Download as PDF or read online from Scribd Nord Christiane Text Analysis in Translation Chap2 Christiane Nord - Translation as a Purposeful Activity. Text Analysis in Translation by Christiane Nord, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Translation-oriented text analysis. Christiane Nord as a document of a source culture communication between the author and the source text (ST) recipient'.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Anthony Pym and others published Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and Didactic. Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. Translated from the . Christiane Nord's Model. .. It presents Christiane Nord‟s approach to translation evaluation. . model of text analysis in translation (). The other two parts.
Translation Studies. Free delivery worldwide. That is, the information about the genre which in the source culture is given by the author's name is shifted to the title in the target-language formulation. Therefore, trainee translators commit grammatical mistakes even in their own native language, which they never would have made in spontaneous intralingual communication. Ruth J. To illustrate my approach, I have chosen brief examples, particularly book titles, which can be considered as paradigmatic texts, exhibiting 'in a nutshell' all the functional aspects which are distributed over many pages in other texts or text types Nord
Finnland - das Erlebnis. Koller claims that the fundamental difference between the versions in A and B is "evi- dent". In A, he says, there is a "translational that is, equivalence relationship" between the Swedish originals and the English, German and French versions, whereas in B, the English, German and French versions are "rather independent text productions" which do not have much in common with the original Koller I do not think that this is evident at all.
The repetition of the syllable fin n produces a particular metrical effect which makes the phrase sound like a slogan. The 'equivalent' translations, that is, the corresponding formulations in the target language system This is what you find in Finnland, Das gibt es in Finnland or Cela se trouve en Finlande would definitely not achieve such an effect.
Therefore, the translators tried to find another solution: The English and the French versions 'play' on the ambiguity of natural and naturel, whereas the German version uses a rhythmical device which suggests an identification of Finnland and ein Erlebnis "a unique experience".
From a functional point of view, these versions are 'translations' all right: As it seems, this kind of adaptation is not accepted in Koller's equivalence model although it actually leads to a functionally equivalent target text which would perfectly conform to Nida's postulate of "dynamic equivalence" Thus, Koller even gives up the progress achieved by the adoption of pragmalinguistic aspects in translation theory.
He allows "text-producing" procedures instead of text-reproducing procedures only ad hoc and in special cases, where they are limited to a particular text element and intended "to transmit implicit source text values or to increase text comprehensibility for the target text readership" Koller My translation. It is interesting to note that these procedures are usually more readily accepted in non-literary than in literary translations where a 'faithful' rendering of the formal or surface characteristics of the source text is preferred.
The problem is that these conditions do not cover the wide range of adjustments which may become necessary in any translation process, nor do they account for those cases where implicit source text values should remain implicit or where comprehensibility is not the aim of the translation at all.
There are texts, for example, where it is precisely the lack of general comprehensibility which determines text function, as in hermetic poetry or in certain legal texts.
Moreover, this restricted view on adaptation as something incompatible with translation leads to 'untranslatability' in quite a number of cases. Let us look at an example again: Alan Bates: Fair Stood the Wind from France. Peter Howell: Wuthering Depths. These titles contain intertextual allusions to a line from Shakespeare's drama Henry V.
Intertextuality in its various functions can only 'work' within a cultural or literary system see Nord Even when the works in question have been translated into a target language or belong to the so-called "world literature", an allusion to a translated text would never be able to produce the 'same' commu- nicative effect as a quotation from a work that belongs to the literary canon of the readers' own culture.
Therefore, these titles - as well as most plays on words - are "untranslatable" within the framework of a strict equivalence model. Functionality and adaptation A functional approach would solve these and other problems both in terms of theory and translator training. Looking at the two titles mentioned above, we will ask what kind of function the intertextual allusion is intended to achieve. Is it meant to inform the readers about the contents or the stylistic features of the book?
These would be referential functions. At any rate, the three titles are designed to distinguish the books from any other existing ones.
This is the distinctive function which is common to book titles and proper names. After finding out the intended or possible functions of the source title, the translator would have to decide which of these functions, and in what hierarchical order, could or should be aimed at by the formulation of the target title. And this hierarchy of intended target functions sets the guidelines for the translation process.
In the light of these considerations, the translation of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World another Shakespeare quotation by Le meilleur des mondes a quotation from Voltaire is no 'better' or 'more equivalent' than the translation of Marcel Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu which is no quotation by Remembrance of Things Past Shakespeare again simply because it gives a target-literature quotation for a source-literature quotation.
Any translation criticism would have to take into account that perhaps the poetic function of the Proust title is more easily achieved in the target culture by alluding to a poetic text than by merely reproducing the semantic content or the syntactic structure of the original.
And these considerations can easily be applied to any other problems arising in the translation of other text types which are of more frequent use in translator training.
In this vein, the framework of a functional approach would therefore allow any transfer procedure which leads to a functional target text, that is, cultural adaptation, paraphrase, expansion, reduction, modulation, transposition, substitution, loanword, calque, literal translation or even omission see also Hermans The skopos rule is a very general rule which does not account for specific conventions prevalent in a particular culture community.
It might even be paraphrased as "The end justifies the means", and this would indeed mean that the translator is free to choose any translation skopos for a particular source text. The principle of loyalty, which I have introduced into the functional approach Nord , , sets limits to the variety of possible translation skopoi, obliging the translator to consider the author's communicative in- tention s and the readers' expectations towards a text marked as a 'translation'.
As a principle, loyalty is not specified in the general model; what it really means for the translator in a particular translation task is specified by the culture-specific translational conventions prevailing in the culture-communities involved. Translational conventions which ask for 'literal translation' have to be taken into account as seriously as translational conventions which allow an adaptation of some or all text dimensions to target-culture standards.
If there is any possibility of achieving the same function s by the target text in its prospective target-culture situation, the translator would be free to decide on the transfer procedures which may become necessary, and adaptation is one of them. Let us take a book title as an example again: Simone de Beauvoir: Ein sanfter Tod; English translation: A Very Easy Death.
The English version, however, substitutes the emotional function of douce by the evaluative function of easy. Whether a death is easy or not can be judged from outside, from the doctor's point of view, whereas douce describes the feelings of the dying person. Thus, the English title sounds very matter-of-fact which is in part also due to the nominality of the phrase and would probably not achieve the same emotive function as the original.
This would also be in line with formal conventions: But text functions need not necessarily be the same for the source and the target text. For French readers, the Beauvoir title does not contain any explicit or implicit reference to the fact that the book is a fictional text; for them, this information is implied by the author's name, who is known as a writer of fiction. For English readers, this may not be as evident. As we see, there is a shift of functions in the target title in this case.
That is, the information about the genre which in the source culture is given by the author's name is shifted to the title in the target-language formulation. But there may also be cases where the target text has to achieve a function which is not vital for the source text or vice versa. Again, we can take titles as a case in point. If the author is a famous writer in the source culture, but not known as yet in the target culture, the original title does not need to achieve an appellative function, whereas the translated title would have to attract the prospective readers' attention.
This may be a motive for the references to an 'exotic' setting very popular as an appellative feature in German fiction: Alejo Carpentier: Los pasos perdidos literal translation: Lost steps ; German version: Die Flucht nach Manoa; Alejo Carpentier: El acoso literal translation: The Siege ; German version: Finale auf Kuba see Nord I will not discuss here whether the suggested versions have been the best or the only way to achieve an appellative function in the target titles; what I would like to stress, however, is the fact that adaptations often are the only way to ensure that a translation 'works' in the target-culture situation it is produced for.
The functional approach in translation teaching Choosing the functional approach for translation practice will have considerable impact on translation teaching or translator training. Stephen Brockmann. Dieter Trauden. Ruth J. Madeleine Rietra. Stuart Taberner. Colin Barr Grant. Bianca Theisen. Owen Evans. John P.
Helga Stipa Madland. Priscilla A. Geoffrey Westgate. Paul Cooke. Hugo Bekker. Cheryl Dueck. Reinhard Andress.
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Popular Features. New in Text Analysis in Translation: Second Edition. Based on a functional approach to translation and endebted to pragmatic text linguistics, it suggests a model for translation-oriented source-text analysis applicable to all text types and genres independent of the language and culture pairs involved. Part 1 of the study presents the theoretical framework on which the model is based, and surveys the various concepts of translation theory and text linguistics.
Part 2 describes the role and scope of source-text analysis in the translation process and explains why the model is relevant to translation. Part 3 presents a detailed study of the extratextual and intratextual factors and their interaction in the text, using numerous examples from all areas of professional translation.
Part 4 discusses the applications of the model to translator training, placing particular emphasis on the selection of material for translation classes, grading the difficulty of translation tasks, and translation quality assessment.
The book concludes with the practical analysis of a number of texts and their translations, taking into account various text types and several languages German, English, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Dutch. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions Other books in this series. Text Analysis in Translation Christiane Nord. Add to basket.
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