FAREWELL TO MANZANAR Notes including • Life and Background of the Authors • Introduction to the Novel • A Brief Synopsis • List of Characters • Chronology. According to the authors, Farewell to Manzanar is a “web of stories tracing a few 2 Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston, Farewell to Manzanar. Download Farewell to Manzanar Download at: caite.info? book= [PDF] Download Farewell to Manzanar Ebook.
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Farewell to Manzanar. A true story of Japanese American experience during and after the World. War II internment. Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Farewell to Manzanar by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston. Chapters 4, 5, 6 four. A Common Master Plan. I don't remember what we ate that . a true story of Japanese American experience during and after the World War II internment. by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston. "This edition contains the complete text of the original hardcover edition.
In the government's eyes a free man now, [Ko] sat, like those black slaves you hear about who, when they got word of their freedom at the end of the Civil War, just did not know where else to go or what else to do and ended up back on the plantation, rooted there out of habit or lethargy or fear. A hedge of high bamboo ordered it. The fatherless Wakatsukis are ordered to vacate Terminal Island because the government fears that Japanese Americans threaten the naval base. After her family has seen all there is to see and turned toward the car, Jeanne remains alone, eyeing the dark-haired beauty of her eldest child, who is about the age that Jeanne was when Manzanar closed. The departure date looms as summer ends. Told in readable, accessible form, the book skirts a more academic approach by relying on first-person narration from a child's perspective.
Add another edition? Farewell to Manzanar Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston. Farewell to Manzanar Close. Want to Read.
Are you sure you want to remove Farewell to Manzanar from your list? Written in English. People Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston. Places California , United States. Table of Contents Part I: Interview Inu Mess hall bells Reservoir shack: An aside Yes yes no no Part II: Manzanar, U.
Ten thousand voices. Edition Notes "This edition contains the complete text of the original hardcover edition. Series Laurel-leaf books Genre Biography. She described her emergent self this way: Well received for its historical accuracy, the film featured the Houston twins, actor Lou Frizell in one of the few Caucasian speaking parts, and Japanese-American employees and internees of Tule Lake, Heart Mountain, Minidoka, and Topaz internment camps.
Shimoda remarked, "I felt that the role of Ko was the role I have been preparing for all these years. The feeling on the set is like no other picture I have worked in. In the scene in which Ko enters Manzanar, Nobu McCarthy, unable to separate herself from the character she portrayed, grasped Shimoda and sobbed into his chest.
He comforted her with an understanding embrace. Jeanne was so moved by the scene that she wept for "the pride of my father--the humiliation, the stubbornness, the shattered dignity. Judith Crist, critic for TV Guide, lauded the movie as a "deeply moving examination of family relations under stress and of the scars that remain.
On their own, the Houstons function as solo writers and lecturers. His best-received nonfiction, Californians: Jeanne's contribution to the reclamation of the Asian-American past has netted her recognition from the National Women's Political Caucus.
In , after meriting Warner Communications' Wonder Woman award for "the pursuit of truth and positive social change," she and James, on a tour of Japan, the Philippines, Korea, Malaysia, and Indonesia, visited refugee camps. Although close enough to visit Hiroshima, Jeanne chose not to view the place where members of the Wakatsuki family were incinerated by an atomic bomb.
Actively pursuing their trade, Jeanne and James Houston, their children grown, still live in their Victorian house in Santa Cruz and work out of separate office spaces. An upbeat, positive woman, petite and graceful next to Jim's tall, lanky good looks, Jeanne, despite her family's sufferings, rejects a hostile, antiAmerican stance in favor of a humanistic embrace of democracy.
Like Jim, she defines herself as a "philosophic Buddhist," attuned to peace, harmony, and nonviolence. Fortunately for the family, he quit drinking after physical symptoms indicated that he was shortening his life. He died in Jeanne, along with her surviving six siblings, treasures the positive images of Ko Wakatsuki, particularly his faith in the American dream.
In her lectures, she emphasizes "how far, as a country, we have come in our understanding and practice of human rights.
My discussion neither lays guilt nor attacks. In the final analysis, it is an affirmation of what America really is. As historically correct as Samuel Pepys' recollections of the London fire and the restoration of Charles II to the throne of England, as passionately devoted to righting injustice as Elie Wiesel's Night, as tenderly innocent and family centered as The Diary of Anne Frank, the Houstons' book earns critical acclaim for verisimilitude.
Notable critics have placed the book in its own niche; a Los Angeles Times reporter praised Jeanne for serving as a "voice for a heretofore silent segment of society. Writer-critic Wallace Stegner typifies the work as "a wonderful, human, feeling book. And full of understanding. The great strength of the book is the sense it gives the reader of being allowed to accompany Jeanne on this most personal and intimate journey.
A terse, unsigned review in the New York Times Book Review November 5, notes the devastating effects of Jeanne's "spiritual death" under tense camp conditions.
The critique concludes: All in all, a dramatic, telling account of one of the most reprehensible events in the history of America's treatment of its minorities. His story is at the heart of this book, and his daughter tells it with great dignity.
Houston and her husband have recorded a tale of many complexities in a straightforward manner, a tale remarkably lacking in either self-pity or solemnity. It is the record of one woman's maturation during a unique historical moment.
Produced to fill a void, the book, intended as polemic, or aggressive statement of opinion, on a controversial issue, authenticates a significant page in America's history, a confrontation with the bedrock issues of freedoms as old as the Magna Carta and guaranteed in the Constitution.
Because no previous work dealt so intimately with the denial of freedoms to Asian Americans, the Houstons' research lays the groundwork for more scholarship and narrative as a means to greater understanding of racism. Not only does the work illuminate the political maneuverings which cost , innocent people over three years of unconstitutional incarceration, it also details the social mechanisms by which people cope with arbitrary uprooting, loss, privation, and national embarrassment.
Told in readable, accessible form, the book skirts a more academic approach by relying on first-person narration from a child's perspective. Chronologically, the work concludes, not with the closing of the internment camp, but with the marriage of Jeanne to a Caucasian. In a healing, unifying return to Manzanar, the speaker creates a conciliatory tone, a method of ridding herself of lingering regrets and bitterness and of assisting her race and her nation to reflect on an episode as shattering and dismaying as the massacre at Wounded Knee, the Salem witch trials, Nat Turner's rebellion, John Brown's hanging, the Battle of the Little Big Horn, the Watts, Attica Prison, and Los Angeles riots, the exploitation of coolie labor to build the transcontinental railroad, or the My Lai massacre.
At Of the eighteen U. Over planes were crippled or wrecked, 2, people died, 1, were wounded, and more than 1, were missing. With enemy losses of only 29 planes, 5 submarines, and soldiers, the Japanese had reason to cheer about their advantageous strike.
They had seriously crippled naval preparedness by blocking the harbor so that U. The day after the raid, President Franklin Roosevelt read to Congress his proclamation that December 7, , was "a date which will live in infamy. Following Roosevelt's impassioned declaration of war against Japan, a Caucasian backlash in racially mixed communities along the western U. Bye-bye Japs. Californians, fearing collusion which might lead to a landing of enemy forces or the sabotage of dams or power plants, conspired to violate Japanese-American freedoms.
Mayors, governors, legislators, and the American Legion joined with the media to force removal of Japanese Americans, although no evidence of either espionage or sabotage was ever found. Eventually, more than 3, Japanese-American men were imprisoned--not interned, but imprisoned-even though they remained overwhelmingly pro-American.
Many of these were Issei [ee' say], like Ko Wakatsuki--native-born Japanese immigrants who had survived the Depression and were just beginning to realize dreams of financial prosperity when internment snatched away the fruits of their labors. The only area in which this pattern did not prevail was Hawaii, where the population depended too heavily on Japanese labor to confine or idle valuable workers.
Internment On March 24, , the first load of civilian evacuees, carrying small amounts of personal belongings, were transported to camps. Two-thirds of the internees were Nisei [nee' say], American citizens born to Japanese immigrant parents, whose rights were spelled out in the U. Constitution as it is for citizens of all races. The press sugarcoated the primitive camps as having "all the comforts of home" and reminded the evacuees that they entered camps "not as prisoners but free to work.
Whatever the thinking of authorities, the government's attitude was made obvious by one overriding fact--camp guns were aimed inward at internees rather than outward at potential attackers.
Internment wrenched apart Asian communities and herded people from farms, ranches, and homes into ten hastily constructed internment camps in Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, and California.
Left behind were homes and cars, businesses and personal belongings, most of which were never recovered from last-minute storage, bank repossession, or abandonment. Ahead lay barbed wire compounds with guardhouses constructed at frequent intervals and cramped accommodations for eight to sixteen thousand detainees.
Resembling army bases with barracks arranged in blocks, the ten camps began as an army project but were eventually placed under the War Relocation Authority. The camps offered no play areas for children, who often scrounged seashells at Manzanar from a valley that was once an ocean.
Although inmates lacked autonomy, life was made bearable at the dust-drenched Manzanar camp by a spirit of unity, which encouraged people to go on with learning, singing, gardening, exercise, visiting, and friendships.
The Manzanar High School yearbooks record plays, chorus and orchestra performances, and musicals.
Camp records list births as well as deaths. Acting on the advice of a Quaker lawyer, Hirabayashi disobeyed curfews for Asians, then turned himself over to the FBI for refusing internment and breaking curfew. Hirabayashi drew a jail term. Other Japanese Americans ostracized him for rebelling.
On October 20, , Hirabayashi went to trial, where the judge refused him due process on the issue of violation of civil rights and found him guilty of breaking the law. Hirabayashi, assured that an appeal to the Supreme Court would end mass internment, opted to go to prison. On June 21, , he discovered that his supposition was faulty--the Supreme Court upheld internment as a necessary emergency measure in the interest of national security.
Only Justice Frank Murphy dissented from the majority opinion by comparing internment to the Nazi oppression of Jews. Justice Murphy's most famous civil rights stand came in with Korematsu v. United States, a case in which he labeled as racist the wartime internment of Japanese Americans. However, his support for Constitutional rights did not spare Hirabayashi from the injustice of internment, compounded by having to pay his own way to Camp Tule.
It was only after Roosevelt's third election that pressure to release Japanese Americans brought about a rescinding of Executive Order and the release of internees who passed the loyalty tests. The Japanese-American Warrior While less flexible civilian Issei fought internal battles over family rights and loyalty oaths, 1, Nisei males signed up for military service. Young and inexperienced, Japanese-American soldiers, particularly those fluent in Japanese, proved vital to the war effort and earned more medals than any other unit.
Although not advanced to ranks higher than sergeant, they served as teachers to intelligence officers and prepared plans so that a smooth occupation of Japan might end the war with a negligible loss of life to both the American military and civilian Japanese.
The most valued of the Nisei were the Kibei [kee' bay], Japanese Americans who had trained in Japan and who knew the terrain, language, and customs well enough to pass for natives.
The Kibei deciphered Japanese code and eavesdropped on Japanese radio transmissions. They translated intercepted documents, which detailed troop and convoy movements, ship locations, reinforcement strength, and direction of supply lines. Like Tokyo Rose, the Kibei established their own radio propaganda to weaken Japanese morale and expedite surrender.
For all their worth to the war effort, the Nisei, caught in the U. They rebelled at their families' incarceration and protested the army's refusal to recognize Buddhism as a religion. When President Roosevelt visited a Kansas boot camp, the Nisei were held on the periphery at gunpoint until the president was safely out of harm's way.
On the battlefield, the Nisei over-achieved because of a need to prove manhood, loyalty, and racial dignity. Officers kept Nisei soldiers together lest they be shot, accidentally or intentionally, by American fire.
General Douglas MacArthur, who depended on Japanese-American aides during his negotiations with the Japanese high command, also kept Nisei intelligence officers close at hand during the tense days of disarmament.
At the end of the war, Nisei accomplishments went unsung. As demonstrated by a shameful incident in Hood River, Oregon, their names were censored from reports, honor rolls, public monuments, and recommendations for medals. They received no credit for shortening the war and saving lives.
Although they were constantly in danger of being captured and tortured by the enemy, the Nisei proved to be superior linguists, sensitive interrogators, dependable leaders, and cunning improvisers.
Without their humane intervention on Saipan, many civilians would have committed suicide to escape what they envisioned to be a dangerous insurgency of vengeful all-white American soldiers. Missouri on August 15, Japanese Americans encountered a struggle in the marketplace as well as on the street. Returning without homes, businesses, or cash, many were destitute.
They were also confronted by a Caucasian mindset that anyone with stereotypically Oriental features and a Japanese surname was suspect and therefore open game for prejudicial actions and harassment.
In addition to the internees' fears and disillusion, families also faced the return of veterans, who reunited with their families at internment camps as though they were visiting prison inmates. Officially expunged September 4, , as a gesture to outcries from internees, their children, Asian-American legislators, and other victims of racist injustice, Executive Order appeared to be a dead issue thirty-three years after the fact.
It was not until that Attorney Peter Irons began a rectifying process. Following disclosure of government documents attesting to the fact that Roosevelt's cabinet and the FBI were well aware that Japanese Americans had posed no threat, Irons pressed for national acknowledgement that the internment camps were a blatant denial of civil rights. The suppression of evidence exonerating internees from suspicion of disloyalty, espionage, or sabotage brought Gordon Hirabayashi back to the same courtroom, only this time flanked by sixty lawyers and Japanese-American supporters.
Charging the U. On Sunday, December 7, , in Long Beach, California, the family--consisting of both parents, Jeanne's four brothers and five sisters, and Granny--are startled by news that Japan has attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In February , President Roosevelt issues Executive Order ordering Japanese-Americans to evacuate their homes and take up residence in internment camps. The Wakatsukis, with Jeanne's brother Woody at the head, are transported to Owens Valley, California, home of 10, internees.
The family, overcrowded and miserable in Block 16, endures unappetizing institutional food, dust storms, diarrhea, lack of privacy, foul toilets, and annoying, impersonal red tape. After his reunion with his family in September , Ko escapes feelings of humiliation through the consumption of homemade rice wine and becomes an angry, bitter, drunken recluse.
Jeanne avoids family disorder by hiding under the bed, studying catechism, playing hopscotch, and learning ballet. In spring , the family locates better accommodations at Block 28, where Ko develops optimism through cultivating pear trees.
Jeanne enjoys normal school experiences, including participation in glee club and yearbook activities. Camp life grows difficult as a result of pro-Japanese riots and forced loyalty oaths. Many young men, including Woody, disagree with the older generation and sign up for the military as a means of proving their loyalty. Later, to prove his sense of manhood, Ko rejects leaving Manzanar in a bus and returns his clan two hundred and twenty-five miles to Long Beach via three round trips in a blue, used Nash automobile.
The family locates an apartment in Cabrillo Homes, a flimsy housing project in west Long Beach. In , the family moves to the Santa Clara Valley, where Ko returns to farming and raises strawberries. Jeanne rebels against Ko's strict traditionalism by serving as a majorette and being elected homecoming queen.
The first Wakatsuki to gain a college degree, she marries James D. Houston, a Caucasian. In April , thirty years after her family's humiliation and loss of livelihood, Jeanne Houston takes her three children to visit the skeletal remains of Manzanar.
Her memories return to her father and his defiance of the racist edict that cost the family their home, business, and belongings.
A tentative, fearful seven year old at the outset of the family's resettlement, Jeanne, born in Inglewood and raised in Ocean Park and Terminal Island, adapts to camp life by satisfying intellectual curiosity and staying active. A daddy's girl, she suffers a love-hate relationship with Ko and must cope with his alcoholism and his outrageous macho behavior. In adulthood, she patterns her own individuality after his rebellion and establishes herself as a majorette and beauty queen. Ko Papa Wakatsuki A six-footer with a military school background, Ko, a former cook, laborer, lumberjack, and government translator, is possessed of dignity and pride in his Samurai background, his ten children, and a thriving fishing business.
He precedes the agents who arrest him and returns from prison with a swagger stick and self-satisfied air, yet suffers his whole life from an inability to complete what he begins. When freedom comes to Manzanar, Ko is reluctant to return to predominantly Caucasian society, and so declines to join those of his children who settle in New Jersey.
In Los Angeles, he pursues a pipe dream of building a housing project with Japanese labor and allows his wife to support the family on factory wages.
Mama A stereotypical partridge-shaped mother figure, Mrs. Her decision to smash the twelve place settings indicates her doughty courage. At Manzanar, she puts to use her skill as a dietician. Returned to freedom, she locates a cannery job like the one she held at Long Beach before the war and takes Jeanne's side in family arguments about how young girls should behave.
Woody One of the two Wakatsuki sons who assist Papa on The Nereid, twenty-four-year-old Woody, Ko's second oldest child, serves as a cheerful, pragmatic surrogate father during the evacuation of Terminal Island and takes a job as a carpenter. The family bulwark in Ko's absence, Woody remains determined to prove his loyalty by serving in the military in His pilgrimage to the remnants of the Wakatsuki family still in Japan, conducted while he performs peacetime duty as provisions manager and deterrent to the black market, discloses an aspect of Ko's former life that Woody had been unable to appreciate in California.
Wakatsuki's mother, a sixty-five-year-old Japanese native who is nearly blind and too feeble to hustle for food in the mess hall, receives her food in the barracks. She never learns English and prizes the lacquerware and porcelain that came from her native land. Chizu Woody's wife, who comes to the pier on Sunday, December 7, , to announce the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Later at Manzanar, Chizu, mother of a daughter and a camp-born son named George, is a faithful daughter-in-law and peacemaker who serves the extended family as an extra mother for Jeanne and the younger Wakatsukis.
Kaz The husband of Jeanne's sister Martha, Kaz, who is a foreman of a reservoir maintenance team at Manzanar, leads his crew on a routine inspection the night of the riot. MPs burst in on the chlorine shed and hold the men at gunpoint until they can determine why Kaz's crew would be occupying a building on the camp periphery and arming themselves with ax handles.
May Jeanne's eleven-year-old sister who carries meals to Granny in the barracks. Ray At thirteen, Ray makes a game of eating in multiple mess halls. His normal behavior reflects a child's need to play, even if the playground is an internment camp.
Kiyo Eleven-year-old Kiyo attempts to halt Ko's spouse abuse and intimidation of the family by punching his father in the face. For his courage, Kiyo earns his father's respect. Toyo Ko's sprightly, dignified eighty-year-old aunt, who rejoices in to learn that Ko did not die in ; she presents Woody a valuable silk coverlet, even though her home displays mostly bare rooms and humble woven mats.
Woody learns that Toyo was the favorite aunt who provided Ko, her favorite nephew, the money to emigrate to Hawaii. Toyo sits by Woody as he sleeps and weeps at his resemblance to the Wakatsukis. Sister Bernadette is insistent enough to face down the testy father and debate the matter one on one. It is Radine who delivers the painful news that Jeanne is not welcome in Girl Scouts and forms a pre-teen friendship which survives some of Jeanne's encounters with racism. For Jeanne, Radine epitomizes the sexual appeal of the American girl.
Leonard Rodriguez A savvy Hispanic schoolmate, Leonard discloses the teachers' plot to alter the ballots so that Lois Carson, instead of Jeanne, will be crowned carnival queen.
His loyalty to Jeanne enables her to win the title. Mama and Granny immigrate from Hawaii to Spokane, Washington. San Francisco suffers a cataclysmic earthquake and fire the day before Mama and Granny arrive. Ko enters the University of Idaho to study law.
Ko elopes with Mama. Jeanne Wakatsuki, the youngest of ten children, is born in Inglewood, California. Ko suffers from alcohol abuse and frostbite in both feet during imprisonment at Fort Lincoln, North Dakota.
The fatherless Wakatsukis are ordered to vacate Terminal Island because the government fears that Japanese Americans threaten the naval base. Mitsue Endo challenges her detention at Topaz Camp, Utah. Wada and crew dedicate Manzanar's flagpole circle. Chizu gives birth to George, Ko's first grandson, the day before Ko returns from prison. Ko is labeled an inu, or collaborator. Militant pro-Japanese dissidents organize a camp riot. Camp officials provide families with Christmas trees.
Internees are forced to sign a loyalty oath to honor the U. The Wakatsukis move to more bearable quarters in Block Ko takes up gardening and prunes pear trees.
Eleanor gives birth to a son while her husband, Shig, serves in the military. Woody is drafted. Woody is called up for active duty in Germany. Only 6, internees remain at Manzanar. Internees begin returning to homes and farms.
The Manzanar high school publishes a second yearbook, Valediction The camp's schools close. The war ends following the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. The Wakatsukis depart Manzanar, leaving 2, internees behind. They settle in Cabrillo Homes in Long Beach. Internment camps close. Ko dies. Mama Wakatsuki dies. Jeanne Houston, still emotionally affected by internment, cannot make herself speak to a Caucasian woman who worked as a Manzanar photographer.
Even with these amenities and activities, however, the specter of incarceration remains in guard towers which dot the perimeter. The Houstons' objectivity sets a detached tone in the two-page chronology, which covers the Japanese experience in America from , when immigrants first settled the California mainland. The list continues in time order through internment, release, end of World War II, and passage of the naturalization law in The authors define three crucial terms: This clarification introduces a crucial theme: Almost like a coda, the quotation by American historian and educator Henry Steele Commager emphasizes the futility and waste of Executive Order by noting that no one uncovered "a single case of Japanese disloyalty or sabotage during the whole war.
That night, Papa burns a Japanese flag and documents which connect him with Japan, from which he emigrated in Two weeks later, he is arrested. According to a Santa Monica newspaper, Papa was arrested for allegedly delivering oil to Japanese submarines. Jeanne does not see her father again for a year. Commentary From the outset, the authors establish a normal atmosphere consistent with the lives of all residents of coastal California.
A number of details connect the Wakatsuki family with other Americans. To lessen the harshness of FBI paranoia, Jeanne comments diplomatically that agents were "sworn in hastily during the turbulent days right after Pearl Harbor. After Papa's arrest and the family's move from Ocean Park to a shack on Terminal Island, where Mama and Woody's wife Chizu work in a cannery, Jeanne is terrified of an Oriental-looking Caucasian girl in her kindergarten class.
The family remains on Terminal Island until February 25, , when all Orientals are removed to prevent potential danger to the Long Beach Naval Station. Numbered and tagged like luggage, Jeanne boards a Greyhound bus with many relatives and travels to Owens Valley, then through barbed wire to the internment camp, and, finally, to their two units of Block 16, the new home for the twelve-member family.
Jeanne, the youngest, delights in being so far from home and enjoys sharing a bed with Mama. The next morning, Woody optimistically oversees the sealing of knotholes to keep out desert dust, which powders the family like flour. Angered by the drafty, spartan accommodations, Mama comments, "Animals live like this. A change in schools, unsettling to any young child, introduces her to the beginning of a pattern of anti-Asian sentiment from her Boyle Heights teacher, who rejects her.
The eventual move to Manzanar, in Jeanne's estimation, seems almost a relief because it distances Japanese Americans from racist attacks.
Jeanne sums up the tenuous state of affairs in a single sentence: This whole bus is full of Wakatsukis!
To her, the family looks clownish in oversized GI attire. Her humor dims, however, as chronic diarrhea from typhoid shots and spoiled food sends her to foul latrines. Meaningful details, such as the need for cardboard shields around toilets and blankets to separate beds, demonstrate the repugnance that fastidious Japanese women feel as a result of their undeserved privations.
The belief that "it can't be helped" and the courtesy with which they respect each other delineate deeply ingrained survivalism that makes life bearable in the desert camp. Executive Order an edict resulting from the discretionary powers of the president, who, as commander in chief of the U.
Lacking home religious instruction, she is attracted to a new type of stability: Gruesome stories of Christian saints and martyrs keep Jeanne interested in the local chapel, which is a mile from her barracks. Chapter 7 reconstructs the interrogations that initiated Ko's imprisonment. Commentary Much of Jeanne's commentary reveals scholarly grounding in sociological research.
In evaluating the damage done to families, she concludes, "My own family, after three years of mess hall living, collapsed as an integrated unit. Eventually, authorities perceive the importance to a family unit of shared meals. From that point on, internees are encouraged to dine in intimate, supportive family groups, but their efforts are too late. The narrative recounts Papa's return, then segues back into his history as a strongly individualistic teenager grown into an entrepreneur and autocratic father.
The experience of internment and separation from Ko forces Jeanne into soul-wrenching evaluations of his character and behavior.
She concludes as generously as the facts allow with a brief analytic character sketch: He was not a great man. He wasn't even a very successful man. He was a poser, a braggart, and a tyrant. But he had held onto his self-respect, he dreamed grand dreams, and he could work well at any task he turned his hand to: The severity of Jeanne's estimation suggests the high cost of so scathing an evaluation of her highly valued father.
To redeem her father, she recreates a prison scene with a twenty-nine-year-old interrogator in which Ko demonstrates his humanism by saying: Disturbed by imprisonment, he paces about the barracks, refuses to go outside, and uses spare rice or syrupy fruit to distill home-brewed wine.
Because internees suspect him of informing on Japanese loyalists in order to end his imprisonment in North Dakota, they call him inu, which means both "dog" and "collaborator. After Ko menaces his wife, eleven-year-old Kiyo steps between them and punches his father in the face, then flees to his sister's quarters to hide.
Jeanne acknowledges that Ko's spiritual and economic emasculation reflects the powerlessness of all male internees. As she summarizes Ko's impotence: Two Japanese youths are shot to death, others injured.
The new camp director lamely makes amends for the event by providing families with Christmas trees. In February , polarization continues with the forced loyalty oath that requires internees to state their allegiance to the U. Ko abandons his self-imposed isolation as he is drawn into debates with other male internees and into intense arguments with Woody, who wants an opportunity to prove his loyalty by joining the U.
A footnote attests to the logic of Woody and his peers, who form the all-Nisei nd Regiment, "the most decorated American unit in World War II; it also suffered the highest percentage of casualties and deaths. The multi-faceted dilemma of which blanks to check "yes" or "no" forces Ko into sobriety.
Clean-shaven and again proud to head a household, he limps away to the mess hall. Others intervene to keep Ko from strangling his attacker.
At this section's climax, the night ends with a sandstorm and the family clustered near the oil stove, where Woody, Chizu, and Mama listen to Ko and a female friend of Woody's wife sing Kimi ga yo, the Japanese national anthem, which Jeanne characterizes as a "personal credo for endurance.
Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book Details Author: Paperback Brand: Description Jeanne Wakatsuki was seven years old in when her family was uprooted from their home and sent to live at Manzanar internment camp--with 10, other Japanese Americans. Along with searchlight towers and armed guards, Manzanar ludicrously featured cheerleaders, Boy Scouts, sock hops, baton twirling lessons and a dance band called the Jive Bombers who would play any popular song except thenation's 1 hit: If you want to download this book, click link in the next page 5.
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