Taj Mahal - The True Story - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Those living in the.. dalema of TAJ MAHAL as a tomb of. The Taj Mahal According to one story, Shah Jahan had his main builders, architects and masters blinded and hands cut off after the structure was completed. The Taj Mahal is not just an architectural feat and an icon of luminous splendour, There is perhaps no better and grander monument built in the history of would have spent the rest of our precious life in offering prayers to the Real God.
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Taj Mahal- A “True Story” –Was It a Love Memorial or Mausoleum? By: Bipin Shah Author's Photographs of Taj from distance and close up showing the reflection. what visitors are made to believe the Tajmahal is not a Islamic mausoleum but an ancient Shiva P. N. Oak's celebrated book titled " Tajmahal: The True Story". sacrifice and a very high standard of magnanimity and moral purity which distinguish it from all soldiery anywhere in the world. The true story of taj mahal.
World architecture: The tomb of Timur Lane at Samarkand is all of Persian designs. The embossed patterns on the marble exterior of the cenotaph chamber wall are foliage of the conch shell design and the Hindu letter "OM". Akbar nearly abandoned the hard core Islam and sharia laws in preference of mufti and surrounded with the adviser and trusted aides like Abdul Fazl and Hindu Raja Bilbar. Water was drawn from the river by a series of purs , an animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism, into a large storage tank and raised to a large distribution tank. Retrieved 7 June The decorative elements were created by applying paint, stucco , stone inlays or carvings.
Akbar also had granted him the land on which he build the palace on the bank of Yamuna that ultimately becomes the site of Taj Mahal that Abdul-I-Fazl confirms that. She poisoned herself with opium in a fit of madness apparently brought on by the behavior of Khosrau and her younger brother Madhu Singh, as per the chronicler of Akbar. Jahangir had many wives and concubines but most important was Noor Mahal or popularly known as Noor Jahan, 20th of his wife.
Sultan Khosrau from a niece of Jodha Bai. Sultan Parwiz. Sultan Khurram Shah Jahan. Sultan Shahriyar. Two daughters of Jahangir are also mentioned: Shah Jahan: Noor Jahan, who had been the cause of much strife and contention, now clung to the vain idea of retaining the reins of government in her hand while Jahangir was ailing through her favorite Shahriyar.
Shah Jahan knew that Noor Jahan disliked him and made him feel very little by manipulating his father. Asaf Khan and Iradat Khan, who always acted in unison were determined that since Shah Jahan was far way from Agra, it was necessary to take some steps to prevent disturbances in the city, and to get possession of the princes Muhammad Dara Shukoh, Muhammad Shah Shuja, and Muhammad Aurangzeb, all younger Sons of Shah Jahan if Noor Jahan decided to mount a succession struggle on behalf of Shahriyar.
Noor Jahan was the influential wife of Emperor Jahangir. Noor Jahan became concubine of Jahangir when her husband lost the favor of the emperor and then remained as one of the many wives. She had the children and was well versed in the skill of the administration, politics, economics, and culture. At the time of her marriage Noor Jahan was considered a middle aged woman.
After the formal marriage, Noor Jahan acquired all the rights of sovereignty and governance, as an empress of India within nine years, becoming virtually in charge of the whole empire until the emperor died in AD.
The key to her success was Jahangir's addiction to both drugs and alcohol and his adoration for Noor Jahan above everyone else in his vast Harem. Jahangir needed Noor to help maintain his health and the empire.
After Bulaki was raised to the throne, he was placed in the hand of Sadik khan who was loyal to Noor Jahan and that was a mistake.
They therefore resolved that for some few days they would raise Bulaki to the throne, the son of Khosrau, who, by Noor Mahal's contrivance, had been placed with Na-Shudani, but who had been put under the charge of Iradat Khan by Jahangir until Na-Shudani returned from Kashmir to assume the power.
So they placed Bulaki on horseback, and, with a party of men in whom they had full confidence, they commenced their march, taking care to keep one day ahead of Noor Jahan.
The rest of the story unfolds as Shah Jahan eliminated Khosrau, Bulaki and other opponents who can possibly challenge him with the help of Persian aristocrats. Keen Interest in Arts: Both Jahangir and Noor Jahan were devotees of the elegant and sophisticated Indo-Persian arts and architectural style, the Taj Mahal being one of the fine examples even though they did not built it.
The emperor owned an admirable collection of exquisite miniature paintings and together with Noor, constructed beautiful gardens, notably in the court's summer retreat in Kashmir. Noor used same gardens for official functions; others were opened up for the populous in general for use.
Architecture, too, was an important imperial activity; some of the mosques, caravansaries and tombs Noor Jahan had built are visible today.
So, the architectural inspiration for Taj Mahal comes from Noor Jahan, the imperial interior decorator of arts, Empress Noor Jahan herself. Raja Mansingh-I Palace in Agra: Ain-I-Akbari confirms that directly: The content of the letter is authentic and consistent of his time reflecting the cordial relationship that existed between son and father and discusses freely other affairs of the state of concern to the empire.
The most eye catching information is the embellishment of the palace at Shahjahanabad, and the repair and maintenance of the "The Luminous tomb" of Mumtaz Mahal at Agra.
In one of the letters, Aurangzeb records in itself that the several rooms on the second storey, the secret rooms and tops of the seven storey ceilings have all absorbed water through seepage and were so old that they were all leaking, while the dome had developed a crack on the northern side.
Aurangzeb ordered immediate repairs at his expense while recommending to the emperor that more elaborate repairs such as the roof be opened up and redone with mortar, bricks and stone. The seven stories make some sense, as the two to three story reinforcement had to build to raise the palace at the ground level so the flooding will not cause the damage to living quarters.
It can be assumed that, the lower levels were occupied by animals, horses and elephants and servants while upper quarter were located on the ground level. Therefore, it should be regarded as very authentic.
Temple Location: As far as the location of temple goes of floor plan of the old palace, one can safely assume that just like Amber fort, there was a Hindu Temple probably at the entrance. Mansingh also built the Amber fort so the Vishnu temple would be located in front of the building as you enter the palace.
We do not know for sure if it was either on right or left side after the entrance of the Taj. WIKI on Mansingh has a slightly different version. They acknowledge the seven storied structure, but the location is Vrindavan and not Shahjahanabad. But, this can be the problem of naming.
Muslim always renamed Hindu places of worships, city and towns. The wording becomes irrelevant here. The cost of construction was one crore rupees at that time. Akbar is also believed to have donated the red sandstone for this temple.
Aurangzeb later demolished three stories of this temple. The four-storey temple is still present at Vrindavan. He also constructed a temple of Krishna at his capital, Amber.
When compared this with another WIKI on Vrindavan, it states that it is believed that the essence of Vrindavan was lost over time until the 16th century, when it was rediscovered by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In the year , Chaitanya Mahaprabhu visited Vrindavan, with purpose of locating the lost holy places associated with Lord Sri Krishna's transcendent pastimes.
Chaitanya wandered through the different sacred forests of Vrindavan in a spiritual trance of divine love. It was believed that by His divine spiritual power, He was able locate all the important places of Krishna's pastimes in and around Vrindavan.
Here the connection of current four story temple at another location in general area built in 17th century talks about Raja Madho Singh without the name of Mansingh-1 or Akbar, so this is more applicable to relocated site from the original site where Taj stands today. Sila Devi is another incarnation of Ambika, kali or Durga who were considered consort of Siva. There is also evidence that Vishnu temple was also located inside the palace ground. See picture. It is possible that Aurangzeb at his own expense carried out further repairs to either remodeled Palace or earlier version of Taj that may have given the looks the Taj presently have.
Aurangzeb at the age of 40 was most experienced commanders of the Islamic world, when in AD; he triumphed in Samugarh and imprisoned his once-respected father in the fort of Agra. Aurangzeb was a learned man but barbaric in tendency but as a writer, he was elegant and very fluent in Persian language and always displayed his wit as exhibited in his various letters and other Fermans that were issued under his name. Prince Aurangzeb mentions his mother Mumtaz Mahal several times and acknowledges his three full sisters who were Jahanara , Roshanara and Gauharara It was the birth of his last sister that killed her mother Mumtaz Mahal.
Mumtaz is believed to have died around AD as is commonly believed that the cause of her death was the complication the deliverance of the last baby daughter of Aurangzeb. It is believed that it took nearly 22 years to construct the Taj Mahal. We have on record a letter from Prince Aurangzeb a year earlier dated to AD.
In pursuit of his power, he misled and recruited other Muslim prince brothers and a sister to his enterprise to dethrone his father and eliminate Dara Sikhoh. He succeeded in his enterprise with the help of his brothers and loyal commander. After his accomplishments, he created several excuses to justify the killing of his Muslim brother and sisters to eliminate the competition who aided him to overthrow his father. He piled on his oppressive method that gave birth and the rise of the Maratha and Shivaji and ultimately cost him his dynasty and his empire.
That ended the Mogul history.
Raja Mansingh would not publish that because it would be considered a blatant usurpation to Moguls. The letter does not mentions what other lands will be exchanged in return. What has been to the pride of Rajputs of Rajasthan by Muslim Mogul is a shame and not permitted under Holy Koran under any pretext and those holding this mentality will achieve the same date as Mogus of India.
It is very disturbing that Congress led government distorts the true history of India and allows the glorification of falsehood of the true history. Hopefully, this article will keep the story as it should be told and taught in our schools. Raja Jayasinh was apparently outraged at the blatant seizure of the land and a palace that was standing in place of Taj Mahal that he resisted by delaying providing marble for grafting Kuranic engravings.
The three Fermans were sent to Raja Jayasinh within two years of Mumtaz death. The inside view of the place from court yard and outside view of the fort are presented below. Various accounts suggests that the place where Taj Mahal stood was a seven storied Palace of Raja Mansingh-1 and was constructed out of red stone Fatehpur Sikri style and was probably seven storied high, partly due to raising the foundation over River Yamuna.
However, one can imagine Raja Mansingh palace may have been situated beyond the front gate but probably not at the edge of the river where Taj stands with a small court yard typical of Amber place.
As far as if the land was granted initially to Mansingh-1 by Akbar that was taken away by Shah Jahan for constructing Taj Mahal, the Fermans speak for themselves. After all once they were the blood relatives. There must be enough give and take that they may have rebuilt the palace somewhere else. More pictures of Amber fort is found at this web site: At the entrance of Amber palace, we do have the temple. Similarly, the Chittore ford also had temple of Vishnu and other Hindu goddesses.
So, it should be no surprise that once Mansingh palace at Agra had some temple idols worship. As far as the official record suggests that Mansingh was the worshipper of Krishna or Vishnu. Raja Mansingh was just few years younger than Great Akbar and became good friend of Akbar and sometimes for fun jostled together by staging a wrestling match as depicted in the painting below.
It was very common and customary with all the Royal clans and Royal Palaces of the Rajasthan. It means the temple complex existed within the palace complex. The palace at the Agra was not an exception to this rule. He is more accurate in his description. It is clear that the place was requisitioned by the Moguls from Jaipur Maharaja Jayasinh. Eklingji temple dated to 8th century AD near Udaipur is the Shiva temple and worshipped by Hindu of India and nearby the temple of Ambaji is also a stop for pilgrims.
Was it a Love memorial Dedicated to Mumtaz Mahal? This is a valid question and often ignored by the most historians and the commonly accepted representation has never been questioned. However, reviewing all histories and document sources and clear lack of statement by Shah Jahan himself that he is dedicating to or the building for Mumtaz Mahal, we have to assume that he built it for himself like all of his predecessor with an objective of making it a world class monument and for that he deserves our credits.
Aurangzeb criticizes in his letter to his father for neglect of cenotaph where Mumtaz body was housed on a temporary basis. The Taj from the Persian and Arabic words for crown developed out of the ancient tiaras see tiara worn in the Mesopotamian valley.
All the Mogul rulers from top to bottom had hundred of wives and concubines and Hindu rulers were no exception to this rule either.
Shah Jahan with his excessive addiction of alcohol and the opium in his last day became very sick. He may have demolished the old palace of Mansingh or built over some part of the truncated structure like using to first two floors to build the platform for the Taj monument. Since the time of Humayun, every mogul emperor has built a tomb memorial for himself and the members of his family. Mumtaz Mahal is not here to answer the important question that how she felt about the life of the polygamy, so it is hard to imagine the perception of Love Memorial.
As we discussed earlier, the Moguls like their ancestors were nomadic people, good fighter and excellent horse riders and their material culture in arts, painting and architect was limited and borrowed from other civilization.
The tomb of Timur Lane at Samarkand is all of Persian designs. We know that Taj Mahal is a combination or Hindu and Persian architect with Mogul input for the garden. Let us first look at Jahangir whose Mausoleum stands in Lahore for some strange reason while everyone else lies in Delhi-Agra vicinity. Jahangir died at Rajauri in AD after he returned from Lahore. He was buried on the banks of the River Ravi in the large walled garden of Empress Noor Jahan three miles northwest of the region of Shah Dara near Delhi.
Rajauri is in Kashmir and by all account Jahangir loved Kashmir. One would think that would be his natural place for his burial and the second choice will be either Delhi or Agra where his predecessors were buried. We do not have the answer but it certainly raises the question. This is a real combination of Rajput and Mogul architect combined. The construction is native in origin and simply modest.
He barely survived the chase and headed to Umerkot. Akbar never forgot this act of generosity by a Hindu king. He practiced a milder and tolerant form of Islam and controlled the hard liner. His memorial therefore is simple in nature representing both Hindu and Muslim architect. His tomb was erected by none other than the most famous lady in the history of Mughal dynasty — Noor Jahan. This intriguing story starts with an Iranian nobleman Ghiyas Beg, who came to India on a fortune hunt. Mehrunissa was not their biological offspring but someone in their fleeing caravan was happy to give her up for adoption.
Unknown to him at that time, this young baby brings him the bountiful rewards when she grows up and becomes the famous Noor Jahan. Ghiyas beg earned the title of Itimad-ud-daula Pillar of the State and promoted to the post of Minister by Jahangir. Mehrunissa was married to a middle rank Iranian noble man with the blessing of Akbar himself. Jahangir married Noor Jahan Mehrunissa , when she was 35 years old and she became 20th of his wives. As Jahangir went on increasing his daily intake of the opium the empire was run by troika consisting of Noor Jahan, her father who was the minister and brother who was the commander of Mogul army.
It is believed the troika had built a powerful economic empire with her trade deals with Portuguese and English traders. The mogul treasuries were getting richer by the day. It represents a great transition in Mughal architecture from its first to second phase. From pre-Akbar days, Mughal buildings - both public and military buildings like mosque or fort and funerary buildings more personal were built in red sandstone.
But it was at Itimad-ud-daula, we see for the first time a complete mausoleum made of marble with Persian art. Just like every mogul mausoleum, there are four lush green Mughal garden and four minarets on each corner of the structure. In order not to upset the apple cart with any other noble, Noor Jahan kept this memorial small but the base of the monument remains in the bed of the sand stones.
Opium Addiction and effect on the Brain of Moguls: According to national Institute of Health the excessive use of opium can affect the brain and the entire functioning of the body. When these drugs attach to their receptors, they reduce the perception of pain. Opioids can also produce drowsiness, mental confusion, nausea, constipation, and, depending upon the dosage. It can also depress respiration and the ability to breath. Since India for centuries controlled Afghanistan, the opium was available in abundance and was widely used in India primarily for relaxation and enjoyment as well as to reduce the pain like the use of the alcohol.
This is the one simple example I can give that why wine industries arrived late in the history. The dried latex is obtained from the opium poppy for further use Papaver somniferum. The latex also includes the alkaloid codeine and its similarly structured cousin used in many medicines as the pain remover or reducer. It also contains non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. Excessive use of opium can lead to the death.
NIH described this in their medical studies: Opiates can depress breathing by changing neurochemical activity in the brain stem, where automatic body functions are controlled. Opiates can change the limbic system, which controls emotions, to increase feelings of pleasure. Opiates can block pain messages transmitted through the spinal cord from the body. It is doubtful and questionable if either Shah Jahan or Jahangir had functioning mental abilities to make the decisions themselves as most of them were made for them.
That seems very unlikely as can be seen from the comparison below that the architectural styles are totally different. The comparison chart below should clarify the misconception.
However, the ideas travel faster than anyone can imagine. A total demolition and rebuild has to be done to accommodate the construction of Taj Mahal except to use old existing fortification of Yamuna river bed with additional reinforcement. Certain levels assumed two levels of old structure may have been used to fortify the base and Top structure of old place may have been used as a giant plat form. This is the assumption model and other variation of Palace structure is also possible.
Amber fort is located overlooking the lake so it is highly likely that Raja Mansingh prefer the water view and Akbar could have easily granted to his old pal without any question. It is highly doubtful as to what active role Shah Jahan would have played due to his addiction to opium but if he was actively involved; he played a decreasing role once Mumtaz and then Aurungzeb assumed the power. Aurangzeb had imprisoned Shah Jahan into the Agra Fort where he lived for the balance of his life as an invalid and addict.
On the lid of the casket is a traditional sculpture of a small pen box. The pen box and writing tablet are traditional Mughal funerary icons decorating the caskets of men and women respectively. The tomb of Shah Jahan bears a calligraphic inscription that reads; "He travelled from this world to the banquet-hall of Eternity on the night of the twenty-sixth of the month of Rajab , in the year Hijri.
The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds. Halfway between the tomb and gateway in the centre of the garden is a raised marble water tank with a reflecting pool positioned on a north-south axis to reflect the image of the mausoleum. The elevated marble water tank is called al Hawd al-Kawthar in reference to the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad.
Elsewhere, the garden is laid out with avenues of trees labeled according to common and scientific names  and fountains. The charbagh garden , a design inspired by Persian gardens , was introduced to India by Babur , the first Mughal emperor.
It symbolises the four flowing rivers of Jannah Paradise and reflects the Paradise garden derived from the Persian paridaeza , meaning 'walled garden. Most Mughal charbaghs are rectangular with a tomb or pavilion in the centre. The Taj Mahal garden is unusual in that the main element, the tomb, is located at the end of the garden.
With the discovery of Mahtab Bagh or "Moonlight Garden" on the other side of the Yamuna, the interpretation of the Archaeological Survey of India is that the Yamuna river itself was incorporated into the garden's design and was meant to be seen as one of the rivers of Paradise. By the end of the 19th century, the British Empire controlled more than three-fifths of India,  and assumed management of the Taj Mahal. They changed the landscaping to their liking which more closely resembled the formal lawns of London.
The Taj Mahal complex is bordered on three sides by crenellated red sandstone walls; the side facing the river is open. Outside the walls are several additional mausoleums, including those of Shah Jahan's other wives , and a larger tomb for Mumtaz's favourite servant.
The main gateway darwaza is a monumental structure built primarily of marble, and reminiscent of the Mughal architecture of earlier emperors. Its archways mirror the shape of the tomb's archways, and its pishtaq arches incorporate the calligraphy that decorates the tomb.
The vaulted ceilings and walls have elaborate geometric designs like those found in the other sandstone buildings in the complex. At the far end of the complex are two grand red sandstone buildings that mirror each other, and face the sides of the tomb.
The backs of the buildings parallel the western and eastern walls. The western building is a mosque and the other is the jawab answer , thought to have been constructed for architectural balance although it may have been used as a guesthouse.
Distinctions between the two buildings include the jawab's lack of a mihrab a niche in a mosque's wall facing Mecca , and its floors of geometric design whereas the floor of the mosque is laid with outlines of prayer rugs in black marble. The Mughal mosques of this period divide the sanctuary hall into three areas comprising a main sanctuary and slightly smaller sanctuaries on either side. At the Taj Mahal, each sanctuary opens onto an expansive vaulting dome. The outlying buildings were completed in The Taj Mahal is built on a parcel of land to the south of the walled city of Agra.
Shah Jahan presented Maharajah Jai Singh with a large palace in the centre of Agra in exchange for the land. In the tomb area, wells were dug and filled with stone and rubble to form the footings of the tomb. Instead of lashed bamboo , workmen constructed a colossal brick scaffold that mirrored the tomb. The scaffold was so enormous that foremen estimated it would take years to dismantle. The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia.
It is believed over 1, elephants were used to transport building materials. It took efforts from 22, labourer, painters, embroidery artists and stonecutters to shape the Taj Mahal. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan , while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia.
In all, twenty-eight types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. According to the legend, Shah Jahan decreed that anyone could keep the bricks taken from the scaffold, and thus it was dismantled by peasants overnight. Water was drawn from the river by a series of purs , an animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism, into a large storage tank and raised to a large distribution tank. It was passed into three subsidiary tanks, from which it was piped to the complex.
The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 years to complete. The remaining parts of the complex took an additional 10 years and were completed in order of minarets, mosque and jawab, and gateway. Since the complex was built in stages, discrepancies exist in completion dates due to differing opinions on "completion".
Construction of the mausoleum itself was essentially completed by  while work continued on the outlying buildings continued for years. Estimates of the cost of construction vary due to difficulties in estimating costs across time.
The total cost at the time has been estimated to be about 32 million Indian rupees,  which is around Abdul Hamid Lahauri in his book Badshahnama refers to Taj Mahal as rauza -i munawwara , meaning the illumined or illustrious tomb. Upon Shah Jahan's death, Aurangzeb buried him in the mausoleum next to his wife. Kanbo, a Mughal historian, said the gold shield which covered the 4.
By the late 19th century, parts of the buildings had fallen into disrepair. During the time of the Indian Rebellion of , the Taj Mahal was defaced by British soldiers and government officials, who chiselled out precious stones and lapis lazuli from its walls.
At the end of the 19th century, British viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping restoration project, which was completed in During this time the garden was remodelled with British-style lawns that are still in place today.
In , the government erected scaffolding to disguise the building in anticipation of air attacks by the Japanese Air Force. More recent threats have come from environmental pollution on the banks of the Yamuna River including acid rain  due to the Mathura Oil Refinery , [ citation needed ] which was opposed by Supreme Court of India directives.
Concerns for the tomb's structural integrity have recently been raised because of a decline in the groundwater level in the Yamuna river basin which is falling at a rate of around 1.
In , cracks appeared in parts of the tomb, and the minarets which surround the monument were showing signs of tilting, as the wooden foundation of the tomb may be rotting due to lack of water. It has been pointed out by politicians, however, that the minarets are designed to tilt slightly outwards to prevent them from crashing on top of the tomb in the event of an earthquake.
In , it was reported that some predictions indicated that the tomb could collapse within five years. Small minarets located at two of the outlying buildings were reported as damaged by a storm on April 11, The Taj Mahal attracts a large number of tourists.
UNESCO documented more than 2 million visitors in ,  which had increased to about 7—8 million in Polluting traffic is not allowed near the complex and tourists must either walk from parking lots or catch an electric bus.
The Khawasspuras northern courtyards are currently being restored for use as a new visitor centre. The small town to the south of the Taj, known as Taj Ganji or Mumtazabad, was initially constructed with caravanserais , bazaars and markets to serve the needs of visitors and workers.
The grounds are open from The complex is open for night viewing on the day of the full moon and two days before and after,  excluding Fridays and the month of Ramadan.
Ever since its construction, the building has been the source of an admiration transcending culture and geography, and so personal and emotional responses have consistently eclipsed scholastic appraisals of the monument. It was suggested that his son Aurangzeb overthrew Shah Jahan before it could be built.
Ruins of blackened marble across the river in Moonlight Garden , Mahtab Bagh, seemed to support this legend. However, excavations carried out in the s found that they were discoloured white stones that had turned black. A dark reflection of the white mausoleum could clearly be seen, befitting Shah Jahan's obsession with symmetry and the positioning of the pool itself.
No evidence exists for claims that describe, often in horrific detail, the deaths, dismemberments and mutilations which Shah Jahan supposedly inflicted on various architects and craftsmen associated with the tomb. Some stories claim that those involved in construction signed contracts committing themselves to have no part in any similar design.
Similar claims are made for many famous buildings. Bentinck's biographer John Rosselli says that the story arose from Bentinck's fund-raising sale of discarded marble from Agra Fort. Another myth suggests that beating the silhouette of the finial will cause water to come forth.
To this day, officials find broken bangles surrounding the silhouette. In , India's Supreme Court dismissed P. Oak 's petition  to declare that a Hindu king built the Taj Mahal. As of , several court cases about Taj Mahal being a Hindu temple have been inspired by Oak's theory.
A theory that the Taj Mahal was designed by an Italian, Geronimo Vereneo, held sway for a brief period after it was first promoted by Henry George Keene in who went by a translation of a Spanish work Itinerario , The Travels of Fray Sebastian Manrique, — These idea were revived by Father Hosten and discussed again by E.
Havell and served as the basis for subsequent theories and controversies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marble mausoleum in Agra, India. For other uses, see Taj Mahal disambiguation. Location of Taj Mahal in Uttar pradesh.
Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal. Main article: Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal gallery. Interior view of the vaulted dome over the tombs of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz. The false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the main chamber. The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level. Detailed exterior design. Detailed interior design. Detail of pietra dura jali inlay.
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