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The strain livro pdf

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Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain. WARREN C. YOUNG. RICHARD G. BUDYNAS. Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill. New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon. Descobrir a verdade e os fatos sobre O Milagre Da Gravidez™ Livro PDF por After more than a year of frustration our relationship began to feel the strain. Since the strain energy has physical meaning that is independent of the choice of quadratic form in the strains or stresses, it cannot depend on the third.

The faults develop from isolated fractures into long faults through the formation and destruction of relay ramps. If you fail to do so, you are acting at your own risk. The fold itself is called a relay ramp and the entire Antithetic Master- fault structure is known as a relay structure Figure 8. CSP relates to how far a clay or shale layer can be smeared before it clay layers and their thicknesses, and decreases breaks and becomes discontinuous: The result is abrupt changes in the displacement ield across faults. These unconsolidated fault rocks form in the upper part of the brittle crust.

Our second pregnancy took less than a month to achieve. Ten years after beginning our quest, we were the proud parents of two beautiful, healthy children! So what is the secret that we discovered and how did it make the difference to turn us from a desperate infertile couple into proud parents? This guide is designed to take you on the journey of a lifetime; one that goes beyond learning what every doctor out there already knows, in order to help you find your own path to parenthood.

The Eastern View of Fertility and the Myths of Western Medicine Modern medicine has made great strides in helping infertile couples finally conceive, but does it always work? The answer is much simpler than using complicated medications and invasive procedures. This chapter will delve headlong into a discussion on fertility does it really exist? This includes an in-depth discussion on: Making the Diet and Exercise Changes Necessary to conceive, including vitamin and mineral enhancement; exercising; stress control; sleep optimization and clearing your home and your body of dangerous toxins.

Cleansing Your Energy for Conception Using Acupuncture and Acupressure techniques specifically designed to enhance fertility, as well as tips for balancing your Cycle Phase and Specific Condition with Chinese Herbs and utilizing basic Qi Gong exercises for strengthening your reproductive system and opening the Qi energy pathways needed to conceive.

Internal cleansing and liver detoxification. In Chapter Six we will discuss some of the special circumstances you may be encountering including: How you decide to use the information in this book is certainly up to you, just remember the importance of establishing a complete fertility plan that encompasses a variety of treatment methods to better your chance of having a healthy and happy baby! Ready to learn more? What Makes Her Special Women are complex creatures — in more ways than one!

But nothing may be as complex as her reproductive organs. The Vagina Having little to do with your ability to conceive a child, the vagina is considered more of a passageway for the penis and its sperm to enter the opening of the uterus where it can do the job it is intended to do.

One thing that can affect your ability to get pregnant is the hymen, a perforated piece of tissue found at the entrance of the vagina.

While the vast majority of young girls have small openings in the hymen, which is later completely torn during the first sexual experience, a small percentage of girls may have an imperforate or solid hymen. This can cause blood from the monthly period to back up behind the tissue and into the fallopian tube, which can cause endometriosis, a major factor in female infertility.

Its main job is to hold the baby in place until delivery. However, it also guards against infection by forming a mucus barrier between your vagina and the inside of the uterus. An incompetent cervix can usually be fixed by suturing the cervix closed until delivery. In the past it has been highly believed that a woman with a retroverted uterus, or one that is flopped forward toward your pubic bone could not get pregnant. This is simply not true.

However, there are some uterine malformations that can affect your ability to both get pregnant and to maintain a pregnancy long enough to give birth to a healthy baby. They include: A septate uterus, which features a band of tissue called the septum which can partially or completely divide the inside of the uterus.

Bicornuate two-horn and unicornuate one-horn uteri feature either one uni or two bi narrower-than-normal cavities. Women with this type of uterus often miscarry once they do become pregnant. Although, removing fibroids can leave scar tissue in the uterine cavity that can make it more difficult to get pregnant since a fetus can have a hard time implanting on scar tissue.

The Ovaries The ovaries may be two of the most important organs needed to have a baby since they hold and protect the eggs needed for conception. Women do not make eggs throughout their lifetime.

Instead, they are born with the amount they will ever have stored in their ovaries. Every month, some are lost due to a variety of biological reasons, while one or two are released for fertilization. Should one or both ovaries and the eggs it contains become damaged or diseased any time during her life, it can greatly affect her chances of ever bearing children. The Eggs Without healthy viable eggs, a woman has a zero percent chance of getting pregnant or giving birth to a healthy baby.

Eggs are made up of some important factors including its Chromosomes, which contain the genes that will determine what your baby will look and act like; whether it will be short or tall; healthy or not; fat or skinny; and so much more.

Miss one or two. But, first, it must get there, travelling by way of the fallopian tube, which connects each ovary to the uterus.

Without healthy tubes, the egg can neither become fertilized since a blocked tube will prevent the sperm from getting to it in the first place , or make its way to the safety of the nourishing womb.

Tubes can be damaged in several ways, with the most common culprits being infection or endometriosis. While both tubes do not have to be clear in order to get pregnant, your chances of conceiving are reduced if one is damaged or blocked in any way.

Her Menstrual Cycle If all of your reproductive organs are not working properly, they can affect your menstrual cycle and your ability to get pregnant. Meanwhile in the ovary, a dozen or so antral follicles fluid filled sacs surrounding the egg , begin to grow. It is during this time that at least one egg matures. This is called the proliferative phase of the uterus.

In normal cases, one follicle grows faster than the others, producing more estrogen, causing FSH to decrease and the smaller follicles to stop growing. This signals the pituitary gland to release an LH surge, which makes the egg inside the dominant follicle mature. Step Two This causes the follicle to burst, releasing the egg which is picked up by one of the fallopian tubes.

This is called ovulation. Step Three If all goes as planned, the mature egg will meet up with an eager sperm, resulting in an embryo that will now begin to travel down the fallopian tubes, toward the safety of the womb, where it will implant and grow for the next nine months.

Step Four. However, successfully cored faults breakdown zone or the process zone. To make a fault, a number Such samples allow for microscopic studies and of small shear fractures, tension permeability measurements. Furthermore, the width fractures and hybrid fractures must and nature of the damage zone, and sometimes even form and connect.

The incipient the fault core, can be estimated. The central slip surface very thin core and the walls. A thin core of brecciated shear fractures in the damage zone are visible.

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The orientation of faults and fractures in cores can be measured if the core is oriented. Usually it is Figure 8. Cores are usually split in the direction analysis.

Hence, most faults have a well- deined core of intense cataclastic deformation and a surrounding damage zone of less intense fracturing. Natural rocks are not isotropic, and in many cases faults form along preexisting mesoscopic a weaknesses in the rock. Such weaknesses can be layer interfaces or dikes, but the structures that are most likely to be activated as faults are joints and, of course, preexisting faults. This is so because joints tend to be very weak and almost planar structures with low or no cohesion and with even b low friction surfaces.

Faults formed by faulting of joints inherit some of the features of the original joints. If it forms by frictional sliding c on a single, extensive joint, the initial fault tends to be a sharp slip surface with almost no fault core and with almost no damage zone. If slip accumulates, however, the fault outgrows the joint and links with other joints in the vicinity of its tip zone. The damage zone then thickens, and the fault core may grow.

The difference has to do with the presence of pore space, which in terms of strain hardening. Strain hardening is gives the grains a unique opportunity to reorganize. Note the difference and frictional grain boundary sliding translation between process zones in non-porous and highly during deformation.

In other cases grains can also porous rocks: The process zone in non-porous rocks break internally. In either way, the deformation weakens the host rock and increases porosity by is likely to localize into narrow zones or bands to the formation of cracks. In high-porosity rocks the form structures are known as deformation bands. Once a certain number of deformation bands Field observations, as well as experimental and have accumulated in the deformation band zone, numerical work, show that deformation proceeds porosity is greatly reduced, and a slip surface can by sequential formation of new deformation bands grow.

Slip surfaces nucleate in small patches that adjacent to the initial one Figure 8. This means propagate, link up, and ultimately form through- that at some point it is easier to form a new band going slip surfaces. Slip surfaces are mechanically next to the existing one than to keep shearing the weak structures and accumulate meters of slip primary band.

The result is a deformation band or more. The surrounding population of thickness deformation bands represents the fault damage zone. Extreme 1. The moment the slip surface fault forms, the enclosing zone of already existing structures will become the damage zone. Once the a fault is established, the process zone in front of the fault tip also forms part of the damage zone, moving ahead of the fault tip as the fault expands Normal Figure 8.

In a porous rock, this zone is likely to thickness consist of deformation bands. Because of the way that faults form in porous rocks by faulting of a Extreme deformation band zone Figure 8. This is particularly true if the deformation Normal bands are cataclastic, in which case the process zone thickness can be several hundred meters long.

If the structures of the damage zone form ahead b of a propagating fault tip, then the damage zone Figure 8. In these situations, minor structures are bands that formed in the process zone, i. A consequence of this assumption would be that the width and strain of a damage zone is independent and should be reactivated without the creation of of fault displacement. Empirical data Figure 8. The answer is simply that shows that this is not the case, even though the fault faults are not perfectly planar structures, nor do they slip surface represents the weakest part of the rock, expand within a perfect plane.

Faults are irregular at many scales because the rocks that they grow in are zone: Process le on both heterogeneous and anisotropic.

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Faults may bend: Invisib data as they meet a different lithologic layer or as they Fault tipon seismic Invisibledata e seismic link with other faults Figure 8. Then there may be times or places prior to fault propagation.

The process zone may potentially contribute where fault linkage occurs or places where fault to compartmentalization of petroleum reservoirs.

More commonly, the term drag is used 1 Damage about zones some meters or tens of meters wide. The irst stage is the growth of the process zone. Once the crust. It is therefore most commonly seen in faulted fault forms, the process zone becomes the damage zone and slip occurs sedimentary sequences Figure 8.

Furthermore, smoothly for a while red arrow until complications lock the fault and drag can form in any tectonic regime. The kinematic causes renewed growth of the damage zone 3. This repeats itself as the fault grows. The result is considerable scatter of fault data in fault requirement is that the angle between the slip vector displacement-damage zone width diagrams. Because layering tends to be subhorizontal in sedimentary rocks, drag is most commonly associated with bends or lenses cause rapid growth in damage zone normal and reverse faults and less commonly width.

Eventually, complications such as bends and developed along strike-slip faults. Folds also develop links are cut through so that the fault recovers to in subhorizontal layers along strike-slip faults see a more planar structure.

Figure Thus, Thus, the growth of we may want to add another characteristic of drag damage zones may to folds: In practice this means that the anomalous 0 m orientation of the layers must be conined to the near vicinity of the fault. How big this volume Figure 8. A change If one includes such vertical fault located along the left from left- to right-dipping layers is consistent with the normal drag margin of the picture.

Colorado portrayed by the seismic relectors. As mentioned before, these terms depend on the scale of observation. Consider the ection large-scale drag in the hanging wall of large normal refl mic faults. When imaged on a seismic sections or from seis real dip a far distance , the layers may appear continuous and the deformation can be described as being ection ductile.

There could still be lots of subseismic faults, ic refl because what appears to be continuous layers may be m signals that are smeared out to continuous relectors seis during the data processing.

Two different cases are shown. In one case a series of antithetic subseismic faults affect the layers, in the other the faults are synthetic with respect to the main faults. Since the faults are too small to be imaged seismically, the two seismic images are identical. But the true dip is different in the two cases. Core data and perhaps dipmeter data will give the true dip. If the difference between dip determined from cores or dipmeter data is signiicant, then it is likely that subseismic faults occur.

If the dip determined from cores is the subseismic same as the seismic dip, then the deformation is faults microscopic, perhaps by granular low typical for sediments that were poorly lithiied at the time of deformation. Normal It was originally thought that drag was the drag is the shear zone- result of friction along the fault during fault growth. The latter model a parallelism with the seems to it many examples of drag. This model fault Figure 8. The difference is that total offset is the sum of the folding is ductile down to the scale of a hand the ductile normal drag sample, meaning that it does not involve mesoscopic and the discrete fault fracturing or deformation band formation.

That is b displacement. Reverse at least true in the early stages. As the folds tighten Elastic response drag is used about the and strain accumulates, fractures and deformation opposite case, where bands also form, and the damage zone is established. A drag fold in c of listric normal faults 7 Note that the damage zone is the zone of Figure 8. Both fractures including deformation bands around the for normal drag development.

The normal and reverse width of the drag zone is constant fault, and is not directly related to the ductile drag along the fault.

The hanging wall side of the triangle moves with a constant velocity above a ixed footwall and the apical angle of the triangle is chosen. The triangle is symmetric with respect to the fault and the velocity vector is identical for all points located Trishear zone Hanging wall stationary Fault tip Footwall movable fau rmal No lt along any ray originating at the fault tip. Across the zone the velocity increases towards the hanging wall, Also, the direction of the velocity vector changes gradually towards parallelism with the hanging wall, as shown in the igure.

Trial and error will give the geometry that most closely matches your ield observations or seismically imaged structure. Trishear model of a reverse fault affecting an With a trishear program we can model the ductile overlying sedimentary sequence. Star deformation in front of a propagating fault tip and indicates the fault tip at each stage. In fact, the structure upsection. This method seems to work particularly is a simple shear zone Chapter 15 with a fault well in places of reactivated basement faults that discontinuity in its central part Figure 8.

Many In many other cases the drag zone is upward- examples of such structures are found in the uplifts widening, and a different kinematic model must on the Colorado Plateau and in the Rocky Mountains be applied.

A popular model is called trishear. In foreland in Wyoming and Colorado, where the fold this model strain is distributed in a triangular or structures are commonly referred to as forced folds. This zone moves through the are called fault propagation folds. Thus, many drag rock as the fault propagates, and no further folding folds are faulted fault propagation folds.

However, occurs once the fault has cut through the layers. In this model the drag zone widens upwards. Strong Weak Strong a walls of an already existing fault. Just like the damage zone, fault drag can develop due to locking of the fault at fault bends, vertical fault links and other complications b that can increase the Figure 8.

The effect of non- planar fault geometry is discussed in the last chapter of this book the same that operate in the different deformation and the development of bands discussed in the previous chapter, but the normal drag between deformation during drag folding is less localized two overlapping fault and strain is considerably lower.

There is however a segments is illustrated strain gradient towards the fault, as shown in Figure in Figure 8. The 8. In such cases the density of where the rotated layer, fractures or deformation bands increases toward the which typically is a fault, as shown in Figure 8.

The appearance of clay or shale, forms a mesoscopically mapable fractures or deformation membrane or smear bands indicates that we are in the damage zone.

Where drag folds are well developed the drag zone tends to be wider than the damage zone, although the Drag can form opposite situation also occurs.

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A closer examination of many 1. Granular low leaves little or no trace of the deformation except for the rotation of layering or modiication of sedimentary structures. In consolidated sedimentary rocks grains may start to fracture, and the mechanisms becomes Figure 8. The mechanisms are orientation and strain. Generated by means of the trishear program FaultFold R.

Almendinger Where the folded layers were originally horizontal, a direct and d stable sliding with slip hardening.

The graph indicates a correlation between deformation band density and dip of layering in this example from experiments show that a gradually increasing force is Arches National Park. This effect is called slip hardening Figure 8. Rock experiments indicate that stable zones around faults that can have formed in a variety sliding is more likely when the normal stress of ways, mostly around the brittle-plastic transition.

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Low-angle striking. Faults sediments and sedimentary rocks are more likely grow by two mechanisms. The most common one to deform by stable sliding than are low-porous is called stick-slip, where slip accumulates at very crystalline rocks. In particular, stick-slip is favored sudden seismic slip events, separated by periods of in low-porosity quartz-rich siliceous rocks while clay no slip Figure 8. Stress builds up between the promotes stable sliding.

Clay-bearing incohesive slip events until it exceeds the frictional resistance fault gouge in the fault core has some of the same of the fault.

This is the model used to understand effect as claystone: The fact that whose magnitude is related to the amount of energy gouges tend to represent pathways for luid low may released during the stress drop. In terms of strain, add to their ability to slide in a stable fashion.

Stick- is by stable sliding or aseismic slip. Some laboratory rocks. Only the largest earthquakes can generate offsets of Aseismic m. This has a very important implication: The seismogenic zone 5 km A fault with a kilometer displacement must be the product of hundreds if not thousands of earthquakes 10 km It is worth noting that the accumulation of such displacements would take thousands or millions of years, depending on the local displacement rate.

Throw rates for faults can be found by dating layers that are offset and measure their displacements. The distribution is characteristic for the continental Large faults tend to slip along a restricted part crust away from subduction zones. The total displacement distribution for a large fault is therefore the sum of displacements contributed by individual slip events earthquakes Figure 8.

While it seems clear In summary, we could say that in the very top that single slip events produce more or less elliptical of the crust upper kilometer or two , earthquakes displacement contours, as shown in Figure 8. The characteristic earthquake and porous rocks in general. Below this depth one model assumes that each slip event is equal to the would expect abundant seismic or stick-slip activity others in terms of slip distribution and length.

The until the brittle-plastic transition is reached.

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This is location of the displacement maximum is however exactly what earthquake data indicate, and the zone shifted for each slip event. The variable slip model is called the seismogenic zone Figure 8. While seismic events may be responsible same in each slip event the area varies. There is also a need for displacement maximum near the middle of the fault, small postseismic adjustments that may or may not gradually off toward the tips, as shown in Figure be seismic.

Fault slip and displacement accumulation are commonly discussed in terms of seismicity and seismic slip behavior. It is important to realize that 1. A quake of magnitude band zones and accumulate displacement over time 8 Seismic means sudden energy release and as deformation proceeds.

Faults tend to nucleate displacement accumulations by means of earth- many places within a regionally deforming rock quakes. Aseismic means gradual displacement ac- volume. Hence, faults tend to occur as fault cumulation without the generation of earthquakes. Others reach an intermediate stage before dying, while a few grow into long faults with large displacements.

Faults are unlikely to grow as individual structures for a long time. As they grow, they are likely to interfere with nearby faults. Growth by linkage is a very common mechanism that creates some of the most interesting and important structures in faulted regions Figures 8. Let us consider two faults whose tips approach each other during growth. Before the tips have reached each other but after their strain ields have started to interfere the faults are said to underlap Figure 8. Once the tips have passed each other, the faults are overlapping Figure 8.

Under- and overlapping faults are said to be soft-linked as long as they are not in direct physical contact. Eventually the fault tips may link Figure 8. The pavement is now more or less saturated with fractures, implying that additional strain will accommodate by neighboring fault tip in the sense that the energy coalsescense of existing fractures rather than by the nucleation of new ones.

The propagation rate of the t2 t1 fault tips in the area of underlap is thus reduced, which causes the displacement a gradient to increase. This results in an asymmetric displacement proile, L1 L2 L3 L4 log L where the maximum is shifted toward the overlapping tip Figure 8. Time This asymmetric displacement t4 distribution gets more pronounced as L4 Displacement D t3 Figure 8. Each event results in up to a few t2 meters of displacement. In this model, repeated slip L2 events form a bell-shaped cumulative displacement t1 proile that resembles that of a single slip event.

The L1 Distance result of this model is a straight line in a logarithmic length-displacement diagram. The fold itself is called a relay ramp and the entire Antithetic Master- fault structure is known as a relay structure Figure 8.

Eventually the ramp will break to form a breached relay ramp. The two faults are then directly connected and an b Overlapping soft- linked segments c Hard-linked segments Curving fault trace d Continued growth as coalesced fault segments Figure 8.

The faults develop from isolated fractures into long faults through the formation and destruction of relay ramps. Based on Trudgill and Cartwright The folding is a result of ductile displacement transfer relay from one fault to the other and is directly Figure 8. Two isolated fractures a overlap b-c to form related to the high displacement gradients in the a relay ramp that eventually becomes breached d.

Faults were initiated overlapping tip zones. If the fault interference occurs by splashing water on the sand. The width of each picture is ca. Such steps are therefore very important as they may hint on the locations of both breached and intact relay ramps.

The inal fault can be seen to be the result of interaction t4 between individual fault segments through the creation and breaching of relay ramps. The curved Sprang t3 fault pattern seen in map-view is very similar to t2 t1 that displayed by much larger faults, such as the Horizontal distance along faults northern North Sea faults shown in Figure 8.

It seems Figure 8. The upper part shows the two segments in likely that these large faults formed by fault linkage map view at four different times t1-t during their growth history.

The as portrayed in Figure 8. It is clear that ramps come in any size and stage of development. It is important to understand that relay ramps and overlap zones are formed and destroyed continuously during the growth of a fault associated with an abnormally wide damage zone.

Upon breaching there will be a displacement minimum at the location of the relay structure. The total displacement curve along the fault will 1. As the deformation to the slip direction and therefore interfere in both proceeds and the fault accumulates displacement, the the vertical and horizontal directions Figure 8. However, the which means that we will be looking at the vertical link is still characterized by the wide damage zone and a step in the horizontal fault trace.

There is a higher density of deformation bands within the ramp than away from the ramp. As these fractures grow into faults, they will interfere and connect.

The stability of the knee depends entirely on its ligaments and muscles. Sports injuries to the knee are most commonly caused by high-speed and rotational forces applied to the leg through the knee joint. In addition, certain ligaments are anatomically related to the menisci, on which the distal femur articulates. This year-old woman was involved in a ski injury, a common setting for ACL injury. The twisting force to the lower limb when a ski becomes lodged in snow and the body continues to rotate can produce significant trauma to the knee.

The ACL passes from the posterior aspect of the distal femur to the intercondylar region of the anterior aspect of the proximal tibia; it limits anterior movement of the tibia in relation to the femur. This injury will usually require surgical repair. Be able to describe the anatomy of the knee joint, including the bones, ligaments, possible movements, and the muscles responsible for these movements.

Be able to describe the mechanism of injury to the four main ligaments of the knee. Definitions Knee: Hinge joint between the femur and proximal tibia. A triangular bone approximately 5 cm in diameter situated in the front of the knee at the insertion of the quadriceps tendons.

Crescent-shaped intra-articular cartilage. It is a relatively stable joint; its movements consist primarily of flexion and extension, with some gliding, rolling, and locking rotation.

The distal femur forms two large knuckle-like lateral and medial condyles, which articulate with lateral and medial tibial condyles. The supe- rior surfaces of the tibial condyles are flattened to form the tibial plateau.

An intercondylar eminence fits between the femoral condyles, and the proximal fibula articulates with the lateral tibial condyle but is not a part of the knee joint. The patella articulates with the femur anteriorly.

The flat tibial condylar surfaces are modified to accommodate the femoral condyles by the C-shaped lateral and medial menisci.

These fibrocartilaginous structures are wedge- shaped in cross section, being thick externally but thin internally, are firmly attached to the tibial condyles, and serve as shock absorbers. The lateral meniscus is the smaller of the two, being somewhat circular, whereas the medial meniscus is C-shaped. The femoral and remaining portions of the tib- ial condyles are covered with articular cartilage Figure