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The Baloch Race. 95 Pages·· MB·12 Downloads. (4) DAMES (M. Longworth). The. Baloch Race. A. Historical an d Ethnological Sketch. (Price 5s The. The Baloch race. A historical The_Miracle_of_Mindfulness__An_Introductio_-_ caite.info The Miracle of Mindfulness: An Introduction to the Prac. This is an exact replica of a book. The book reprint was manually improved by a team of professionals, as opposed to automatic/OCR processes used by some.


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London, Reproduced in PDF form. By: take it as applying to the Baloch race proper, not as comprising Brahois, Numris and other tribes of Indian origin. selves and their neighbours as the Baloch. It is in the latter signification that I employ the word. I take it a s applying to the Baloch race proper, not as comprising. The Baloch race. A historical and ethnological sketch. byDames, Mansel Longworth. Publication date Topics Baluchi (Southwest Asian.

In a way, Balochistan is so accommodative and multi-coloured that even some Tajik, Uzbeks and Turkemen families have managed their place to live around. There is enormous gap of male and female enrolment ratio at the basic three tiers of education. Two doctors from Ahmadiyya community were abducted and killed in Pakistan. They are the people who have been protecting their soul and soil for thousands of years with out any major provocative, invading and occupational interventions throughout history. For example, music, entertainment, trade and crafts were assumed to be the less esteemed tasks hence were taken over by other communities.

It can be said that Brahui philology may be composed from some Median dialects or greatly influenced from some Dravidian tongue. Some Indologists believe that Dravidians did come from Mesopotamia; first they settled in eastern Iran and Makkuran and then proceeded to the Indus Valley. Others firmly believe that they were the ancient population of Balochistan and some parts of the subcontinent, and slowly moved towards west upto Mesopotmia, and east upto the Indus.

The Baloch came to Balochistan in three major groups. The first wave settled in Seistan and were called Naroi, followed by Brahui who settled in Turan which is now-a-days called Jhalawan.

The last was of Rind. The Brahui and the Baloch lived side by side in Seistan, where still live many Brahui tribes.

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The late-comers penetrated into Sind and the Panjab. The Baloch migration into Sind was in two waves: Those who went directly from Balochistan speak Balochi or Sindhi, while those who migrated from Panjab and settled in Sind speak Saraiki, whose remnants are Talpurs, Legaharis and some of the Jatuis.

It is absolutely incorrect to say that Brahui, including the Mengals who are wrongly presumed to be Mangols, are Dravidians.

They, like Balochis speakers, are Aryans. As regards Mengals, they might be the remnants of the Min tribe which once lived in Iran. Further researches may establish a relation between the Iranians Mins and our Mengals. As to their difference in language, Mr. Jan has rightly asserted that language is not the only criteria for resolving the question of racial kinship. I believe that anyone can adopt any language.

For instance, the Baloch in the Panjab speak Saraiki. The Baloch might have learnt the Brahui language from some of the old tribes who were once occupying these regions. We cannot even claim that Balochi is the original language of the entire Baloch people.

It is possible that they adopted this language after their migration from the Caspian Sea region, or they had their original language Brahui either. Another strange phenomenon is that Brahui speakers are called Baloch, and Raxsani for Baloch, as it is used in Afghanistan. As regards Balochi, it is mentioned in the 4th volume of the Cambridge History of Iran that Balochi is from the Pehlavi language group which was itself a Parthian branch of Indo-Iranian languages, spoken among people north-east of Elburz.

It is an ancient Aryan language family, the mother tongue being Sanskrit. Almost all the inhabitants towards the north, from Nal to Quetta, are Brahui-speaking, while in the south, towards Kirman, the overwhelming majority speak Balochi; and in many areas of this plateau, even some of the original Brahui tribes do not know Brahui. In Makkuran upto Zahidan Baloch speakers are predominant. Brahui is also called Kurdi or Kurd Gali.

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of The Balochistan Post or any of its editors. Sign in. Log into your account. Forgot your password? Password recovery. Recover your password. Sunday, April 14, Disclaimer About Contact. Get help. The Balochistan Post. Home About Us Feature Reports. The Unsafe Political Activists of Balochistan. FC Baloch Sweden — the story of resilience.

Pakistan Army is directly involved in attacks on Hazaras — Basheer…. UN chief condemns Quetta blast. Two persons forcefully disappeared. Election Commission disqualifies MPA over fake degree. UK offers conditional extradition of Altaf Hussain to Pakistan.

MQM to observe black day on 27th in solidarity with Baloch…. Our drink is from the flowing springs; our bed the thorny bushes; the ground we make our pillow. What of murder, in worst cases killing of ones camel, stealing water or misbehaving some one might trigger unending tribal feuds and claim the lives of several innocent men and women.

The Baloch Cultural Heritage – Janmahmad [Part – 3] | The Balochistan Post

The old but ongoing Rind—Lashar, Lehri—Zehri and Bugti— Kalpar conflicts are well known through out Pakistan and the big and mall incidences of killing or damaging each others property keeps happening off and on. S Trial by Ordeal Among Bugtis: The tribe sought refuge on the shores of Sindh and Punjab.

This long-standing row has claimed the lives of at least thirty men and women so far and a cold conflict is still running beneath ringing for another brutal happening. Surprisingly and sadly enough the government does not dare to interfere in such kind of brutal feuds some times for its own hidden motives and sometimes of being powerless to their wrath.

Philologically the language is a kin to the western stock of Indo-European families and resembles Persian and Kurdish. Broadly, there are three dialects of Balochi language i. Makrani, spoken in the southern districts bordering Sindh and coastal areas, Rakhshani spoken in the western parts near Iran and Sulemani spoken in the eastern fringes flanking Punjab.

There could be several, but here for the matter of simplicity Balochi literature can be divided in to three periods: Classical literature is partially based on oral traditions and some of the epic poetry depicting tribal feuds and glorifying tribal values and valour. Displaying the aesthetic richness of the language and playing with the multiple shades of vocabulary and meaning is another prominent characteristic of this period. The middle period reflects some new trends of love, life and patriotism influenced from the colonial oppression.

The third phase starts after the creation of Pakistan plummeting its age long Persian influence it began to assimilate the influence of Urdu and English literature along with its patterns and themes. Balochi Academy, established in at Quetta, however made some handsome contribution having published books so far.

The credit goes to the veteran scholars like M. Sardar Khan, Bashir Ahmed Baloch and their successors who continued their efforts despite funding constrains. In the modern Balochi poetry, several thoughts and trends of mysticism, romance, resistance, patriotism, progressivism and experimentation can be observed.

Novel, drama, short story, criticism, travelogue and other forms of prose got their roots in Balochi after independence mainly under the influence of Urdu and English. It has published number of books for children and a few books are published by Azat Jamaldini Academy also.

Balochi Labzanki Diwan is also important among others. Of these La'l Bakhsh Rind's books were used in a formal literacy programme for a while, and the Azat Jamaldini Academy books are at present being used in a literacy programme. There is no standard orthography of the Balochi language. The present script has been adopted under the influence of Urdu and Persian, which is Arabic in source representing consonants effectively but undermining vowels and diphthongs profuse in Balochi language.

Balochi music is profound in its nature and impact. Its loud tunes and beats generate melancholic feelings in the heart of the listener. In ancient times, this music has been the part of religion and magic. People used to treat indigestion and hysteric bouts through musical effects. Except death, music is still associated with all other events and occasions of life. Balochi music is basically composed of rag or sur identified as Zaheerag owing to their melancholic nature.

The Rags are twenty, classified under Balochi and Kurdi labels. Tamborag, nal-sur and surouze are the famous musical instruments. The dances are collective and entertain the performer in spite of the spectator.

Do Chappi, hambo, lewa and latti are the various forms of dances, which involve circling, clapping and whistling without much body movements. Except lewa, others are indigenous Baloch dances. Brahui Language and Literature Brahui, largely spoken in the two regions of Sarawan and Jhalawan is one of the indigenous and perhaps the oldest language in Pakistan.

It is, as proved by several oriental and occidental linguists, is neither an offshoot of the Indo-Arayan nor of the Indo-Iranian languages as falsely proclaimed by several Balochi scholars and politicians for political advantages. Etymological propositions have demonstrated it to be a predominantly Dravidian language bearing out several evidences. It has however assimilated some phonological variations and incorporated the vocabulary of interacting languages but the chore morphological pattern and the syntactical formation is still intact.

The comparative studies with several other Dravidian languages as if Tamil, Telgu, Kanada and Kui have substantiated the theory of its Dravidian origin8. Modern Brahui has accommodated Balochi, Urdu, Farsi, even Siraiki and Sindhi vocabulary in its lexical array because of its cultural intercourse with these languages.

Strangely enough, it has borrowed little vocabulary from Pashtu as well which is entirely different in its structure and morphemes.

Sarawani Brahui displays influences of Balochi and Siraiki while Jhalawani dialect has acculturated Sindhi words and expressionse. The dialect of the people settled at the nexus of Sarawan and Jhalawan, mainly Kalat is assumed to be the standard dialect of the language9.

Like Balochi, Brahui literature can also be classified into three broader periods: Brahui folk literature is rich with the romantic fantasies of love and the life experiences. The prose consists of folk tales, proverbs, and riddles while poetry includes love songs laili mor , marriage songs bar-nazana, laiko, hallo 8 Brahui, Nazir A.

Several tales were created for entertaining and soothing children. Folk literature is replete with the symbols of kings, queens, princes, poor persons, shepherds and peasants. Metaphors of birds and animals add color and meaning to that literature. Nomadic characters also take their place in folk literature. Brahui folk tunes are quite similar to the tunes in Balochi, Sindhi and Pashto. Say liako is the common poetic form and tune in the above- mentioned three languages.

Siroze and dambura were the common instruments of men and women who played daira a little drum Three themes are prominent in the pre-partition period of Brahui literature: Rebellious thoughts and feelings were mostly expressed in epic forms of poetry as it happened to be the most appropriate form to accommodate anti-imperialist sentiments. In this age forms remained mostly classical but the contents changed. The epics of Rakhey and Basham are the quintessence of resistance against the British Raj.

Durkhani School of thought also played an important role in anti-colonial resistance. With their Islamic approach and ideology they also opposed inhuman unkind tribal customs. They also encapsulated modern political thoughts in their nationalist expressions. Noor M.

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Parwana is the most famous poet, writer and journalist who laid the foundations of anti- imperial, modern, nationalist literature in Brahui.

He interpreted Brahui language, literature, history and culture from the nationalist point of view. Among others Malik M. Along with new political, social and philosophical thoughts new forms of expression were also adopted by the poets and writers of this age.

An Overview, Balochistan Review, Vol. Modern literature also encompasses the trends of equity, justice, peace and human rights Both Brahui and Balochi like Pashto are not the means of education at any level rather Urdu and English are used in academic, administrative and all other formal situations.

The borrowing of lexicon and structural features from these different languages presents a problem of increasing divergence and is weakening Balochi language. To these languages which are not used in education and official domains can be added Brahui, Pashto, Siraiki and Sindhi spoken in Balochistan.

One of the possible causes for the failure of Balochi mother tongue education in Balochistan is a political one. Without referring to other political issues one factor is clearly understandable. The large influx of Afghan refugees is significantly threatening the previous demographic proportion of the province. Many of the refugees settled in Pakistan and have easily got their Pakistani identity cards. They are ethnically Pashtuns and blended with the already sizeable Pashtun population in the province.

The Baloch and Brahui population combined is larger than that of the Pashtuns. The Baloch and Brahui are ethnically one people, but linguistically quite distinct. Thus, while Urdu is the means of instruction in schools, their ethnic unity is not questioned, but when separate Balochi and Brahui schools are established, the distinctiveness of the two groups becomes more in focus.

If the Baloch and Brahui are seen as two peoples, rather than one, it is feared that the Pashtuns might claim to be the single largest people of the province. With demography being one of the most powerful forces in politics, it was felt better by some policy makers to carry on with Urdu education in the province so as not to raise the linguistic profile of the Pashtune people.

The Issue of Refugees in Balochistan Soviet invasion and breaking out of almost unending civil war after the withdrawal of troops made million of Afghans to expatriate in the neighboring countries.

The aftermaths of September 11, gave another kick to the process of extradition. Although no precise data have ever existed with the Afghan Refugee Commissioner but their strength was estimated around 2.

We can roughly say that half of the refugees are settled in Baloch-Brahui and Pashtune areas of Balochistan There are millions who never got them registered in the Refugee Camps and simply intermingled in the local Pashtune society. Government of Pakistan now claims of having sent back around 1. But millions of those who have set up their businesses around, born and brought up here, developed socio-cultural ties and have turned in to voters are off course never planned to go back.

They are now half the population of Balochistan. Most of the Afghaneese settled in Baloch areas are Dari Persian speaking people from Tajik, Uzbek and Turkeman tribes while in Pashtune areas they are from both Dari and Pashto speaking people. Because of sharing linguistic, cultural and behavioural dispositions, the Afghan refugees intermingled and created socio-economic space for them more conveniently in Pashtune areas than in Baloch-Brahui areas.

The Baloch show a greater inconvenience and resentment towards the refugee-settlers than the local Pashtunes. One of the main reasons is to dominate the economic market given their willingness to do anything at any price and the tacit support or preference of the native Pashtunes of Afghaneese over the Baloch or Brahuis in terms of work. The poor strata of Afghans are involved in construction work, Karez digging, catering, cattle- raising and soil cultivation and are found in most of the rural areas of Balochistan.

Reasonably well off are engaged in carpet and rugs trade and fruits, grocery and restaurants business and they are settled in Quetta, Zhob, Chaman, Loralai, Sibi and Kharan. Number of refugees is believed of having escaped from the Iranian refugee camps and from Kurdistan and Seistan province of Iraq. There it was easier to infiltrate from the southwestern terrains skipping the surveillance of border police or getting entry in exchange of bribery.

They all refused to return until the Saddam regime is over thrown. The number of Iraqi refugees registered with UNHCR in was but scores of them had slinked out to other cities unnoticed.

Most of them are believed of having settled in Quetta and other cities of Balochistan. Now when the Sadam regime has been out posted May in Iraq they are less likely to go back either by choice or by the fear of postwar disorder in the country According to some unauthentic sources their population is the following: Christians 80,, Hindus 70,, Ahmedies , Parsees and Sikhs around Christians Economically the Christians come from lower and lower middle classes and are mostly engaged in health, education and sanitary services.

There are three large Churches of Christians in Quetta. Three famous schools, the Grammar School, St. Several Military and Civil Servants of Balochistan are qualified from these schools. Although the Baloch society is more tolerant to the Christians like other minorities but changing trends of new religious conservatisms is creating serious problems for the Christians in various spheres of life.

Humiliation of Sanitary workers and sexual harassment to nurses in 14 Kundi, Mansoor Akbar Balochistan: In legal matters, judiciary and administration have an evident leaning towards the Muslim party Inter alia other reasons, they were drawn in by the lucrative mercantile opportunities in the area. Later on most of them migrated to India during the times of the subcontinental split and afterwards.

In Balochistan the Hidus are settled in both Pashtune and Baloch parts of the province.

The Baloch race. A historical and ethnological sketch

A portion of their population also lives in Masting, Kalat, Kharan and Dalbandin in the west and Bela in the east. A big temple of Hindus is found in Gandava, a small town of Jhall Magsi.

There is more than one sect of Hindus but their faith is a mix of Brahminism and Sikhism. Interestingly we do feel any resentment or abhorrence over slaughtering a cow in these sects.

One of the sects in Khuzdar eats meet as well. There are influences of Muslim traditions in their faith, say fasting, and the respect for shrines and celebrating their rituals is common The Hindus are overwhelmingly involved in small trade and commerce and a fair proportion of them are quite prosperous.

But in Pashtune areas they do not occupy trade and commerce but are engaged in minor jobs and services. Historically they have been exclusively dominating in small trade and artisanship in the markets of Sibi, Bhag, Kharan and Bela.

Money lending is their traditional business and it is still common with them. Now they are also entering into other arenas like medicine and teaching. In Sibi and Kachhi they are believed to be the good doctors and teachers. Nevertheless, one can easily identify them from their physiognomy and fair skin. Women wear saris and bear tilak red mark on their foreheads. Hindus and Muslims can be seen mixing up in social gatherings, local festivals and in seeking public services from the local administration.

Unlike the Pashtunes, Baloch markets provided enough space to the non-Baloch for business and trade. Pashtune tribes tend to hold the profitable entrepreneur in their own hands and like to transfer menial tasks to the non-Pashtune groups. However, the assimilative nature of the Baloch tribal structure creates enough economic space for extra tribal groups like Hindus. There are examples, rare but real, where Hindus or Christians annex the word Baloch with their names as a sign of their association with Baloch cast.

The pattern of Baloch hierarchy and the social status associated with various occupations also helped the Hindus to carve out their room there. For example, music, entertainment, trade and crafts were assumed to be the less esteemed tasks hence were taken over by other communities.

Hindu communities also generated associations with various Baloch tribes and were given protection by the sardars. This all never means that there is no segregation at all. Muslim and Hindu blocks and streets are interlinked but separate. Examples of inter-communal marriages are extremely uncommon. Newly emerging religious inclinations in Baloch-Brahui people is also cultivating the attitudes of discrimination.

In Kachhi, some of the poor in-debtors express their vexation and anger over the high interest rates charged by the Hindu money-lenders. Similarly their monopoly over the grain market is also disliked by the Muslim traders.

The most dramatic and discernible shift is being introduced by the Afghan refugees with their socio-economic infiltration. Gradually they began to penetrate in the trade and economy of the towns. They are proving to be the fierce competitors of the Hindu merchants. Sharing the resentment towards Afghan refugees local Baloch have been supporting the Hindu traders so far but given the mercantile efficiency of the Pashtunes with the support of local Pashtunes, they are steadily replacing the Hindu traders.

In Kol-Pur, for instance, they even displaced some of the Hindu shopkeepers by paying more rent or buying the shops out-rightly. We could assume that the trend will reverse with the departure of refugees but their second wave in consolidated the ongoing trend. Secondly, the Afghan merchants began to transmit their discriminatory attitudes in the Brahui merchants. Current situation is putting the Hindu traders at a further disadvantageous position In retaliation to the demolition of Babri Mosque in Ayodhya India in early s the Hindus of Balochistan received a heavy loss in terms of life and property which raised serious doubts about their peaceful co-existence in Balochistan as the situation has been in the past.

At least four of the traders were killed in the town of Gandawa and no action was taken by the local administration. Their ancestors are believed of having migrated from Persia in mid 19th century. Most of them live in a large colony at Jinnah Road Quetta having strong kinship ties with one another.

Parsees are inclined towards education and are liberal in their attitudes. Ahmedies, a broken sect of Islam, officially declared non-Muslims in are highly educated and used to be highly influential in the public sector before the anti-ahmadyy legislation and a sort of social boycott began taking it roots in the country. Most of them live in Quetta except a few houses in Loralai, Sibi and Khuzdar Zikries believing in Zikr recitation of Koran and the nomenclature of God despite prayer, have though not been declared non Muslims but face severe discriminations and are concentrated in Ketch and Gawadar districts of Makran.

The Zikiri, from Arabic word zikr, to remember, to recite, is a minor sect of Islam less known and written about in Pakistan. Almost all of the Zikris, except the few in Khuzdar, Kharan and Karachi, are found in Makran division. No true figure of their proportion is available as the federal census undermines their separate identity. A few decades earlier, they were estimated to be half the population of the area but now they are approximated to one third the population of Makran.

Zikris themselves claim to be much more than told by the non-Zikris and they identify other sects of Islam as Namazis, one who says prayers against the Zikris. Hindus in Pakistani Balochistan in Marginality and Modernity: They believe that Mahdi, their spiritual leader and founder of this sect, got revelation around this mountain. The Baloch sub-tribes embracing this faith are Sanguras, Rais, Sajdis, meds and darzadas Prejudiced and discriminatory state laws, administrative and public rules are enticing the attitudes of injustice even in the societies, tolerant and accommodative by traditions.

They are being forced to live in socio-political islands with whom one cannot have friendship, develop social ties or marital relationship. Their role and position in the public and political spheres is highly discouraged and there is an effort to push them down to petty and menial occupations in economic arenas of life. The norm has been relaxed a bit by the time but a strong preference for cousin marriage is still persisting. Early marriage is common though the education and employment pressures are stretching the marital age.

Culturally it is appreciable to give ones daughter in to marriage once she comes of age. In Pashtune areas of Balochistan, Afghan migrant communities and in some of the Brahui and Baloch families a girl is usually given in exchange of the bride price, Vulver in Pashtu or Labb in Balochi, incurred by the groom or his family.

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In some of the Baloch areas Bijjari fund for the bride price is collected from the whole clan. The expressed reason of accepting Vulver or Labb is to prepare dowry and meet the expenditures of marriage i.

There are no fixed rules for the amount of bride price but it is usually higher if the girl is young, good-looking or belongs to an affluent family or the proposing family is out of the kin folks. The contract is made by the two families through mutual consent and backing out by either side is strongly detested. In Pashtune areas the amount normally fluctuates between Rs. The Zikris of Balochistan in Marginality and Modernity: In quite a few number of cases where the arrangement is made purely on the basis of bride price women live a loathsome life.

Exchange marriage i. In some of the cases, it is already decided that the girl born to the couple will be given in exchange to one of the grooms relatives in exchange.

The educated urban classes are rapidly turning away from this primitive custom but the practice is common in rural uneducated strata. Two of the most distinctive ceremonies are seclusion of the bride a week or two before the marriage and taking the groom away korag from the settlement on the day of marriage. Only the closest relatives can see the bride in her days of seclusion who beside jokes and whispers explain her roles and duties towards her husband and in-laws.

While in korag the groom bathes, dresses up and comes back on the camel back amidst dance and music. Property, mainly land or other assets are not transferred to a woman either in her consanguinal or in affinal family despite the fact Islam bestows the right of property to a woman.

Divorce, too simple historically and a right protected by the Family Laws of , is very uncommon because of general social disliking.

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Women are highly discouraged to seek divorce whatever circumstances she is living in even if Islam and the civil law allocates her the right to seek divorce. The birth of a baby boy is celebrated with more pomp and show in comparison to a baby girl.

Women gather in the family and sing sippat and nazanik songs of praise for the child. Infantile ceremonies include sasigan selecting name on sixth day burruk circumcision padgami child's beginning to walk and salwar wearing of trousers etc. Baloch nomenclature is also borrowed from animals, plants, tree, colors, tastes, week-days and events.

Save a very few examples of urban nuclear families, the pattern of extended household life log is still very common in Baloch-Brahui society.

A khandan is organized on paternal lines headed by a grand or grand grand father who plays a vital role in settling family disputes or making new matches According to the tribal values both of the parties committing fornication must be given the penalty of death in case it is proved or clearly observed. Scores of men and in most of the cases only women are killed under this black tribal law every year. In most of the situations the man or the woman is brutally killed immediately under a fake or foul suspicion to achieve ulterior motives like revenge, property, assets or hide any other crime committed by the culprit while the man or the woman is blamed to be seen in objectionable posture.

The man flees or is told of having fled away while a woman is almost always killed due to parda and mobility constrains. In worst cases a man kills another man for tribal or political reasons or for personal vengeance and then kills his closest kin, usually sister, drags their dead bodies closer and puts false charges of adultery to save his neck.

In worst cases a man or a woman can be alleged of having adulterous liaison with a dead man or woman just to seek a license to kill. If a man is captured by the police and the case goes to the criminal court, though it is very uncommon, his crime is normally condoned as the law is highly flexible and favorable to the murderer under the section of honour killing.

Generally it is practiced throughout Balochistan but the ratios is relatively higher in south western districts of Balochistan i. Dhadar, Nasserabad, Jaffarabad and Jhal Magsi. Similarly the incidents are not uncommon in Kohloo, Rakni, Lora Lai and Barkhan the northwestern towns of Balochistan With the advent of modern economy and urbanization, several new sources have emerged but a sizeable portion of the rural population still depends on raising cattle.

Being highly undeveloped and politically neglected, a large number of communities have no other trade but to survive on livestock. The climate and terrain of the area has been appropriate for herding sheep, goats and camels. Rain-fed agriculture, cultivating date trees, raiding and fishing in coastal areas, have been the other vital components of their subsistent economy.

The people of Lasbela and Kachhi plains, irrigating their lands by floodwaters and canals have lived a sedentary life since long. Agricultural dependence has developed peasantry attitudes in cultivable parts of Balochistan. Tribal structures, values and attitudes are observed to be softened in sedentary communities of Balochistan.

Traditionally the people of Makran have been surviving on date farming, fishing and camel breeding. Hashr is a voluntary service rendered to a person or family by other community members free of charge. What the employer needs to do is to arrange for the lunch and dinner of the workers. Sowing, harvesting, picking dates, building bridges or houses, diverting torrent waters or combating a disaster needs a larger workforce to meet the demand.

This is an obligatory reciprocation that still works in several rural areas despite the wages are quickly replacing the custom. In rural Balochistan, the people usually take two meals a day, one in the morning and one in the evening while the urban dwellers prefer three meals a day.

Mainly wheat then Bajra and Jowar are the elements of staple food. Milk, butter and meat are the most favourite ingredients of food. Under the Bagi custom the food is distributed in a village at the large scale and the poor and needy people were specially given enough food to eat but the custom has now become almost obsolete. Mainly the degenerated British built roads and track network is still in use to interlink it with Sindh, Punjab and neighboring countries.

Whatever large and small paved and unpaved tracks have been constructed in late s and later on are more to strengthen the central control over the territory and to exploit its mineral resources less to facilitated and connect people. The old track passing down from Quetta to Sibi and to Sakhur is mostly a single line broken track highly difficult to travel on for longer distances.

The well known RCD Road, constructed with American aid in late s has two main branches, one running down to southwest from Quetta to Dalbandin to Nokundi and to the Iranian border at Taftan and another heading towards the southeast from Quetta to Kalat, Khuzdar, Bela and to Karachi. Now, it is under excessive traffic burden and has depreciated to a pathetic level. One can hardly drive smoothly just a few kilo meters without frequent changes in the pace.

The road that links Balochistan with Zhob through Dana Sher is immensely loaded with heavy traffic and it is impossible to pass through without trouble.

Similarly the one that joins Balochistn with Dera Ghazi Khan through Loralai, Rakni and Barkhan is a rough single track broken for several kilo meters after each kilometers Most of the other parts of the province are interlinked by uneven kacha tracks or dirt roads.

For instance, a rail track from Sibi to Harnai, established sometimes in late and never improved as such, takes 6 hours just to cover the distance of 55 kms. It is perhaps the slowest track throughout Pakistan No proper road between the coastal towns of Balochistan and Karachi exists, though much important a route in economic context. Its no digress to mention that unavailability of a metallic road causes immense loss of the finest variety of date and fish in the area every year.

The 23 Titus, Paul Routes to Ethnicity: The situation of health is appalling in Balochistan. Malnutrition, sickness, maternal and infant mortality, premature birth and physical incapability are not uncommon symptoms in this area. The maternal mortality rate is per live births and life expectancy at the time of birth is 55 years. Roughly, there is one doctor for every persons and in the backward most 10 districts persons per doctor while in Mumashkhel, Awaran and Barkhan more than persons can approach to one doctor only.

Female health staff is only scantily available and the condition in rural parts is utterly depressing. There is not a single woman doctor in at least five districts of the province.

Poverty, lack of information and poor health services add to the miseries of the ailing people particularly in rural areas.

Lund (Baloch tribe)

Disproportioned health staffs in terms of area and gender afflicts greater tragedies to the residents of the area specially women. Their access to health services is extremely limited given the wide distances, broken communication, privacy and their specific needs. Travel, mobility constrains and household responsibilities hamper women to seek medical advice timely.

Most oftenly they are taken to the doctor when it is too late. Feeling shy, improper and combine waiting space for both sexes and the fear of being known of having sought feminine advice, say contraception, is also embarrassing for one third of the female population.