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Corporate information strategy and management text and cases pdf

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Corporate. Information Strategy and Management. Text and Cases. Eighth Edition. Lynda M. Applegate. Harvard Business School. Robert D. Austin. Corporate Information Strategy And Management Text And Cases 8th Edition [ PDF] [EPUB] Daniil. Seagul. Download with Google Download. ebook Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases Management: Text and Cases Lynda M Applegate Full eBook, PDF.


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pdf. Corporate information strategy and management: Text and cases. 4 Pages Rayner Caine. ISMT E Information Systems Management -- Syllabus. Corporate Information Strategy and Management Text and Cases Eighlh Edition .. Jot down your answers and use the insights from this book to address areas. [Matching item] Corporate Information Strategy and Management Text and Cases Hardcover - 7 edition. - 8th ed. / Lynda M. Applegate, Robert D. Austin, Deborah L. Soule.

In my view. He was concerned. Make an effort to understand them-the pressures they face, the objectives they have to fulfill. In the same time period. Harreld still faced execution issues and still required added staff to his group to provide expertise and investment.

Do we have the right business and IT leaders given our goals for its lise? Gerstner was brought in not to rescue the company 5. Professors lynda M. Harvard Business School Case What made IBM a taneously manage disciplined execution. For executive ofTiccr. Applegate and Robert D. Beginning in the first LOll Gerstner. While many the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate effec.

Between and Can the and emerging opportunities. I BM began posting substantial losses. Sam Palmisano. As you read the case. Gerstner took charge. What factors led to your definition of greatness? Case rEM's Decade of Transformation: Turnaround to Growth This is my last annual letter to you. IBM Annual Report. But the insights from lenges did Gerstner and his successor. To many observers today. I want to L1SC this occasion to promising.

His comment. What actions did Gerstner take when the executives who led the company through one of the he assumed the role of CEO in April How well most spectacular turnarounds in history makes the did he perform as a turnaround manager?

What chal- IBM case a leadership classic. John company in the world. IBM lost a In In April In my view. By the time was completing a transformation designed to you read this. He will be the world leader in an industry that expected to rcsponsible for shaping our strategic direction as well as keep growing spectacularly. IBM's Dc 'ade of lhUlsformation: But all was not well within IBM. Sam Palmisano will be our new chief position it for success in the next decade.

Palmisano and the senior executive team were Company Background committed to returning the company to greatness. October Are you doing something of such excellence that if executives inside IBM knew that the company had your company went away it would leave an unfillablc not yet found what they had begun to call "The hole?

While the press hailed the turnaround. I is performance. Technology and Manufacturing. Thomas J. In no time. Second you need a unique impact. IBM company is substantially superior to an investment began growing again-but at a slower rate than in lhe general market. At the threshold of the computer era in Catalyzed by the Internet boom Jim Collins. Watson joined the become the dominant design for the next 40 company and began instituting many of the years.

NOI just relative and the massive technology spending needed to to your pasl but such that an investment in your ready businesses for the new millennium. June By The criteria for genuine greatness are daunting. Gerstner passed the reins of up to them. Gerstner learned from customers. Ollrce noncore extended enterpri. IBM became the world's an early version of the automatic teller machine.

July In a bold So dominant was IBM by the late s that it move. Stahilize and huild Goal: Lead indu. Watson Jr. Large companies: Justice Department. ExeClllive Channel: March The With its on-time launch in J. Rip oul co. By the mids. Rather than push produced a series of related IT innovations.

Strategy I'rOlJul: Expand to 5. IBM's products were 5Spencer Ante. In the same time period. Expand internationally Markel: Expand to consumer key cu. Once you sold a mainframc. And I fewer purchases of mainframes. The platform. Austin and R. The company was blinded by hubris.

Turnaround alternative to mainframes for many applications. Sitling astride one of sheet. That weakening was. A Space Odyssey based on the novel years. The profit umbrella it created paid for many or the of the same name by Arthur C. Turnaround Business School Publishing. H-A-L was said to be derived from I-B. Harvard 10 R. IBM was. IBM Canada. Worse than that. In addition. IBM PC as being inferior. Compaq as returns on sales. This It had a huge effect on revenue because we not only degree of interoperability was unusual at the time the VAX recorded sales from the ncw shipments.

IBM attained the status of a cultural business that increased revenue as well. HAL During this time. It was like icon when Stanley Kubrick's acclaimed "eating your own children. We used mainframe thinking. John computer that gained wide popularity in the s. Clarke paid inefficiencies we built up over the years. Services 2. Company documents and annual reports. Services 4. Provision benefit for income taxes 2.

Cash and cash equivalents 3. Common stock 3. Current liabilities: Taxes 2. Receivables 0 0 Depreciation and amortization 2.

Proceeds from disposition of marketable securities and other investments PC installations. IBM [was] a driven decision-making culture. In Decisions "made sleeping giant losing its golden egg. Warranty costs reached record levels. At the heart of the company's problems cut back. IBM had 20 separate business executives offered voluntary retirement packages units. New buildings were being projectors built into their office furniture. When late forecasts suggested continued May Executives According to Fran O'Sullivan.

There retirements on less generous terms if targets were were different designs for components that served not met. I had to dramatic three times the industry average. Akers began cost cutting. There were 3 I private and separate networks and Wc had to implemcnt large-scllle layoffs affecting the literally hundreds of different configurations of majority of employees at several mid-Hudson Valley sites.

Employee and customers became more vocal about quality perks such as fitness center memberships were problems. While the jobs of some were saved by the parts of the company for accomplishing the same creation in May of the Integrated Systems thing. Many lives were affected by these difficult but problems by deep levelsofhierarchy. Armies got into trouble. By early April Prepared presentations dominated Parts of the company were still operating in even informal meetings.

Some shared services within IBM were its evolved product complexity and the were subjected to external competition. We couldn't leverage the sales and of staff members attended executive meetings. We saw them as outdated numerous "pre-meetings" in which the staff worked and irrelevant. We came lingering in hallways or-in the case of very hat in hand for help. See Exhibit 3 for IBM organization charts in series of personnel reductions began as senior and It was a very lough.

Then as our business matured. Now it's Dell. Data processing costs were a Thc mid-Hudson Valley was where I grew up. The company had mainframe business was in freefall. Nothing I've experienced has been worse than thllt. The targets were not met. Lalltcnbaek E P. Cannavino Systcms E. Burdick D. Toole R. Hancock J. Libera J.: Cannavino R. Puckett R. Rivcrso N. Lautenback Chairman of the Board M. LaBant D N.

Ritzo 8 J D. Donofrio 1'. Burrhck M. Evangelbta R.

Lynda Applegate Corporate Information Strategy and Management

S AbllZayyad R. Attardo R. Thompson Note: The Letters represent the member of the Management Committee to whom each business unit head rcports. I Corp. Kavetas Armstrong J. Hancock P. Lallam J. Kuchler E. Toole H. L Kavctas J. Armstrong N. Kingdom M. Vice Prcl. Senior Vice President. HicLcy Ii.

Chairman P. I-- L. Laulenbach J.. CUllllavioo G.. Forese I I Vicc I'resident. Governmental Prognuns Rcsean.. Thoman E. Toole N. York I'..

Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases

Treasurer F. Harreld J. TIlompSl l1 R. AUn and R. York B. B Kalib D. Rizzo J. Turnaround Controller J. Wonh J. The new CEO's assigned customer accounts and accountable for involvement in a sales meeting in the spring any problems that arose.

I'll have lunch investors and others regarding his attitude about with them. Gerstner Hewlett-Packard declined to be considered. He made quickly realized that "putting the customer first" the executives personally responsible for their was no mere slogan for Gerstner.

High-profile candidates such as Jack afternoon. The board's choice. When and pursuing opportunities. George Fisher Motorola. Etherington explained Gerstner's reaction: To prevent "brain drain" to competitors.

I'll have breakfast with them. He asked. These papers became the invitation finally went out. Gerstner pointedly So hc saicl and I remember this: In fact.. Big banks. In you guys all over the world. Gerstner real ized that rather in a successful enterprise. And any IBM cxecutive who wants to attend pay for performance.

December Louis V Gerstner. General Motors. As one executive put it. He was the disk drive company. IBM asked each of the executives to write two papers. These are your best customers. IllIroduclion 17 company. Larry Bossidy Allied customers! The Leading through Crisis one thing that you guys do that no one else can do is help us integrate and create solutions. IBM's on each senior executive to go out to a group senior executives. Gerstner called After Gerstner took charge in April A lot of people say.

I'll have dinner in the option repricing. SBUs had been created around products. The PC division exempli fied the changes made Gcrstner saw the SBU [stnucgic business unit] as fatally within business units. A similarly sized of expense to revenue 42 percent in needed profit followed in the first quarter of to be reduced by 9 percent. Key savings came from reducing the the standard used to communicate and share information number of data centers from to 3 regional on the Internet.

IT leadership Gerstner hired Jerry York. The results were daunting: We need to integratc while preserving our Nabisco. York and Gerstner approved layoffs of over IBM posted a competitors. By year-end years. Gerstner pulled divisions into not a core competency and that IBM's dedicated larger business groups and formed the Corporate PC factories came with high fixed costs. American Express. Thoman killed that?

How do you do head the troubled PC division. Another and moving all products under that brand. Known for wearing Harley-Davidson tee shirts Networks were converted to one common protocol with a cigarette pack rolled up in a sleeve. Gerstner nawed for IBM. Opting company's stock price had doubled as investors for the single swing of the scythe rather than the voted with confidence in the decision to fix- slow and traumatic reductions of the previous few rather than break up and sell-IBM.

January In January York launched a from By the third quarter of In responsc to numerous IBM" especially difficult. Thcy believed global customer complaints, a customer relationship managers could not be relied upon to make the manager and a dedicated sales and service team right choices for local markets and that initiatives were appointed for each key customer account.

The product specialists served found out that his notes to employees were being as boundary spanners, moving back and forth rewritten by country managers to "better fit their between focused product groups and key account environment.

Product country managers resigned. Those who stayed specialists reportcd to the product organization, were rapidly elevated to key positions. Despite but incentives rewarded increased sales of their pockets of resistance, Gerstner was impressed by products through industry sales teams.

We needed 10 have a sense that we were In early , Gerstner, writing at his kitchen going to operate as a team, as a global entity, and table, set out eight operating principles for doing that was tolally foreign to the culture. He made no attempt change to get people to do Ihat. Compensation changes, to incorporate the "Basic Beliefs," developed organization changes, lots of things. To me ii'S a credit to by Watson. See Exhibit 4 for Gerstner's eight the inherent strength of the people who were in IBM that so many of them were able to make the transition.

It's principles and a comparison to IBM's original one of the most remarkable things that happencd. As cost cutting got underway, Gerstner also As Gerstner traveled to different company sites, he focused the organization on becoming "One IBM" met with employees to explain the principles and in terms ofhow the company operated.

In late , how to put them into action. He wrote frequent Gerstner assigned each member of the Corporate "Dear Colleague" notes directly to the employees Executive Committee CEC responsibility when he wanted to convey important information. He he was going to send them; we got them when set two priorities for these projects: I Get cost everybody else got them. The At the top of the organization was a leadership tcam redesigned processes would form the foundation that rcally wanted to speed up the pace of change.

The for sustained cost competitiveness and best-in- customer-facing parts of the organization were rcady for class operations as the company embarked on change and agreed with the direction the company was the growth phase of its transformation. Unwieldy taking. But there was a group of people inlhe middle executive governance structures and processes who didn', want to have anything to do with it. They just were removed, and Gerstner made it emphatically wanted it to go away.

They wanted it to be the way it clear that senior executives were unambiguously used to always bC. Watson, Jr. An organization, like an individual, must build on a bedrock of sound beliefs if it is to survive and succeed. It must stand by these beliefs in conducting its business. Every manager must live by these beliefs in the actions he or she takes and in the decisions he or she makes. Respect for the Individual Our basic belief is respect for the individual, for his or her rights and dignity.

It follows from this principle that IBM should: Maintain two-way communications between manager and employee, with opportunity for a fair hearing and eqUitable settlement of disagreements. Service to the Customer We are dedicated to giving our customers the best possible service. Our products and services bring profits only to the degree that they serve the customer and satisfy his or her needs.

This demands that we: Know our customers needs and help them anticipate future needs. Help customers use OUf products and services in the best possible way. Provide superior equipment maintenance and supporting services. Therefore, we believe that every task, in every part of the business, should be performed in a superior manner and to the best of our ability. Nothing should be left to chance in our pursuit of excellence. For example, we must: Managers Must Lead Effectively Our success depends on intelligent and aggressive management which is sensitive to the need for making an enthusiastic partner of every individual in the organization.

This requires that managers: Provide the kind of leadership that will motivate employees to do their jobs in a superior way. Meet frequently with all their people. Plan for the future by keeping ao open mind to new ideas, whatever the source. Obligations to Stockholders IBM has obligations to its stockholders whose capital has created our jobs. These require us to: Take care of the property our stockholders have entrusted to us.

Exploit opportunities for continuing profitable growth. Fair Deal for the Supplier We want to deal fairly and impartially with suppliers of goods and services. We should: Select suppliers according to the quality of their products or services, their general reliability, and competitiveness of prices.

Avoid suppliers becoming unduly dependent on IBM. IBM Should Be a Good Corporate Citizen We accept our responsibilities as a corporate citizen in community, national, and world affairs; we serve our interests best when we serve the public interest.

We believe that the immediate and long-term public interest is best served by a system of competing enterprises. Therefore, we believe we should compete vigorously, but in a spirit of fair play, with respect for our competitors, and with respect for the law.

In communities where IBM facilities are located, we do our utmost to help create an environment in which people want to work and live. We acknowledge our obligation as a business institution to help improve the quality of the society we are part of.

We want to be in the forefront of those companies which are working to make our world a better place. Company documenls; and R. At our core, we are a technology company with an overriding commitment to quatity.

Strategy text management corporate cases pdf information and and

We never lose sight of our strategic vision. Company documenls; and L M. Dedication to every client's success. This dedication spurs us to go "above and beyond" on our clients' behalf. IBMers are focused on outcomes.

We sell products, services, and solutions, but all with the goal of helping our clients succeed, however they measure success. IBMers demonstrate this personal dedication to every client, from the largest corporation and government agency to the startup and neighborhood market. Every IBMer, no matter where he or she works, has a role in client success.

It requires the full spectrum of IBM expertise. IBMers Value: Innovations that matter for our company and the world. We believe in progress, believe that the application of intelligence, reason, and science can improve business, society, and the human condition.

IBMers love grand challenges, as well as everyday improvements. Whatever the problem or the context, every lBMer seeks ways to tackle it creatively-to be an innovator. IBMers strive to be first-in technology, in business, in responsible policy.

IBMers take informed risks and champion new sometimes unpopular ideas. Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships. IBMers actively build relationships with all the constituencies of our business-including clients, partners, communities, investors, and fellow IBMers. IBMers build trust by listening, following through, and keeping their word.

IBMers rely on our colleagues to do the right thing.

ebook Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases …

IBMers preserve trust even when formal relationships end. Initial efforts were targeted at core processes of Finance, Integrated Supply Chain, explained such as procurement, manufacturing, new-product how procurement, logistics, and fulfillment development, information technology, research, processes were standardized and streamlined to human resource management, and finance.

Donofrio, the CEC executive responsible for In As manufacturing, explained: In our hardware businesses, we looked the outside that could perform the activity befter, faster, across all of our projccts and found that our time to market and cheapcr than us, we outsourced the physical activity was much longer than that of our competitors; in fact, in and kept the strategy, planning, and management.

To address these problcms, we developed a warehousing and distribution to a third-party partner. The process specified a [explained later in the case]. As a result of the new process and Within one year of reengineering procurement standards. And even. The killer application, no new staIT were addcd. See Appendix for a Gerstner argued, would be business-to-business summary of benefits due to cost-cutting and e-commerce in which the Internet and its associated reengineering efforts.

The Internet Waking Up to the Internet was not about personal computers, either, he said. How did a company would require increasingly powerful computers- that had lagged behind every computer trend since the called servers-that were capable of handling mainframe catch the Internet wave?

Galy Hamel. In his serve as a platform to reignite growth and industry autobiography, Gerstner commented: As part of an early effort to rebuild the IBM brand around the "One IBM" theme, in The concepl of e-business galvanized our workforce and June , Gerstner hired Abby Kohnstamm as created a coherent context lor our hundreds of products senior vice president of marketing.

One of the first and services. The V lst new challenges of networked programs that she oversaw was IBM's sponsorship computing reenergized M research and triggered a new golden agc ofteehnieal lchievement tor the company. Most of the Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, important, the investment did what we wanted to do at the Norway.

A grassroots of decisions through the remainder of Gerstner's Web movement within the company was soon watch with regard to which products and channeled into a corporate strategy. See Exhibit 5 businesses to exit, what to enhance, and what to for a description of how a bottom-up groundswell acquire. Gerstner made enormous investments in launched a strategy revolution in IBM.

Internet products and services at a time when few In November Gerstner announced executives of major companies had put the words 'Ie-business" as IBM's strategic vision. His "Internet" and "strategy" together. See Exhibit 7 message, which in the early days of the Internet for a summary of key acquisitions and divestitures was considered revolutionary, was that the between and This section draws on the information provided the tools and technology that served as the in this article.

July Allgusl Establish a point of view. In a world of people who stand for nothing more than more of the same, a sharply articulated point of view POV is your greatest asset. It's a sword that lets you slay the dragons of precedent.

It's a rudder that lets you steer a steady course when others are blown about by fad and whim. And it's a beacon that attracts those who are looking for something worthy of their allegiance. A powerful POV is credible, coherent, compelling, and commercial. To be credible, it must be founded on unimpeachable data. To be compelling, it must speak to people's emotions, telling them why your cause will make a difference in their world.

To be commercial, it must have a clear link to the bottom line. Write a manifesto. It's not enough to have a POV; you have to be able to pass it on, to infect others with your ideas.

Like Thomas Paine, whose Common Sense became the inspiration for the American Revolution, you have to write a manifesto. It doesn't have to be long, but it must capture people's imaginations. It must paint a picture of what is and what is coming that causes discomfort. And it must provide a vision that inspires others. Create a coalition. You can't change the direction of your company all by yourself. You need to build a coalition, a group of colleagues who share your vision and passion.

It's easy to dismiss corporate rebels when they are fragmented and isolated. But when they present themselves as a coordinated group, speaking in a single voice, they cannot be ignored. And remember, as you struggle to attract recruits to your cause, you will have an advantage over top management. Your army will be made up of volunteers; theirs will be composed of conscripts.

Information and management corporate text and cases pdf strategy

Conscripts fight to stay alive; volunteers fight to win. Pick your targets. Sooner or later, a manifesto has to become a mandate if it's going to make a difference. The movement has to get the blessing of "the suits.

Ultimately, the support of senior management is the object of your crusade. Make an effort to understand them-the pressures they face, the objectives they have to fulfill. Find some who are searching for help and ideas, and go after them. If necessary, bend your ideals a bit to fit their goals. And don't forget that leaders are often more receptive to new thinking than are the minions who serve them.

Co-opt and neutralize. Some activists further their causes by confronting and embarrassing their adversaries. Such tactics may work in the public sphere, but in a business setting they'll probably get you fired. You need to disarm and co-opt, not demean and humiliate. To win over IBM's feudal lords, john Patrick constructed a set of win-win propositions for them: Lend me some talent, and I'll build a showcase for your products. Let me borrow a few of your top people, and I'll send them back with prototypes of cool new products.

Reciprocity wins converts; ranting leaves you isolated and powerless. Find a translator. Imagine how a buttoned-down dad looks at a daughter who comes home with green hair and an eyebrow ring. That's the way top management is likely to view you and your co- conspirators. And that's why you need a translator, someone who can build a bridge between you and the people with the power.

He helped the top brass understand the connection between the apparent chaos of the Web and the disciplined world of large-scale corporate computing. Senior staffers and newly appointed executives are often good translator candidates-they're usually hungry for an agenda to call their own.

Win small, win early, win often. None of your organizing efforts is worth anything if you can't demonstrate that your ideas actually work. You need results. Start small. Unless you harbor kamikaze instincts, search for demonstration projects that won't sink you or your cause if they should fail-for some of them will fail. You may have to put together a string of successful projects before top management starts throwing money your way.

You have to help your company feel its way toward revolutionary opportunities, step by step. And as your record of wins gets longer, you'll find it much easier to make the transition from an isolated initiative to an integral part of the business. Not only will you have won the battles; you will have won the war. Anywhere Anytime Access. Storage ap.. Divestitures Hardware 1 3 1 3 3 12 7 5 9 7 Software 0 0 0 1 4 0 2 1 1 0 Services 0 0 2 2 9 6 9 4 4 4 Financing 1 1.

Acquisitions Hardware 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 Software 0 4 9 4 4 4 4 1 6 5 Services 0 5 7 8 9 12 7 4 4 1. The S million acquisition was also a strong drawing card.

Fueled by record of Tivoli Systems filled the distributed systcms growth in the sale of Internet-related services and dcvelopment and management software void. More importantly, the passion neutralizing the advantage ofany specific operating that had come from surviving its "near-death system, network, software application, or hardware experience" and then riding the wave of what many platform by shifting focus from proprietary to in the company were beginning to call the "next open technology.

Reading a monthly report. Gerstner found a line buried having to compete in every product category. Gerstner, a temperamental were weak, IBM could partner with best-in-breed type, was incensed.

Ilow oRen did this happen? But at within an open networked platform also had only 5. When units. By shifting resources and attention to Gerstner learned that funding for one of his key services, by , IBM Global Services IGS had new-business initiatives in Life Sciences had been grown to be the world's largest IT consulting and cancelled by line management in order to contain Web services organization, providing 38 percent short-term costs, he "blew his stack.

While IBM had plenty While vendor independence was sometimes an of great ideas and inventions-in fact, IBM Research was granted more patents each year than 26 Gerstner picked Sam Palmisano to run rGS from any other company in the world-Harreld found to Palmisano is the guy who made it work: Garvin and L.

Wall Street Journal Europe, May 22, In fact, the focus on flawless unsuccessfully, to apply a single approach to execution and short-term results had intensified organizing and leading-one that was designed under the ruthless cost cutting necessary to survive for large established businesses-to its high- during the s.

In addition, while common growth and start-up businesses. While it was fairly business and it didn't fall within a natural line straightforward to identify current businesses and of business, it was hard to develop," Paul Horn, then categorize them as either mature or high senior vice president of Research, recalled. This job fell to [lines of business] tried to fund ideas with loose, the Corporate Strategy group. Emerging Business Opportunities EBOs and the See Exhibit 8 for a summary of the study findings decision of where in the organization to allocate on causes of new-business failure at IBM.

On the As part of his research on best practices for one hand, many argued that EBOs should represent commercializing innovation, Harreld came across cross-business initiatives and should be managed a book entitled The Alchemy of Growth, J3 which at the corporate level under the watchful eye of the advocated dividing a company's portfolio of Corporate Executive Committee CEC. But others, business initiatives into three "horizons.

Baghai et aI. Levesque, "Emerging Business. Perseus Press, Adapted rrom D. Gap, in and L. Our management system rewards execution directed at short-term results and does not place enough value on strategic business building.

We are preoccupied with our current markets and existing offerings. Our approach to gathering and using market insights is inadequate for emerging markets, technologies, and businesses. We lack established disciplines and processes for selecting, experimenting, funding, and terminating new business growth.

Once identified and funded, many IBM ventures fail due to poor execution. Rallying behind the "One had also led various cross-business initiatives and IBM" vision and values that had helped pull together was currently responsible for its Life Scienees the company during crisis, the CEC decided to business-which had been selected as one of organize EBOs to ensure corporate guidance and the initial EBOs.

While Thompson was the only oversight while maintaining business unit line IBM executive devoted full-time to the EBO manager authority and accountability. In doing so, initiative, both Harreld and Donofrio and their IBM sought to build innovation capabilities where respective units devoted a percentage of their time they were needed in the divisions, focus business to ensuring the success of the EBOs.

The criteria for selecting EBOs into their ultimate business "home. Scc Exhibit Strategy group led by Harreld and the Under Thompson, the corporate EBO process Corporatc Technology and Manufacturing group functioned effectivcly but relatively informally for led by Donofrio to report to Thompson.

Thc its first two years. In addition to "evangelizing" appointment of Thompson, a respected strategist the need for a commitment to innovation and and operating executive who deeply understood growth and for developing different management IBM and its technology, signaled to everyone in the eompany that Gerstner meant business.

Adapled from D.. Ilaghal Cl al. Books Group. Author ba. Not every weB you drill yields oil. Harreld considered whether it was process and approaches and project-based metrics time to transition them into an H2 management for managing them.

IBM had developed a new management takes a rare mix of expertise. Harreld was also concerned about leadership in project management. We're were established. It was really hard to accommodate the more uncertain and experimental teach ourselves to focus. Harreld promised the board that EBOs would add two points in incremental revenue 36 Author interview. Digital Media grew 60 percent to S Three EBOs were dropped technology risk by completing a key phase of the because early results suggested that the business product development process.

Of the original 18 traditional business review process. Life Sciences and Business Transformation leader.

Three additional EBOs business plans and to measure the progress made blade servers. Fashioned on the company's came in. One thing we have done to help maintain Tn Donofrio going 10 place a lot of bets and be in a position to redefined IBM's product-development process to capitalize early.

Harreld still faced execution issues and still required added staff to his group to provide expertise and investment. Along Although efforts were made to identify expenses the way.

He was concerned. Given that 15 of for a summary of kcy categories of risk and the EBOs had entered or were entering the high- uncertainty during early phases of the innovation growth phase. Monthly and quarterly Basically.

Corporate Strategy resources to pay by interviewing key customers or reducing became strained See Exhibit I I models were not sustainable. By so mueh energy. Success As the number of EBOs requiring corporate against these project-based milestones could oversight and guidance grew to 18 and.

But that's the from EBO through high growth and maturity. Harreld divisions. Experiment to reduce uncertainty and add time to Do we have effective operating controls? Winter 2. If high levels of com. Sample Project-Based Metrics dination costs?

Of course. IBM had capitalized on the backlash very early stages. By year- have been hitting thc planet all at once. We are in the In addition. PwC industry and for IBM. Wladawsky-Bergcr-well regarded as to a halt.. While many end The last decade has been a period of tremendous which had dcclined during I and From a technology perspective. And just as important. We commit to innovating to deliver client But it's also apparent that. In a word we lost sight of IBM's mission. Over most of our nearly best when they create value that our clients cannot get 1OO-year history.

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