of Homer as a definite individual, or to accept the view that in the early period either the Iliad or the. Odyssey had attained a fixed form. At the same time he laid . Title: Iliad Author: Homer Series: Language: Bengali Book Format: pdf Bengali. FREE Ebooks - Official Libertarian Book Club Free Libertarian Ebooks to. Home > Book: Language: Bengali > Children & Young Adult > Kishor Iliad Odyssey. Book Details: Language: Bengali. zoomable. View Larger Images.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|ePub File Size:||16.62 MB|
|PDF File Size:||10.83 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
বইয়র নম চঙগজ খন লখক ভসল ইয়ন অনবদ অরণ সম পরকশন রদগ পরকশন (সভয়ত ইউনয়ন মদরত) পরকশকল পষঠ সখয সইজ এমব ফরমযট PDF টকস ফরমযট HD Scanned রজলশন DPI বইয়র ধরণ উপনযস Continue. iliad bangla Anubad by Mashrur Arefin - Download and Read old Download Bangla books, Magazine, translated books in pdf format or Read. v. 1. The Iliadv. 2. The Odyssey and The battle of the frogs and mice.
Achilles becomes very upset, sits by the seashore, and prays to his mother, Thetis. Track course progress. Introduction to Literary In order to discern these effects, it is necessary to take a look at a few examples from each of these categories. Homeschool Curriculum 12th Grade English: His forceful version is freer, with shorter lines that increase the sense of swiftness and energy.
Against the mounting discontent of the Greek-supporting gods, Zeus sends Apollo to aid the Trojans, who once again breach the wall, and the battle reaches the ships. Achilles relents and lends Patroclus his armor, but sends him off with a stern admonition not to pursue the Trojans, lest he take Achilles' glory.
Patroclus leads the Myrmidons into battle and arrives as the Trojans set fire to the first ships. The Trojans are routed by the sudden onslaught, and Patroclus begins his assault by killing Zeus's son Sarpedon , a leading ally of the Trojans.
Patroclus, ignoring Achilles' command, pursues and reaches the gates of Troy, where Apollo himself stops him.
Patroclus is set upon by Apollo and Euphorbos , and is finally killed by Hector. Achilles is urged to help retrieve Patroclus' body but has no armour. Bathed in a brilliant radiance by Athena, Achilles stands next to the Greek wall and roars in rage.
The Trojans are dismayed by his appearance, and the Greeks manage to bear Patroclus' body away. Polydamas urges Hector again to withdraw into the city; again Hector refuses, and the Trojans camp on the plain at nightfall.
Patroclus is mourned. Meanwhile, at Thetis' request, Hephaestus fashions a new set of armor for Achilles, including a magnificently wrought shield. Achilles fasts while the Greeks take their meal, straps on his new armor, and takes up his great spear. His horse Xanthos prophesies to Achilles his death.
Achilles drives his chariot into battle. Achilles, burning with rage and grief, slays many. The river, angry at the killing, confronts Achilles but is beaten back by Hephaestus' firestorm.
The gods fight among themselves. The great gates of the city are opened to receive the fleeing Trojans, and Apollo leads Achilles away from the city by pretending to be a Trojan. When Achilles approaches, Hector's will fails him, and he is chased around the city by Achilles. Finally, Athena tricks him into stopping, and he turns to face his opponent.
After a brief duel, Achilles stabs Hector through the neck. Before dying, Hector reminds Achilles that he, too, is fated to die in the war. Achilles takes Hector's body and dishonours it by dragging it behind his chariot. The Greeks hold a day of funeral games, and Achilles gives out the prizes. Led by Hermes , Priam takes a wagon out of Troy, across the plains, and into the Greek camp unnoticed.
He clasps Achilles by the knees and begs for his son's body. Achilles is moved to tears, and the two lament their losses in the war. After a meal, Priam carries Hector's body back into Troy. Hector is buried, and the city mourns. The many characters of the Iliad are catalogued; the latter half of Book II, the " Catalogue of Ships ", lists commanders and cohorts; battle scenes feature quickly slain minor characters.
Much debate has surrounded the nature of the relationship of Achilles and Patroclus, as to whether it can be described as a homoerotic one or not. Some Classical and Hellenistic Athenian scholars perceived it as pederastic ,  while others perceived it as a platonic warrior-bond. In the literary Trojan War of the Iliad , the Olympian gods, goddesses, and minor deities fight among themselves and participate in human warfare, often by interfering with humans to counter other gods.
Unlike their portrayals in Greek religion, Homer's portrayal of gods suited his narrative purpose. The gods in traditional thought of fourth-century Athenians were not spoken of in terms familiar to us from Homer.
In Greek Gods, Human Lives: What We Can Learn From Myths , Mary Lefkowitz discusses the relevance of divine action in the Iliad , attempting to answer the question of whether or not divine intervention is a discrete occurrence for its own sake , or if such godly behaviors are mere human character metaphors. The intellectual interest of Classic-era authors, such as Thucydides and Plato , was limited to their utility as "a way of talking about human life rather than a description or a truth", because, if the gods remain religious figures, rather than human metaphors, their "existence"—without the foundation of either dogma or a bible of faiths—then allowed Greek culture the intellectual breadth and freedom to conjure gods fitting any religious function they required as a people.
These beliefs coincide to the thoughts about the gods in polytheistic Greek religion. In the article "Greek Religion" A. For example, Poseidon is the god of the sea, Aphrodite is the goddess of beauty, Ares is the god of war, and so on and so forth for many other gods. This is how Greek culture was defined as many Athenians felt the presence of their gods through divine intervention in significant events in their lives.
Oftentimes they found these events to be mysterious and inexplicable. In The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind , psychologist Julian Jaynes uses the Iliad as a major piece of evidence for his theory of Bicameralism , which posits that until about the time described in the Iliad , humans had a far different mentality from present day humans. He says that humans during that time were lacking what we today call consciousness.
He suggests that humans heard and obeyed commands from what they identified as gods, until the change in human mentality that incorporated the motivating force into the conscious self. He points out that almost every action in the Iliad is directed, caused, or influenced by a god, and that earlier translations show an astonishing lack of words suggesting thought, planning, or introspection.
Those that do appear, he argues, are misinterpretations made by translators imposing a modern mentality on the characters. Some scholars believe that the gods may have intervened in the mortal world because of quarrels they may have had among each other. Homer interprets the world at this time by using the passion and emotion of the gods to be determining factors of what happens on the human level.
The emotions between the goddesses often translate to actions they take in the mortal world.
For example, in Book 3 of The Iliad, Paris challenges any of the Achaeans to a single combat and Menelaus steps forward. Menelaus was dominating the battle and was on the verge of killing Paris.
The partisanship of Aphrodite towards Paris induces constant intervention by all of the gods, especially to give motivational speeches to their respective proteges, while often appearing in the shape of a human being they are familiar with. Once set, gods and men abide it, neither truly able nor willing to contest it. How fate is set is unknown, but it is told by the Fates and by Zeus through sending omens to seers such as Calchas. Men and their gods continually speak of heroic acceptance and cowardly avoidance of one's slated fate.
No, deadly destiny, with the son of Leto, has killed me, and of men it was Euphorbos; you are only my third slayer. And put away in your heart this other thing that I tell you. You yourself are not one who shall live long, but now already death and powerful destiny are standing beside you, to go down under the hands of Aiakos' great son, Achilleus.
Here, Patroclus alludes to fated death by Hector's hand, and Hector's fated death by Achilles's hand. Each accepts the outcome of his life, yet, no-one knows if the gods can alter fate. The first instance of this doubt occurs in Book XVI. Seeing Patroclus about to kill Sarpedon , his mortal son, Zeus says:. Ah me, that it is destined that the dearest of men, Sarpedon, must go down under the hands of Menoitios' son Patroclus.
Majesty, son of Kronos, what sort of thing have you spoken?
Do you wish to bring back a man who is mortal, one long since doomed by his destiny, from ill-sounding death and release him? Do it, then; but not all the rest of us gods shall approve you. In deciding between losing a son or abiding fate, Zeus, King of the Gods, allows it. This motif recurs when he considers sparing Hector, whom he loves and respects.
This time, it is Athene who challenges him:. Father of the shining bolt, dark misted, what is this you said? Again, Zeus appears capable of altering fate, but does not, deciding instead to abide set outcomes; similarly, fate spares Aeneas, after Apollo convinces the over-matched Trojan to fight Achilles. Poseidon cautiously speaks:. But come, let us ourselves get him away from death, for fear the son of Kronos may be angered if now Achilleus kills this man.
It is destined that he shall be the survivor, that the generation of Dardanos shall not die Divinely aided, Aeneas escapes the wrath of Achilles and survives the Trojan War.
Whether or not the gods can alter fate, they do abide it, despite its countering their human allegiances; thus, the mysterious origin of fate is a power beyond the gods. Fate implies the primeval, tripartite division of the world that Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades effected in deposing their father, Cronus , for its dominion.
Zeus took the Air and the Sky, Poseidon the Waters, and Hades the Underworld , the land of the dead—yet they share dominion of the Earth. Despite the earthly powers of the Olympic gods, only the Three Fates set the destiny of Man.
For my mother Thetis the goddess of silver feet tells me I carry two sorts of destiny toward the day of my death. Either, if I stay here and fight beside the city of the Trojans, my return home is gone, but my glory shall be everlasting; but if I return home to the beloved land of my fathers, the excellence of my glory is gone, but there will be a long life left for me, and my end in death will not come to me quickly.
Agamemnon's sceptre, the wheel of Hebe 's chariot, the house of Poseidon, the throne of Zeus, the house of Hephaestus. Translator Lattimore renders kleos aphthiton as forever immortal and as forever imperishable —connoting Achilles's mortality by underscoring his greater reward in returning to battle Troy.
Kleos is often given visible representation by the prizes won in battle. When Agamemnon takes Briseis from Achilles, he takes away a portion of the kleos he had earned. Achilles' shield, crafted by Hephaestus and given to him by his mother Thetis, bears an image of stars in the centre. The stars conjure profound images of the place of a single man, no matter how heroic, in the perspective of the entire cosmos.
Yet the concept of homecoming is much explored in other Ancient Greek literature, especially in the post-war homeward fortunes experienced by the Atreidae Agamemnon and Menelaus , and Odysseus see the Odyssey. Pride drives the plot of the Iliad. The Greeks gather on the plain of Troy to wrest Helen from the Trojans.
Though the majority of the Trojans would gladly return Helen to the Greeks, they defer to the pride of their prince, Alexandros, also known as Paris.
Due to this slight, Achilles refuses to fight and asks his mother, Thetis, to make sure that Zeus causes the Greeks to suffer on the battlefield until Agamemnon comes to realize the harm he has done to Achilles. When in Book 9 his friends urge him to return, offering him loot and his girl, Briseis, he refuses, stuck in his vengeful pride. From epic start to epic finish, pride drives the plot. In Book I, the Greek troubles begin with King Agamemnon's dishonorable, unkingly behavior—first, by threatening the priest Chryses 1.
The warrior's consequent rancor against the dishonorable king ruins the Greek military cause. The epic takes as its thesis the anger of Achilles and the destruction it brings.
Anger disturbs the distance between human beings and the gods. Uncontrolled anger destroys orderly social relationships and upsets the balance of correct actions necessary to keep the gods away from human beings. Hybris forces Paris to fight against Menelaus. The "Wrath of Achilles". King Agamemnon dishonours Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, by refusing with a threat the restitution of his daughter, Chryseis—despite the proffered ransom of "gifts beyond count".
Moreover, in that meeting, Achilles accuses Agamemnon of being "greediest for gain of all men". But here is my threat to you. Even as Phoibos Apollo is taking away my Chryseis. I shall convey her back in my own ship, with my own followers; but I shall take the fair-cheeked Briseis, your prize, I myself going to your shelter, that you may learn well how much greater I am than you, and another man may shrink back from likening himself to me and contending against me.
After that, only Athena stays Achilles's wrath. He vows to never again obey orders from Agamemnon.
Furious, Achilles cries to his mother, Thetis, who persuades Zeus's divine intervention—favouring the Trojans—until Achilles's rights are restored. Again, the Wrath of Achilles turns the war's tide in seeking vengeance when Hector kills Patroclus.
Aggrieved, Achilles tears his hair and dirties his face. Thetis comforts her mourning son, who tells her:. So it was here that the lord of men Agamemnon angered me. Still, we will let all this be a thing of the past, and for all our sorrow beat down by force the anger deeply within us. Now I shall go, to overtake that killer of a dear life, Hektor; then I will accept my own death, at whatever time Zeus wishes to bring it about, and the other immortals.
Accepting the prospect of death as fair price for avenging Patroclus, he returns to battle, dooming Hector and Troy, thrice chasing him 'round the Trojan walls, before slaying him, then dragging the corpse behind his chariot, back to camp.
The poem dates to the archaic period of Classical Antiquity. Scholarly consensus mostly places it in the 8th century BC, although some favour a 7th-century date.
Herodotus , having consulted the Oracle at Dodona , placed Homer and Hesiod at approximately years before his own time, which would place them at c. The historical backdrop of the poem is the time of the Late Bronze Age collapse , in the early 12th century BC.
Homer is thus separated from his subject matter by about years, the period known as the Greek Dark Ages. Intense scholarly debate has surrounded the question of which portions of the poem preserve genuine traditions from the Mycenaean period. The Catalogue of Ships in particular has the striking feature that its geography does not portray Greece in the Iron Age , the time of Homer, but as it was before the Dorian invasion.
Venetus A , copied in the 10th century AD, is the oldest fully extant manuscript of the Iliad. In antiquity, the Greeks applied the Iliad and the Odyssey as the bases of pedagogy.
Literature was central to the educational-cultural function of the itinerant rhapsode , who composed consistent epic poems from memory and improvisation, and disseminated them, via song and chant, in his travels and at the Panathenaic Festival of athletics, music, poetics, and sacrifice, celebrating Athena 's birthday.
Originally, Classical scholars treated the Iliad and the Odyssey as written poetry, and Homer as a writer. Yet, by the s, Milman Parry — had launched a movement claiming otherwise. His investigation of the oral Homeric style—"stock epithets" and "reiteration" words, phrases, stanzas —established that these formulae were artifacts of oral tradition easily applied to a hexametric line.
A two-word stock epithet e. In The Singer of Tales , Lord presents likenesses between the tragedies of the Greek Patroclus, in the Iliad , and of the Sumerian Enkidu , in the Epic of Gilgamesh , and claims to refute, with "careful analysis of the repetition of thematic patterns", that the Patroclus storyline upsets Homer's established compositional formulae of "wrath, bride-stealing, and rescue"; thus, stock-phrase reiteration does not restrict his originality in fitting story to rhyme.
James Armstrong reports that the poem's formulae yield richer meaning because the "arming motif" diction —describing Achilles, Agamemnon, Paris, and Patroclus—serves to "heighten the importance of In the Iliad , occasional syntactic inconsistency may be an oral tradition effect—for example, Aphrodite is "laughter-loving", despite being painfully wounded by Diomedes Book V, ; and the divine representations may mix Mycenaean and Greek Dark Age c. Despite Mycenae and Troy being maritime powers, the Iliad features no sea battles.
They enter battle in chariots , launching javelins into the enemy formations, then dismount—for hand-to-hand combat with yet more javelin throwing, rock throwing, and if necessary hand to hand sword and a shoulder-borne hoplon shield fighting. Ajax's cumbersome shield is more suitable for defence than for offence, while his cousin, Achilles, sports a large, rounded, octagonal shield that he successfully deploys along with his spear against the Trojans:.
In describing infantry combat, Homer names the phalanx formation ,  but most scholars do not believe the historical Trojan War was so fought. The available evidence, from the Dendra armour and the Pylos Palace paintings, indicate the Mycenaeans used two-man chariots, with a long-spear-armed principal rider, unlike the three-man Hittite chariots with short-spear-armed riders, and unlike the arrow-armed Egyptian and Assyrian two-man chariots.
Nestor spearheads his troops with chariots; he advises them:. Although Homer's depictions are graphic, it can be seen in the very end that victory in war is a far more somber occasion, where all that is lost becomes apparent. On the other hand, the funeral games are lively, for the dead man's life is celebrated. This overall depiction of war runs contrary to many other [ citation needed ] ancient Greek depictions, where war is an aspiration for greater glory.
While the Homeric poems the Iliad in particular were not necessarily revered scripture of the ancient Greeks, they were most certainly seen as guides that were important to the intellectual understanding of any educated Greek citizen. This is evidenced by the fact that in the late fifth century BC, "it was the sign of a man of standing to be able to recite the Iliad and Odyssey by heart.
In particular, the effect of epic literature can be broken down into three categories: In order to discern these effects, it is necessary to take a look at a few examples from each of these categories. Much of the detailed fighting in the Iliad is done by the heroes in an orderly, one-on-one fashion.
Much like the Odyssey , there is even a set ritual which must be observed in each of these conflicts. For example, a major hero may encounter a lesser hero from the opposing side, in which case the minor hero is introduced, threats may be exchanged, and then the minor hero is slain.
The victor often strips the body of its armor and military accoutrements. There Telamonian Ajax struck down the son of Anthemion, Simoeisios in his stripling's beauty, whom once his mother descending from Ida bore beside the banks of Simoeis when she had followed her father and mother to tend the sheepflocks.
Therefore they called him Simoeisios; but he could not render again the care of his dear parents; he was short-lived, beaten down beneath the spear of high-hearted Ajax, who struck him as he first came forward beside the nipple of the right breast, and the bronze spearhead drove clean through the shoulder. The biggest issue in reconciling the connection between the epic fighting of the Iliad and later Greek warfare is the phalanx, or hoplite, warfare seen in Greek history well after Homer's Iliad.
While there are discussions of soldiers arrayed in semblances of the phalanx throughout the Iliad , the focus of the poem on the heroic fighting, as mentioned above, would seem to contradict the tactics of the phalanx.
However, the phalanx did have its heroic aspects. The masculine one-on-one fighting of epic is manifested in phalanx fighting on the emphasis of holding one's position in formation. This replaces the singular heroic competition found in the Iliad. One example of this is the Spartan tale of picked men fighting against picked Argives.
In this battle of champions, only two men are left standing for the Argives and one for the Spartans. Othryades, the remaining Spartan, goes back to stand in his formation with mortal wounds while the remaining two Argives go back to Argos to report their victory. Thus, the Spartans claimed this as a victory, as their last man displayed the ultimate feat of bravery by maintaining his position in the phalanx. In terms of the ideology of commanders in later Greek history, the Iliad has an interesting effect.
The Iliad expresses a definite disdain for tactical trickery, when Hector says, before he challenges the great Ajax:.
I know how to storm my way into the struggle of flying horses; I know how to tread the measures on the grim floor of the war god. Yet great as you are I would not strike you by stealth, watching for my chance, but openly, so, if perhaps I might hit you. However, despite examples of disdain for this tactical trickery, there is reason to believe that the Iliad , as well as later Greek warfare, endorsed tactical genius on the part of their commanders.
For example, there are multiple passages in the Iliad with commanders such as Agamemnon or Nestor discussing the arraying of troops so as to gain an advantage. This is even later referred to by Homer in the Odyssey.
The connection, in this case, between guileful tactics of the Greeks in the Iliad and those of the later Greeks is not a difficult one to find. Spartan commanders, often seen as the pinnacle of Greek military prowess, were known for their tactical trickery, and, for them, this was a feat to be desired in a commander.
Indeed, this type of leadership was the standard advice of Greek tactical writers. Ultimately, while Homeric or epic fighting is certainly not completely replicated in later Greek warfare, many of its ideals, tactics, and instruction are.
Hans van Wees argues that the period that the descriptions of warfare relate can be pinned down fairly specifically—to the first half of the 7th century BC.
The Iliad was a standard work of great importance already in Classical Greece and remained so throughout the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Subjects from the Trojan War were a favourite among ancient Greek dramatists. Aeschylus ' trilogy, the Oresteia , comprising Agamemnon , The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides , follows the story of Agamemnon after his return from the war.
Homer also came to be of great influence in European culture with the resurgence of interest in Greek antiquity during the Renaissance , and it remains the first and most influential work of the Western canon. In its full form the text made its return to Italy and Western Europe beginning in the 15th century, primarily through translations into Latin and the vernacular languages. Prior to this reintroduction, however, a shortened Latin version of the poem, known as the Ilias Latina , was very widely studied and read as a basic school text.
The West tended to view Homer as unreliable as they believed they possessed much more down to earth and realistic eyewitness accounts of the Trojan War written by Dares and Dictys Cretensis , who were supposedly present at the events. These in turn spawned many others in various European languages, such as the first printed English book, the Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. Other accounts read in the Middle Ages were antique Latin retellings such as the Excidium Troiae and works in the vernaculars such as the Icelandic Troy Saga.
Even without Homer, the Trojan War story had remained central to Western European medieval literary culture and its sense of identity. Most nations and several royal houses traced their origins to heroes at the Trojan War.
Britain was supposedly settled by the Trojan Brutus , for instance. William Shakespeare used the plot of the Iliad as source material for his play Troilus and Cressida , but focused on a medieval legend, the love story of Troilus , son of King Priam of Troy, and Cressida , daughter of the Trojan soothsayer Calchas.
The play, often considered to be a comedy, reverses traditional views on events of the Trojan War and depicts Achilles as a coward, Ajax as a dull, unthinking mercenary, etc. William Theed the elder made an impressive bronze statue of Thetis as she brought Achilles his new armor forged by Hephaesthus.
Robert Browning 's poem Development discusses his childhood introduction to the matter of the Iliad and his delight in the epic, as well as contemporary debates about its authorship. George Chapman published his translation of the Iliad , in installments, beginning in , published in "fourteeners", a long-line ballad metre that "has room for all of Homer's figures of speech and plenty of new ones, as well as explanations in parentheses.
At its best, as in Achilles' rejection of the embassy in Iliad Nine; it has great rhetorical power". In the preface to his own translation, Pope praises "the daring fiery spirit" of Chapman's rendering, which is "something like what one might imagine Homer, himself, would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion". John Ogilby 's mid-seventeenth-century translation is among the early annotated editions; Alexander Pope 's translation, in heroic couplet, is "The classic translation that was built on all the preceding versions",  and, like Chapman's, it is a major poetic work in its own right.
William Cowper 's Miltonic , blank verse edition is highly regarded for its greater fidelity to the Greek than either the Chapman or the Pope versions: This is a dumb idea, especially since Achilles is still pouting, but Agamemnon decides to do it anyway. However, before he does, Agamemnon decides to test his men's courage by telling them to pack up and go home, while hoping they will refuse.
This totally backfires, though, and his men start packing their stuff. The goddesses Hera and Athena, who are on the Achaens' side, have to intervene and inspire Odysseus to give a speech calling them back. Odysseus reminds the men of the prophecy that they would defeat Troy after nine years, and that they had taken a vow to not leave until Troy fell.
Odysseus' speech works, and the men are persuaded to stay. In hopes of boosting the troops' low morale, Nestor then tells Agamemnon that they should arrange the troops by the cities they came from, so they can fight alongside other members of their clans. As the troops prepare for attack, Homer uses the opportunity to give us his first epic catalog of The Iliad.
The epic catalog is a common feature of epics in which the poet gives a long list of important people or things in the story. In this epic catalog , also known as the Catalog of Ships , Homer describes the Achaen forces in detail, going city-by-city and including descriptions of the most powerful warriors like Achilles and Ajax.
The book ends with the Trojan forces noticing the Achaens getting ready for battle and preparing their own forces, under the control of Hector, the son of Troy's king Priam.
Homer then catalogs the Trojan forces as well. Perhaps the most important and famous part of Book 2 is the epic catalog. The Catalog of Ships is the most famous example of the epic catalog, and is thought to have directly inspired other epic catalogs, such as the catalog of ships in Book 10 of Virgil's The Aeneid and the catalog of demons in John Milton's Paradise Lost.
The catalog begins with the leader of each contingent and describes the area of the Greek islands that they hail from. Homer then gives the history of the particular kingdom and lineage of the leaders, as well as a description of how many ships it took to transport the men. There is much controversy over the historical accuracy of the Catalog of Ships, but it is generally acknowledged to contain a mix of actual history and legend and to have been passed down orally for generations, perhaps initially separate from the narrative of The Iliad.
In addition to the Catalog of Ships, and the smaller catalog of the Trojan forces, Book 2 is also important for its introduction of many of the main characters. It gives us a better understanding in particular of Odysseus and Nestor, and their roles as wise, levelheaded advisers who attempt to rein in the headstrong Agamemnon and the temperamental Achilles. Book 2 shows us that Odysseus is the group's most inspirational speaker, as he convinces the men to not head home, and Nestor is the smartest strategist, as he comes up with the plan to arrange forces by homeland.
Book 2 of The Iliad is best known for the Catalog of Ships , which introduces the Achaen forces and is the most famous example of the form of the epic catalog. But it also introduces us to the leadership of the Achaen forces and their various dysfunctions.
Agamemnon, who is a powerful leader but not the smartest leader, nearly dooms the whole mission by telling the men to go home as a test of their bravery, only to be dismayed when they take him up on it. He is saved by Odysseus, who gives an inspiring speech, and Nestor, who arranges the men by homeland to give them incentive to fight.
The dynamic between the powerful but shortsighted pair of Agamemnon and Achilles and the more levelheaded duo of Nestor and Odysseus will be a recurring element in the story.
To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Create your account. Already a member? Log In. Already registered? Log in here for access. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The videos on Study. Sign Up. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Add to Add to Add to. Want to watch this again later? Book 2 of Homer's 'The Iliad' includes the famous Catalog of Ships and introduces the shrewdness and levelheadedness of Odysseus and Nestor, which are needed to balance the headstrong leadership of Agamemnon.
What Happens in Book 2 Book 2 opens with Zeus, king of the Greek gods, who has allied himself with the Trojans, opposing his wife Hera, who favors the Achaens. Analysis Perhaps the most important and famous part of Book 2 is the epic catalog.
Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Lesson Summary Book 2 of The Iliad is best known for the Catalog of Ships , which introduces the Achaen forces and is the most famous example of the form of the epic catalog. Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher?
I am a student I am a teacher. Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study. Become a Member Already a member? What teachers are saying about Study. Earning Credit. Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page Transferring credit to the school of your choice Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Browse Articles By Category Browse an area of study or degree level. Area of Study. Degree Level. Genealogy Studies Career: You are viewing lesson Lesson 18 in chapter 9 of the course:. Help and Review 17 chapters lessons. Text Analysis and Close Reading for Developing as a Reader and Writer Reading and Understanding in Literary Forms and Genres for 10th Shakespeare for 10th Grade: African American Writers: Help and