to minimize the electromagnetic are shown in Figs.
The comparison between these figures reveals that the heat flux - The heat flux sensor is the FEB model. The primary sensing in Fig. The contact surface has perature difference between the surfaces of the test wall. In both an 80 mm radius and the thickness is 5.
Warm and cold chamber air temperature during the two measurement series. The measuring chain is also composed of wireless wiring in the In this instrumentation class extreme synchronism in acquisi- ISM 2.
Trend of Rn. In this application the data logger is programmed for maximum Referring to ISO , the R-value is close to the asymptotic performance and the internal software calculates the mean value value of the curve and the final value of Rn can be assumed as the R- every five consecutive data and stores this value in its RAM.
The However, this assumption may lead to unreliable results. For methods are mainly mechanical and chemical. A spreadsheet processes the conductance and heat close to a maximum of the curve and the uncertainty is equal to the resistance values.
The temperature and moisture sensor is utilized for measuring This means insertion in the uncertainty band of values never air temperature. For this reason the test wall R-value was assumed as the mean It is a dedicated sensor for civil engineering applications. The measurement uncertainty values were evaluated not exposed directly to air draughts.
This is a system that con- as prescribed by the UNI A USB cable and dedicated soft- measurement statistical uncertainty, taking into account a cover- ware allows setting of the instrument and downloading of the data. As above, two series of measurements were carried out. Each test lasted 72 h about data. The analysis of the output data is shown in Figs.
In both cases the measurement uncertainty is influenced mainly Measurement analysis was carried out with the progressive by the error of the temperature difference measurement, according mean method according to the prEN R-value is given by: The total test wall R-value is given by: The results of the two tests are shown in the graph in Fig. R-value calculations compatibility. For non-homogeneous elements such as perforated bricks the To define the test wall structure the sampling method pre- A coverage factor was assumed as equal to 2 for the expanded scribed by the ISO A sample of a whole test wall of measurements according to ENV The core had a The mean total R-value and its uncertainty are: The various layer thicknesses were accurately measured with a vernier caliper resolution: Since it was not possible to refer to the existing material certifications, thermal conductivity or thermal resistance was assumed from the UNI Measurement compatibility of the two methods  The repeated measures method was used for all the direct mea- sures.
The results of the three measurements carried out with the two The uncertainty values associated with the measures were methods described above are shown in Table 2. The prop- The values in Table 2 were compared with the method of mea- agation of uncertainties was calculated according to the ENV surement compatibility.
The results are shown in Fig. Percentage uncertainty of q estimation. The R-value measurement with Uncertainties of the three measurement methods.
The smaller the temperature difference the less R7 0. During in situ measurements it is not RD 0. The destructive method requires coring of the building envelope The figure shows the compatibility of R10 , R7 and RD.
R10 is com- and very simple measurements, but it is very invasive. These results can also provide interesting information on the In most cases it is not possible to evaluate the density and mois- evaluation of energy loss in buildings.
According to ISO Thus attributing thermal conductivity and So it can give a realistic Per unit area and difference of temperature 4 can be written: