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The Zohar: annotations to the Ashlag commentary / Michael Laitman. 1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 1. Ashlag, Yehudah. Perush ha-sulam. 2. Zohar. download baixar o livro zohar em portugues pdf - baixar o livro zohar future minidax?, a voz da cabala-pdf - kabbalahfo - o que então motivara o. In recent years, a newly awakened interest in the Kabbalah and the Zohar has on The Zohar in English,” caite.info caite.info L. Colomé (México: Berbera, ); Scholem, Zoar: o livro do esplendor, trans.

Petersburg MS. Samuel b. Paulist Press, We are thus obliged to decree in the power of the Divine Presence Shechina which never left the Wailing Wall, and in the power of the holy Torah, that no son of Israel should be allowed to read the above mentioned printed Idrot in other languages, under any circumstance. Despite Scholem reaching the conclusion that the Zohar is a pseudo- epigraphic work written by Rabbi Moses de Leon, he believed that its value as one of the most notable books in Jewish literature — and mystical literature in general — was not blemished. Mohr Siebeck, ,

The Zohar — a mixture of the deepest of the deep truisms and fantasies, straight and crooked lines, straight and misleading paths, it, perfect, and clear sketches and alien and strange ones, the strength of a lion and the weakness of a child, the sound of cascading waters and the whisper of a spring, pits of darkness and caves of mysteries, brevity, clarity, and acuity of eternal wisdom and prolonged discussions that continue endlessly, iniltrating one another and interweaving as in a long and complex dream.

Frenk, like other thinkers of his time, emphasized the value of the Zohar as a national Jewish text: This is how the Zohar shed its spirit over all of us, over all the sons of our nation; it was absorbed in our blood, our soul, our spirit and our essence, and it implant- ed within us gentleness and innocence, mercy and forgiveness, the aspiration for greatness, glory, magniicence; it ridiculed the sufferings of exile and the tortures of this world, mocked the obstacles and hurdles in our lives, which characterize our people and are rarely found among the nations.

The purpose is to allow those who know Hebrew, in abundance or little, at least something from something out of the beauty found in the Zohar, from these things that became, as said, a part of our soul, our spirit, our essence, we decided to choose a collection of tales from this book and edit these in a way that they would be understood by anyone, young and old, those who learned Hebrew and are used to reading a bit in the Holy books… We believe that in this book we will successfully integrate the beauty of the books of Kabbalah into the new Hebrew literature, intended for both those who know and those who are learning Hebrew.

Alongside his great admiration for the Zohar he claims: My main worry was that the gentle intoxicating scent that emanates from the original words would not dissipate in translation. That nothing would be lost from the wonderful poetic spirit, from the lofty vividness that they excel in, by its being 82 Azriel Nathan Frenk, Sefer agadot hazohar Warsaw: Achiasaf, —4 , vol.

Zoharic articles translated into Hebrew were printed by Setzer in volumes 24—23 and 38—39 of the journal Ha-Doar Mahbarot le-Sifrut, , — That as far as possible nothing would be lost from the enormous impression the words in their original form can have on the reader even when these will be read from my translation.

In the interval between the two world wars, two publishing houses initiated a comprehensive undertaking of translating the Zohar into Hebrew. Working in Berlin, the national poet Hayim Nahman Bialik — introduced a plan to publish the Zohar in Hebrew with Dvir publishing house, however the plan was never consummated. The rabbi who translated it his name is Rosentzweig only collected a few homilies from each portion and translated them into imprecise and unbecoming rabbinical Hebrew.

Journal for the Study of Jewish Mystical Texts 10 It is only suitable for young people. A comprehensive edition of the Zohar in English was prepared for the irst time only in the s, by the Soncino Press.

They were assisted by the scholar, rabbi, and Theosophist Joshua Abelson, who wrote the introduction to the edition. Indeed herein may be said to lie the undying service which the Cabbalism has rendered Judaism, whether as creed or as life.

The supreme rebutter of such taunts and objections is Cabbalah. The arid ield of Rabbinism was always kept well watered and fresh by the living streams of Cabbalistic lore. Dvir, , 41, 46 Hebrew. Soncino, —34 , xi. Only in the past few decades, as we will see, have additional comprehensive translations into English been done, with the intention of replacing this edition.

The Hebrew Translations of Rabbi Yehuda Yudel Rosenberg and Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag In the same period, the Zohar was also translated into Hebrew among tradi- tional circles in response to the awakening interest in the Zohar among Jewish scholars and Zionists and perhaps also in response to the interest non-Jews showed in the Kabbalah and the Zohar at the time.

Rabbi Yehuda Yudel Rosenberg — , a Hassidic Polish rabbi who immigrated to Canada in , translated large portions of the Zoharic literature a translation which, recall, won a belittling critique from Hillel Zeitlin. Rosenberg began his project of translating and editing the Zohar in Hebrew in Poland and continued in Canada. He edited the Zoharic articles in the order of the Torah portions, and printed his translation with a short commentary called Ziv HaZohar the light of the Zohar , alongside the Aramaic source.

Like the traditional translators preceding him, Rosenberg refrained from translating the more esoteric sec- tions of the Zohar, such as Sifra Detzniuta and the Idrot. The irst volume was published in Warsaw in and the complete translation was published later in Montreal and New York, between — Rosenberg presents his 96 Ibid.

Reprint New York: Rosalg, And we see that because of our numerous transgressions books of heresy are greatly increasing during these times and their buyers are many. They succeed in catching souls in their net by glamorizing the books in all kinds of embellishment.

This is principally because these books are written in a clear and easy language. And the holy books, full of the light of the holy Torah, are set aside in the corner. In particular the holy book of Zohar which is regarded as something that is obscure, that is not understood, like some kind of amulet.

Thus, in his paraphrase of the words of the sixteenth-century Kabbalist Rabbi Avraham Azulai, Rosenberg identiies Schechina, the Divine presence, as the national light: The translation and interpretation of the Zohar, Hasulam the ladder is the inal literary undertaking of Rabbi Ashlag, who previously had worked mainly on writing commentaries on Lurianic texts, which is the context in which he developed his unique Kabbalistic doctrines.

In his 99 Ibid. Imanuel Ataias, , 7a. And now in this generation, as we are already nearing the end of the last two thousand years, permission has been granted to reveal his [i. Contrary to the Kabbalists in earlier periods who suficed with translations of the peshat of the Zohar, and in con- trast to Rabbi Yudel Rosenberg, who refrained from translating the esoteric portions as did the translators of the Soncino edition to English , Rabbi Ashlag interpreted and translated the entire Zohar except for tikkunei Zohar that were translated after he died by his disciple Rabbi Yehuda Zvi Brandwin.

In an article he wrote after Hasulam was printed he asserted that the scope of his commentary and translation project served as proof that his generation had reached the days of redemption: And here is the strong proof that our generation has reached the days of the Messiah because our eyes see that all the previous commentaries of the Book of Zohar did not even explain ten percent of the most dificult parts of the Zohar and even the little they did were as abstruse as the words of the Zohar itself.

In this generation we have been given the interpretation of Hasulam, which is a complete interpretation of the words of the Zohar and does not leave any ambiguity of the Zohar unexplained. And these explanations are based on the simple analytic common sense that any average reader can understand. Following the above he wrote: Itur Rabanim, , Kabbalah Research Center, , — And therefore we have been granted redemption of our holy land from the hands of the gentiles. We have also been granted the revelation of the Book of Zohar.

Some of the Jewish scholars discussed above who dealt with translating the Zohar Hillel Zeitlin, Nathan Frank and Joshua Abelson received academic training. Yet, the most outstanding rep- resentative of the academic approach to the study of the Kabbalah and the Zohar in the twentieth century is Gershom Scholem who, similar to other Jewish scholars previously discussed, turned to the study of Jewish mysticism under the impact of Zionist ideology and the inluence of the neo-romantic trends of the early twentieth century.

Despite Scholem reaching the conclusion that the Zohar is a pseudo- epigraphic work written by Rabbi Moses de Leon, he believed that its value as one of the most notable books in Jewish literature — and mystical literature in general — was not blemished.

He asserted: Again and again one is struck by the simultaneous presence of crudely primitive modes of thought and feeling and of ideas whose profound contemplative mysticism is transparent… a very remarkable personality in whom as in so many mystics, profound and naive modes of thought existed side by side. A Chapter from the Zohar , which included a German translation of the beginning of the book of Zohar and a historical introduction.

Later on, in , Scholem published a selection of Zoharic articles translated into English, in partnership with Sherry Abel. Later this anthology was translated into many other languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Dutch.

In his introduction to his German translation, Scholem criticized the translations of the Zohar that preceded it in German and other European languages, without mentioning speciics. Scholem, Le Zohar: Le livre de la splendeur, trans. Ochs Paris: Seuil, ; Scholem, El Zohar: Berbera, ; Scholem, Zoar: Editora Renes, ; Scholem, Zohar: Il Libro dello splendore, ed.

Loewenthal Torino: Einaudi, ; Scholem, De Zohar, kabbalistische fragmenten, Amsterdam: Schoone, Basic Readings from the Kabbalah New York: Schocken, [] , He found little interest in spreading the Zohar to the broader public and integrating it in con- temporary culture. The irst volume of the book, which includes thematic introductions to the Zohar accompanied by translations of relevant passages, was published by the Bialik press in The second volume was published in and a shorter version was published by the Dorot press in Keter, , Isaiah Tishby, La Kabbale: Anthologie du Zohar, traduction francaise de I.

Rouch Paris: Berg International, In , an English translation was published: Isaiah Tishby, The Wisdom of the Zohar, trans. David Goldstein Oxford: The Littman Library, The translation itself is unreliable. The original text was not corrected in the least and in many places the translation is inaccurate.

Nor does the style match that of the Zohar. In his ex- planatory notes many matters are introduced that have nothing to do with the literal meaning of the Zohar. According to Zeev Gries, it was Gershom Scholem who urged Bialik press to cancel their contract with Horodetzky, and persuaded Tishby to connect with Lachover to complete the project.

Consequentially, Horodetzky sued the Bialik Institute, and they published his preface in a separate edition. In the last decades of the twentieth century and the begin- ning of the twenty-irst, additional anthologies of Zoharic articles in English, translated by scholars afiliated with academic institutions, were published Runes Dagbort D.

Philosophical Library, An interesting translation is that of the Sifra Detzniuta and the Idrot done according to the original say the authors by two engineers, who claimed that the anthropomorphic imagery of the texts is a description of a machine to produce manna.

Duckworth, Ktav Publishing House, Matt, The Book of Enlightenment Mahwa: Paulist Press, ; The translations were reprinted in Daniel. C Matt, Zohar: Annotated and Explained Woodstock, Paths publishing, Scholars Press, Englander and Herbet W. Princeton University Press, Medieval Institute Publication, , — Oxford University Press, , — Giller also translated the portion known as Idra debi Mashkana: The translation is of a shorter version of the text, found in Ms.

Vatican Pritzker Edition. Yet, these comprehensive Zohar projects present a different position than that of Scholem regarding the spreading of the Zohar and its place in modern culture. Both Matt and Mopsik prepared full translations of the Zohar, rather than anthologies of translated Zoharic articles. Verdier, — Matt, The Zohar, Pritzker Edition, vols.

I determined to sponsor such a translation… My family and I now present the Zohar to the English reading public, with the hope that the radiance that lows from this great work and from the Jewish mystical tradition will bring light to those who seek it. The New Age of Zohar Translations There has been extensive activity in translations of the Zohar in the late twentieth and early twenty-irst centuries.

Editorial Sigal, — are based on that of de Pauly. Ankh-Hermes, Kania Krakow: Literackie, Holnap Kiado, This collection was also translated into English, Spanish and French. In the introduction Edri engages in lengthy discussions of the authorship of the Zohar, the history of the Kabbalah, the structure of the Zohar, commentaries of the Zohar, and other subjects. He accepts the traditional position regarding the antiquity of the Zohar, and repeats the eschatological claim as a justiication for the translation project.

Litvak, Jerusalem: Lederman, Jerusalem: Haktav Institute, Yerid Hasefarim, In addition to translations of the Zohar into Hebrew, an anthology of Zoharic articles translated into English with commentary was prepared by Rabbi Moshe Miller, a member of the Habad Hasidic movement. The trans- lation, completed by Michael Berg, was published in twenty-three volumes between — The edition begins with lengthy intro- ductions by Philip Berg, the founder of the Kabbalah Center, and his son Michael, which present the neo-Kabbalistic ideas of their movement.

The Bergs accept traditional Kabbalistic perceptions regarding the authenticity of the Zohar, its authority and its holiness, but they integrate these perceptions with typical New Age ideas. Accordingly, Michael Berg explains the purpose of his translation project based on the traditional perception that studying and spreading the Zohar will bring redemption closer, but as far as he is concerned redemption equals transformation to a higher level of global consciousness: The following translation of the Zohar strives to open a door to the great cosmic mysteries for those who are genuinely interested in understanding the structure and laws of the universe.

It is thus utterly vital for the spiritual and physical survival of humanity; and its teachings are designed to lead humanity to the days of the Mashiach, the long-prophesized return of the golden age, when peace, compassion, wisdom and love will prevail among people, when harmony will rule in the depths below as it does in the heights above.

Such are the true goals of all metaphysical systems… Transformation of consciousness is the point, for from that comes the elevation of global consciousness, given our current condition, we cannot afford to ignore the gift of these Holy words any longer.

It is time to change the world. Fiftieth Gate Publication, New York: Kabbalah Center International, — The critical moment of change would arrive in conjunction with the Aquarian Age… The Aquarian inluence will be a subtle force that will permit the gradual spread of the Holy Grail until it becomes an integral force of humankind.

To address these inluences, which can at times be positive or negative, the Holy Grail was assigned the task of tapping these positive inluences and eliminate sic the negative inluences. Each year brings with it a host of different inluences. Nevertheless, the scanning-reading charts that will become available after the publishing of the entire Holy Grail, will assign the appropriate section of the Holy Grail to each and every week in any given year.

He speaks out against abridged editions probably referring to the Soncino Edition and against the anthologies that came out in English: Those who think they are familiar with the text, from often highly abridged edi- tions or ones that assemble aphorisms into subject categories, will invariably ind this edition utterly different from what they have been accustomed to thinking of as the Zohar.

The other works are best viewed as being like the trailers one sees Ibid. His objection is directed against academic translators such as Daniel Matt, who began his translation project in the same period.

Those involved with producing this edition were faced with the question of whether to present it in a formal academic manner — with footnotes, scholarly digressing on linguistic matters, and so on — or to offer it to the world in a form as simple and unadorned as possible, so that its purpose would remain solely what it always has been: We chose the latter course, since providing material for yet more obscure treaties on metaphysical the- ology serves no real purpose, but it does betray the real purpose of the Zohar.

For all the translations of the Zohar that have been and continue to be created over the generations, there is one common denominator — the desire to spread it among audiences who are unable to read it in its original format. The various translations, however, differ from one another in the reader-audience they address, in the choice of Zoharic material translated, in the reasons used to justify the translation and in the ideological, political and economic factors that stimulated and enabled the various translation projects.

In several cases, common ideological factors stand behind translations done in different languages. Thus, Sabbatean ideology motivated eighteenth-century Zohar translations into Yiddish and Ladino, with Sabbatean circles also pos- sibly involved in Latin translations of the period. During the Renaissance and the Baroque period, and in the modern era as well, Christian Kabbalists, con- verted Jews and missionaries translated Zoharic articles into Latin, German, French and Yiddish.

Theosophical and occultist circles translated the Zohar Ibid. Jewish scholars afiliated with these circles translat- ed Zoharic articles into Arabic and German. At the outset of the twentieth century, Jewish scholars afiliated with neo-romantic and Zionist circles trans- lated the Zohar into German, Hebrew, Yiddish and English.

Various English, French and Hebrew translations were written in the twentieth and twenty-irst century from an academic perspective, based on a historical-philological re- search approach. Other translations in Hebrew and English were done during this same period by contemporary Jewish Kabbalists, using traditional and neo-Kabbalistic approaches. The various theological and ideological perspectives from which the Zohar translations were created, as well as the diverse audiences they were intended for, formed the nature and scope of the different translations.

Some chose to translate particular sections of the Zohar. Others created anthologies of translated Zoharic articles, which were chosen by different criteria. Christian Kabbalists like Sommer and Norellius chose to translate Zoharic articles that, according to their understanding, conveyed Christian conceptions. Tradition- al Jewish Kabbalistic circles generally chose to translate articles considered Peshat Zohar, mainly anecdotes and moral stories.

The more comprehensive translations written by Jews in the twentieth century, for example the Soncino translation in English and the Yerid Hasefarim in Hebrew, also refrained from translating the most esoteric units of the Zohar, such as the Idrot and Sifra Detzniuta. In fact, it was exactly these esoteric parts that were translated by Sabbateans into Ladino and by the Christian Kabbalist, Knorr von Rosenroth, into Latin.

Following von Rosenroth, these texts became central in occultist circles at the turn of the nineteenth century. In contrast, the modern antholo- gies of Zoharic articles that have been written from an academic perspective are generally divided according to subjects that relect the categories according to which academic research of Kabbalah is carried out.

There was often competition between the different ideological circles behind the Zohar translation projects over the cultural capital and sometimes the economic gains that Zohar translation provided. The more the fame of the Zohar and its value as a cultural commodity increased in communities that were unable to read it in its original tongue, the more competition between various groups around the control of translation and distribution of the Zohar increased as well. As we have seen in this review, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century great interest in the Kabbalah arose among Western esoteric circles in Europe and the United States.

It may well be that the appearance of these translations encouraged the writing of Zohar translations in German and later in English by Jewish translators that were mostly based on the Aramaic original. These translations drew critique from Gershom Scholem and his disciples, who claimed that they did not adhere to rigorous academic standards. The academic scholars created translations in Hebrew, German and English that deployed historical and philological tools. The competition over the cultural capital of the Zohar also encouraged the creation of Zohar translations in Jewish Kabbalistic circles.

In the late twentieth and beginning of the twenty-irst century interest in the Zohar and the Kabbalah is growing in many circles, resulting in intensive Zohar translation activity, mostly English, French and Hebrew. As we saw, three new translations of the Zohar in Hebrew have appeared in the past few decades by Daniel Frish, Yechiel Bar Lev and Shlomo Cohen , which were all created in orthodox circles.

In my opinion, the appearance of these translations should be regarded as a response to the intensive spreading of the interpretation of Hasulam by neo-Kabbalistic groups, mainly the Kabbalah Center and recently the Bnei Baruch group.

The increasing popularity of the Kabbalah and the Zohar amongst Jewish and non-Jewish audiences, and the fact that very few circles today are able to read it in its original form, promises the appearance of additional Zohar translations in the future. Sage Publications, , Sinai 5 Itur Rabanim, Hebrew. Matan Torah. Kabbalah Research Center, Hebrew.

Asulin, Shifra. Messianism, Sabbateanism and Frankism. The Hebrew University, Azulai, Abraham. Hesed le Avraham.

Imanuel Ataias, Hebrew. Bar Lev, Yechiel. Zohar with Yedid Nefesh Commentary. Petah Tikvah: Bauch, Efrem. Zohar, parashat Pinchas. Batzri, David Shalom.

Tales of the Zohar. Haktav Institute, — Hebrew.

Zohar pdf livro

Tales from the Zohar. Translated into English by Edward Levin. Historias Del Zohar. Histoires du Zohar. Berg, Michael. Biesebthal, Johann Heinrich. Bourdieu, Pierre. Sociology in Question. Sage Publications, Bourel, Dominique. Sandbank, — Vorwerk 8, Brody, Seth.

Commentary on the Song of Songs and other kabbalistic commentaries. Medieval Institute Publication, Chateau, Henri.

Le Zohar. Chotsh, Tzvi Hirsh. Nahalat Tzvi. Frankfurt-am-Main, Hebrew. Coudert, Allison P. The Impact of the Kabbalah in the Seventeenth Century. Brill, Le Livre de la splendeur: LaFume, Bereshith, Genesis, and expository translation from Hebrew. San Diego: Deinard, Ephraim.

St Louis, El Zohar, vols. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sigal, — Englander, Lawrence A. The Mystical Study of Ruth. Scholars Press, , Enelow, Hyman. Bloch, — Hebrew. Farber-Ginat, Asi. Los Angeles: Cherub Press, Hebrew. Francisc, Carola. Antet, Franck, Adolphe. Paris, Frenk, Azriel Nathan. Sefer agadot hazohar. Achiasaf, —24 Hebrew. Opowiesci Zoharu. Przelozyl z hebrajskiego, wstepem i komentarzem opatrzyl I.

Literackie, Frisch, Daniel. Matok MiDvash. Giller, Pinchas. Reading the Zohar. Oxford University Press, Ginsburg, Christian D. The Kabbalah: Its Doctrines, Development, and Literature. Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, Grayevsky, Pinchas. Meginzei Yerushalaim 2 Greenup, Albert William.

Hayyim Sephardi. Gross, Abraham. Iberian Jewry from Twilight to Dawn: The World of Rabbi Abraham Saba. Hanegraaff, Wouter. Esotericism and the Academy: Rejected Knowledge in Western Culture. Cambridge University Press, Hecker, Joel. The Zohar, Pritzker Edition. Stanford University Press, Hedaya, Obadya. The Complete Book of the Zohar on the Torah. Petach Tikva: Yalkut, Hebrew. Huss, Boaz.

Ben-Gurion University Press, Mantua, Hebrew. Idel, Moshe. Imber, Naphtali Herz. Treasures of Two Worlds: Unpublished Legends and Traditions of the Jewish Nation. Citizens printing shop, Itaru, Handa. Beru wo nuida kabara.

Kokusho Kanko kai, Jounet, Albert. La Clef du Zohar. Kar, Don. Kuntz, Marion L. Guillaume Postel, Prophet of the Restitution of all Things: His Life and Thought.

The Hague: Nijhof, Lappin, Eleonore. Der Jude — Mohr Siebeck, Le Livre des Splendeurs. Liebes, Yehuda. Studies in the Zohar. SUNY, The Kabbalah Unveiled. Redway, Matt, Daniel C. The Book of Mirrors. The Book of Enlightenment. Paulist Press, Annotated and Explained.

Paths Publishing, Reflections on Cabala in Medieval and Renaissance Thought. M Weinder, 11— Springer, Meir, Jonatan. In Kabbalah: Merhavyah, Khen-Melekh. Kiryat sefer 23 Meroz, Ronit. Sifra Ditseniuta as a Sample Text. Meroz, Ronit and Weiss, Judith. Miller, Moshe. Zohar Selections Translated and Annotated. Antonin A 9, St. Petersburg MS. The printing of the Zohar in the mid-sixteenth century aroused severe objections among Kabbalists who claimed that the Zohar was an esoteric text that should not be distributed publicly.

It may well be that this objection was the reason that the irst translations into Hebrew were not printed. As we will see later on, translations of the Zohar in Hebrew appeared in print for the irst time only in the seventeenth century, in anthologies that contained only stories and moral advice from the Zohar.

From the beginning of the sixteenth century the Zohar was also translated into Latin by Christian authors, for the beneit of Christian readers. Within the framework of the Renaissance notion of ancient wisdom - prisca theologia or philosphia perennis. Parts of this translation were printed in Yalkut, Rejected Knowledge in Western Culture Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , 6—8. Gershom Scholem et al. According to Postel, the one who helped him understand the Zohar was an illiterate Venetian nun, Mother Johanna.

Postel could not ind a publisher for his translation, probably because of the radical messianic commentary it contained. Because he did not receive back the manuscript of his translation, which he sent to the printer Oporinus in Basel, Poster prepared a second translation, which was based on the Cremona edition of the Zohar.

This translation, which was more comprehensive than the irst, was lost. A few short texts from the Zohar were translated into Latin earlier, most likely in the fourteenth century.

See ibid. Mouton, , 23, 34— His Life and Thought Hague: Maren R. Frommann-Holzboog, , — Popkin and G. Weinder Dordrecht: Springer, , Consequently, Christian Kabbalists were greatly interested in broadening the acquaintance with the Zohar among the Christians through its translation into Latin, and among the Jews through its distribution in the original languages.

Therefore, in addition to the Latin translations of the Zohar, Christian Kabbalists took part in copying Zohar manuscripts and were involved in printings of the Zohar in Italy in the mid-sixteenth century. Rabbi Jacob Israel Finzi, one of those most vehemently opposed to the print- ing of the Zohar, claimed that its publication would play into the hands of Christians interested in its translation: Translations of the Zohar into Hebrew, as well as into Yiddish, were irst printed in the seventeenth century.

These were mostly anthologies of Zohar passages that were perceived as exoteric and not comprehensive translations. As stated, translations of the Zohar were meant to expand the circle of its availability to an audience that was unable to read it in its original form. Yet, because the Zohar was perceived as an esoteric text that roused animated controversy even when printed in Aramaic, the Jewish scholars who translated it into Hebrew and Yiddish had to justify their actions.

Printing of Latin Translations of the Zohar We have seen above that the Zohar was already translated into Latin in the six- teenth century. However, large parts of Zoharic literature appeared in Latin in print only in the late seventeenth century, in the second volume of the highly inluential book by the Christian Kabbalist Christian Knorr von Rosenroth, Kabbalah Denudata Frankfurt-am-Main, Differing from the Jewish schol- ars who translated and published only passages perceived as exoteric in the seventeenth century, Knorr von Rosenroth translated the sections perceived to be the most esoteric: As we will see further on, some of the translations of the Zohar into European languages that were published in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were based on the Latin translations of Knorr von Rosenroth.

In the Cabbalist writings of the Jews I hoped I would be able to discover what remained of the ancient Barbaric-Jewish philosophy… I had no greater wish than that I might be permitted to enjoy the sun itself and its bright light once all the clouds of obstructions and hindrances were scattered. I scarcely hoped I would be able to catch sight of this light unless I followed in the footsteps of that river and arrived at the spring itself.

I believed that I would discover this spring in these very ancient books. He believed that presenting the truths of Christianity in terminology accepted by the Jews could persuade them to convert to Christianity. Translations of the Zohar and other Kabbalistic writings in Kabbalah Denudata were intended to deepen Chris- tian knowledge of the Kabbalah; he hoped that this would help convince the Jews to read the Christian scriptures: It may well be that this printing was meant to enable Jews proicient in Zoharic 22 Knorr von Rosenroth, Kabbalah Denudata Sulzbach I follow the translation of Allison P.

Von Rosenroth, who attributed post-Reformational discord amongst the Christians to their reliance on Greek philosophy, argued that returning to the original source of Christianity, which was found in the Kabbalah, would unite the Protestants and the Catholics as well as the Jews , in the single, true faith: Because I suspected that so great a separation of Christian religions arose from no other cause than from such great diversity among Christians of philosophical principles and metaphysical deinitions… it immediately occurred to me that I should hunt out that same ancient philosophy which lourished at the time of Christ and the Apostles… As I was about to examine those ancient opinions about God and other spiritual and theological matters, I fell upon this most ancient book of the Jews, which is called Sohar, or Book of Splendor… I discovered that the chapters themselves and teachings, which ought rather to be called fragments, are ancient enough and amply set forth the most ancient opinions and hypotheses.

I entered the path, worn by few, traversed by no one I knew, and, furthermore, illed with so many hard stones, uneven places, chasms, precipices, and such mud that it is not surprising that so many, illed with dread, abandoned it with disgust… I shall sketch for you in a few words what gold and whatever gems I have thus far dug out of this dirt and what hope leads me further.

Phosphoros Orthodoxae Fidei Veterum Cabbalistarum. Judaism and Christianity in the Early Modern Period, eds. Ben-Gurion University Press, , — I follow the translation of Coudert, The Impact of the Kabbalah, I follow the translation of Coudert, The Impact of the Kabbalah, — Like von Rosenroth and his circle, Norrelius had missionary aspirations in translating the Zohar.

In the introduction he stated that his aim was to spread among the Jews — and strengthen among the Christians — belief in the trinity, and called upon the Jews to recognize that the Christians maintained the pure and true belief of their forefathers.

Messianism, Sabbateanism and Frankism, ed. Rachel Elior, vol. Goldish and R. H Popkin Dordrecht: Kluwer, , — I will expand on other translations of the Zohar by de Pauly and Vulliaud later on. Shifra Asulin demonstrates that Kemper did not abandon his Sabbatean ideology after his conversion, and several Sabbatean concepts and doctrines can be found in his commentary. Sommer, who divided his book into twenty sections based on various Christian dogmas, believed in the compatibility between the Zohar and the New Testament, and included articles from the Zohar in his book that he felt were in afinity with Christian doctrines.

In the period that Christian Kabbalists were translating the Zohar to Latin, several transla- tions appeared in Jewish vernacular languages — Yiddish and Ladino Jewish Spanish. As mentioned, several short passages, mostly tales, from the Zohar had already been published in Yiddish translation in the late seventeenth century. This translation was published in numerous editions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, some under the title Nofet Tsuim.

In contrast to the translations of the Zohar into Hebrew and Latin intended for educated circles that were proicient in these high culture languages, translations of the Zohar into Yiddish were intended for wider circles, including women. Thus, the title page of the book Nahalat Tzvi carried the following verse: Assemble the people, men, women and little ones and the sojourner within your gates so that they may hear Deuteronomy If I would have said that it should not be printed in the language of Ashkenaz, because of the holiness of the Zohar…it is to the contrary.

Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai himself wrote in a foreign language, the language of translation [i. And although there are reasons and deep explanations for his writing in the language of translation as is explained in revealed and concealed books , nonetheless, he was not concerned whether women and simple people would read it [i. A different justiication for the translation of the Zohar into Yiddish was raised by Rabbi Wolf of Dessau, who claimed in his approbation to Nahalat Tzvi that the secrets of the Kabbalah should be revealed in the days of the Messiah: As it is written in the holy Book of the Zohar: The irst translations of the Zohar in Ladino were most likely written during this same period.

These translations, whose original date of writing is unknown, are found in manuscripts from a later period that were held by the Donmeh - the Sabbateans who converted to Islam.

Now every empty-headed, mischievous, poor youth takes the Book of Zohar in his hand and goes out with it to the public and boasts throughout the city that he knows to explain and clarify and translate it from language to language and reads it before women and children in a foreign language [i. Sabbatean circles were involved in the printing of Zoharic liter- ature in the irst half of the eighteenth century and in spreading ritualistic reading customs; most of the commentaries on the Zohar that were printed during this period were written by Sabbateans.

Heb Reception and Impact Oxford: The Littman Library of Jewish Civilzation, , — From this important book we provide here a series of noteworthy articles that a Christian scholar, Sommer, has previously collected.

They are mainly these, which greatly agree with the Christian doctrine. The missionaries of the Christian faith among the Jews will be able to use these to reach, by themselves, a deeper insight of ancient rabbinical scriptures, and to persuade the Israelites that so much of what they condemn in Christianity has already been declared by their forefathers as holy teaching … Through these the distinguished missionary of faith among the Israelites will be given a new arsenal with which he will enlighten some of the sons of Abraham and awaken the will of Christian theologians to study the scriptures of the Jews and to spread Christian knowledge among them.

Drugulin , , English and French. Nevertheless, as I will show in the following, these translations were not done out of Christian-missionary ideology, but rather in the framework of the esoteric and occultist trends of the turn of the nineteenth century.

Before I turn to discuss these translations, I would like to give a short review of a few translations of the Zohar done by Jews in the nineteenth century. Jewish Translations of the Zohar in the Nineteenth Century In contrast to the eighteenth century, during which, as we saw above, several translations of the Zohar were written in Yiddish and Ladino, throughout most of the nineteenth century very few translations were written that were intended for the Jewish audience.

In the s, Rabbi Elyakim Milzahagi of Brody prepared a large translation in Hebrew, which was part of a comprehen- sive commentary to the Zohar that he wrote which was never printed and was lost. The translation included Zohar articles, mainly tales and moral sayings. I am grateful to George Kohler, who helped me read the introduction. In , the irst — and as far as I know the only — translation of the Zohar in Jewish-Arabic was printed in Pune, India.

Differing from the anthology of Zohar texts in Ladino that included texts perceived as peshat, the translation printed in Pune is of one of the most esoteric portions of the Zohar, the Idra Zuta. The translation of the Idra Zuta was the irst of nine Arabic-Jewish publications most of them translations of Kabbalistic texts. We are thus obliged to decree in the power of the Divine Presence Shechina which never left the Wailing Wall, and in the power of the holy Torah, that no son of Israel should be allowed to read the above mentioned printed Idrot in other languages, under any circumstance.

Furthermore, every person called by the name of Israel, has the obligation to make an effort to keep and hide the translations in a place where no foreign hand can reach them, and eliminate them from the world.

He adduces several examples of kabbalistic texts written in foreign languages, or translated into them. Interpretations, Transformations, Adaptations, eds. Brill, , — As mentioned, contrary to most of the prior translations into Jewish languages, which avoided translating the esoteric portions of Zoharic literature, Ezekiel chose to translate and print one of the most secretive texts of the Zohar.

Why did Ezekiel choose this speciic portion and bring upon himself the wrath of the rabbis of Baghdad, Hebron and Jerusalem? Blavatsky and Colonel Henry Steel Olcott. Similar to the Christian Kabbalists of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, Mathers saw in the Zohar a means of unveiling the original message of Christianity. However, Mathers, like other esotericists of his period, opposed institutionalized Christi- anity, and hoped for a spiritual Christian revolution that the translation of the Zohar would serve to advance: I say fearlessly to the fanatics and bigots of the present day.

You have cast down the Sublime and Ininite one from His throne, and in His stead have placed the demon of unbalanced force; you have substituted a deity of disorder and of jealousy for a God of order and love; you have perverted the teaching of the cruciied One.

His Zohar translations were included in his book Qabbalah: Redway, , 2. The author, , The translations, compiled by John H. Drais, were reprinted in Nurho de Manhar, Zohar: Bereshith, Genesis, and expository translation from Hebrew San Diego: Wizards Bookshelf, Study of the Kabbalah will turn the Jews and Christians into a single and united nation.

Ignorance and fanaticism will in vain aspire to perpetuate war. Peace is already presented in the name of philosophy, and tomorrow it will be implement- ed by religion, liberated from the control of the desires of humanity. We must prepare for this tremendous event by revealing the concealed treasures of the Jewish wisdom to men of science. And for this we are publishing the translation and commentary of the theogeny of the Zohar found in the Sifra Detzniuta.

Chamuel, , 2. Chamuel, Like most of the Oriental books, and particularly those written through initiation, the Zohar appears chaotic. First of all, it is compiled of varied works, mixed up without any order. Secondly, these works do not adhere to the logical methods of the West. The authors of the Orient follow the rules of musical composition more than they do the rules of literary composition. The irst comprehensive translation of the Zohar into French and into a European language in general , was printed in Paris by Emile Lafuma between — The author of the translation, Jean de Pauly — who claimed he was an Albanian aristocrat but was most likely the notorious converted Jew, Paul Meyer — died in before his translation was printed.

In his words, the Zohar is: Mattern, G. Motzkin and S. Sandbank Berlin: Vorwerk 8, , — LaFume, , 4. LaFume compared the Zohar to a great river at whose source the ancient Jewish-Christian tradition the water is pure, but which becomes polluted with erroneous doctrines and traditions as time goes on.

As we will see in the following, some of these translations integrated Western esoteric perceptions of the Kabbalah with a Jewish nationalist approach. These trans- lations were published posthumously in his book, Treasures of Two Worlds.

Citizens printing shop: Christian Ginsburg related that Ignatz Stern, a Jewish Hungarian scholar active in the late nineteenth century, prepared a German translation of the Sifra Detzniuta, and of the Idra Raba and the Idra Zuta, which remained archived in manuscripts. Zeitlin introduces his anthology with an enthusiastic description of the Zohar: What is the Zohar? Ginsburg, The Kabbalah: Its Doctrines, Development, and Literature London: Long- mans, Green, Reader and Dyer, , Ein Sammelbuch Leipzig: Wolff, , — Mohr Siebeck, , Heinrich Glanz, Im Welt, God, blessed be He, picked one precious stone from his crown and threw it down, and the stone shat- tered and scattered, sowing myriads of sparks, elating, rejoicing, and delighting in myriads of shapes and shades that emerged from eternity to illuminate all the dark corners and to satisfy all that craves and yearns for light; and to sustain and warm everything that had been killed by the chill of science and the darkness of ignorance, and the blindness, and the burden of nature, and the malice and the hardship, and the cruelty of mankind.

His neo-romantic enthusiasm from the Zohar is ambivalent and coupled with disdain, reminis- cent of the attitude of Knorr von Rosenroth and other non-Jewish translators of the Zohar: The Zohar — a mixture of the deepest of the deep truisms and fantasies, straight and crooked lines, straight and misleading paths, it, perfect, and clear sketches and alien and strange ones, the strength of a lion and the weakness of a child, the sound of cascading waters and the whisper of a spring, pits of darkness and caves of mysteries, brevity, clarity, and acuity of eternal wisdom and prolonged discussions that continue endlessly, iniltrating one another and interweaving as in a long and complex dream.

Frenk, like other thinkers of his time, emphasized the value of the Zohar as a national Jewish text: This is how the Zohar shed its spirit over all of us, over all the sons of our nation; it was absorbed in our blood, our soul, our spirit and our essence, and it implant- ed within us gentleness and innocence, mercy and forgiveness, the aspiration for greatness, glory, magniicence; it ridiculed the sufferings of exile and the tortures of this world, mocked the obstacles and hurdles in our lives, which characterize our people and are rarely found among the nations.

The purpose is to allow those who know Hebrew, in abundance or little, at least something from something out of the beauty found in the Zohar, from these things that became, as said, a part of our soul, our spirit, our essence, we decided to choose a collection of tales from this book and edit these in a way that they would be understood by anyone, young and old, those who learned Hebrew and are used to reading a bit in the Holy books… We believe that in this book we will successfully integrate the beauty of the books of Kabbalah into the new Hebrew literature, intended for both those who know and those who are learning Hebrew.

Alongside his great admiration for the Zohar he claims: My main worry was that the gentle intoxicating scent that emanates from the original words would not dissipate in translation.

That nothing would be lost from the wonderful poetic spirit, from the lofty vividness that they excel in, by its being 82 Azriel Nathan Frenk, Sefer agadot hazohar Warsaw: Achiasaf, —4 , vol. Zoharic articles translated into Hebrew were printed by Setzer in volumes 24—23 and 38—39 of the journal Ha-Doar Mahbarot le-Sifrut, , — That as far as possible nothing would be lost from the enormous impression the words in their original form can have on the reader even when these will be read from my translation.

In the interval between the two world wars, two publishing houses initiated a comprehensive undertaking of translating the Zohar into Hebrew.

Working in Berlin, the national poet Hayim Nahman Bialik — introduced a plan to publish the Zohar in Hebrew with Dvir publishing house, however the plan was never consummated.

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The rabbi who translated it his name is Rosentzweig only collected a few homilies from each portion and translated them into imprecise and unbecoming rabbinical Hebrew.

Journal for the Study of Jewish Mystical Texts 10 It is only suitable for young people. A comprehensive edition of the Zohar in English was prepared for the irst time only in the s, by the Soncino Press. They were assisted by the scholar, rabbi, and Theosophist Joshua Abelson, who wrote the introduction to the edition.

Indeed herein may be said to lie the undying service which the Cabbalism has rendered Judaism, whether as creed or as life.

The supreme rebutter of such taunts and objections is Cabbalah. The arid ield of Rabbinism was always kept well watered and fresh by the living streams of Cabbalistic lore.

Dvir, , 41, 46 Hebrew. Soncino, —34 , xi. Only in the past few decades, as we will see, have additional comprehensive translations into English been done, with the intention of replacing this edition. The Hebrew Translations of Rabbi Yehuda Yudel Rosenberg and Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag In the same period, the Zohar was also translated into Hebrew among tradi- tional circles in response to the awakening interest in the Zohar among Jewish scholars and Zionists and perhaps also in response to the interest non-Jews showed in the Kabbalah and the Zohar at the time.

Rabbi Yehuda Yudel Rosenberg — , a Hassidic Polish rabbi who immigrated to Canada in , translated large portions of the Zoharic literature a translation which, recall, won a belittling critique from Hillel Zeitlin.

Rosenberg began his project of translating and editing the Zohar in Hebrew in Poland and continued in Canada. He edited the Zoharic articles in the order of the Torah portions, and printed his translation with a short commentary called Ziv HaZohar the light of the Zohar , alongside the Aramaic source. Like the traditional translators preceding him, Rosenberg refrained from translating the more esoteric sec- tions of the Zohar, such as Sifra Detzniuta and the Idrot.

The irst volume was published in Warsaw in and the complete translation was published later in Montreal and New York, between — Rosenberg presents his 96 Ibid. Reprint New York: Rosalg, And we see that because of our numerous transgressions books of heresy are greatly increasing during these times and their buyers are many.

They succeed in catching souls in their net by glamorizing the books in all kinds of embellishment. This is principally because these books are written in a clear and easy language. And the holy books, full of the light of the holy Torah, are set aside in the corner.

In particular the holy book of Zohar which is regarded as something that is obscure, that is not understood, like some kind of amulet. Thus, in his paraphrase of the words of the sixteenth-century Kabbalist Rabbi Avraham Azulai, Rosenberg identiies Schechina, the Divine presence, as the national light: The translation and interpretation of the Zohar, Hasulam the ladder is the inal literary undertaking of Rabbi Ashlag, who previously had worked mainly on writing commentaries on Lurianic texts, which is the context in which he developed his unique Kabbalistic doctrines.

In his 99 Ibid. Imanuel Ataias, , 7a. And now in this generation, as we are already nearing the end of the last two thousand years, permission has been granted to reveal his [i. Contrary to the Kabbalists in earlier periods who suficed with translations of the peshat of the Zohar, and in con- trast to Rabbi Yudel Rosenberg, who refrained from translating the esoteric portions as did the translators of the Soncino edition to English , Rabbi Ashlag interpreted and translated the entire Zohar except for tikkunei Zohar that were translated after he died by his disciple Rabbi Yehuda Zvi Brandwin.

In an article he wrote after Hasulam was printed he asserted that the scope of his commentary and translation project served as proof that his generation had reached the days of redemption: And here is the strong proof that our generation has reached the days of the Messiah because our eyes see that all the previous commentaries of the Book of Zohar did not even explain ten percent of the most dificult parts of the Zohar and even the little they did were as abstruse as the words of the Zohar itself.

In this generation we have been given the interpretation of Hasulam, which is a complete interpretation of the words of the Zohar and does not leave any ambiguity of the Zohar unexplained. And these explanations are based on the simple analytic common sense that any average reader can understand.

Following the above he wrote: Itur Rabanim, , Kabbalah Research Center, , — And therefore we have been granted redemption of our holy land from the hands of the gentiles. We have also been granted the revelation of the Book of Zohar. Some of the Jewish scholars discussed above who dealt with translating the Zohar Hillel Zeitlin, Nathan Frank and Joshua Abelson received academic training. Yet, the most outstanding rep- resentative of the academic approach to the study of the Kabbalah and the Zohar in the twentieth century is Gershom Scholem who, similar to other Jewish scholars previously discussed, turned to the study of Jewish mysticism under the impact of Zionist ideology and the inluence of the neo-romantic trends of the early twentieth century.

Despite Scholem reaching the conclusion that the Zohar is a pseudo- epigraphic work written by Rabbi Moses de Leon, he believed that its value as one of the most notable books in Jewish literature — and mystical literature in general — was not blemished. He asserted: Again and again one is struck by the simultaneous presence of crudely primitive modes of thought and feeling and of ideas whose profound contemplative mysticism is transparent… a very remarkable personality in whom as in so many mystics, profound and naive modes of thought existed side by side.

A Chapter from the Zohar , which included a German translation of the beginning of the book of Zohar and a historical introduction. Later on, in , Scholem published a selection of Zoharic articles translated into English, in partnership with Sherry Abel.

Later this anthology was translated into many other languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Dutch. In his introduction to his German translation, Scholem criticized the translations of the Zohar that preceded it in German and other European languages, without mentioning speciics. Scholem, Le Zohar: Le livre de la splendeur, trans.

Ochs Paris: Seuil, ; Scholem, El Zohar: Berbera, ; Scholem, Zoar: Editora Renes, ; Scholem, Zohar: Il Libro dello splendore, ed. Loewenthal Torino: Einaudi, ; Scholem, De Zohar, kabbalistische fragmenten, Amsterdam: Schoone, Basic Readings from the Kabbalah New York: Schocken, [] , He found little interest in spreading the Zohar to the broader public and integrating it in con- temporary culture.

The irst volume of the book, which includes thematic introductions to the Zohar accompanied by translations of relevant passages, was published by the Bialik press in The second volume was published in and a shorter version was published by the Dorot press in Keter, , Isaiah Tishby, La Kabbale: Anthologie du Zohar, traduction francaise de I.

Rouch Paris: Berg International, In , an English translation was published: Isaiah Tishby, The Wisdom of the Zohar, trans. David Goldstein Oxford: The Littman Library, The translation itself is unreliable. The original text was not corrected in the least and in many places the translation is inaccurate. Nor does the style match that of the Zohar. In his ex- planatory notes many matters are introduced that have nothing to do with the literal meaning of the Zohar.

According to Zeev Gries, it was Gershom Scholem who urged Bialik press to cancel their contract with Horodetzky, and persuaded Tishby to connect with Lachover to complete the project. Consequentially, Horodetzky sued the Bialik Institute, and they published his preface in a separate edition.

In the last decades of the twentieth century and the begin- ning of the twenty-irst, additional anthologies of Zoharic articles in English, translated by scholars afiliated with academic institutions, were published Runes Dagbort D. Philosophical Library, An interesting translation is that of the Sifra Detzniuta and the Idrot done according to the original say the authors by two engineers, who claimed that the anthropomorphic imagery of the texts is a description of a machine to produce manna.

Duckworth, Ktav Publishing House, Matt, The Book of Enlightenment Mahwa: Paulist Press, ; The translations were reprinted in Daniel.

C Matt, Zohar: Annotated and Explained Woodstock, Paths publishing, Scholars Press, Englander and Herbet W. Princeton University Press, Medieval Institute Publication, , — Oxford University Press, , — Giller also translated the portion known as Idra debi Mashkana: The translation is of a shorter version of the text, found in Ms.

Vatican Pritzker Edition. Yet, these comprehensive Zohar projects present a different position than that of Scholem regarding the spreading of the Zohar and its place in modern culture.

Both Matt and Mopsik prepared full translations of the Zohar, rather than anthologies of translated Zoharic articles. Verdier, — Matt, The Zohar, Pritzker Edition, vols. I determined to sponsor such a translation… My family and I now present the Zohar to the English reading public, with the hope that the radiance that lows from this great work and from the Jewish mystical tradition will bring light to those who seek it.

The New Age of Zohar Translations There has been extensive activity in translations of the Zohar in the late twentieth and early twenty-irst centuries.

Editorial Sigal, — are based on that of de Pauly. Ankh-Hermes, Kania Krakow: Literackie, Holnap Kiado, This collection was also translated into English, Spanish and French. In the introduction Edri engages in lengthy discussions of the authorship of the Zohar, the history of the Kabbalah, the structure of the Zohar, commentaries of the Zohar, and other subjects.

He accepts the traditional position regarding the antiquity of the Zohar, and repeats the eschatological claim as a justiication for the translation project. Litvak, Jerusalem: Lederman, Jerusalem: Haktav Institute, Yerid Hasefarim, In addition to translations of the Zohar into Hebrew, an anthology of Zoharic articles translated into English with commentary was prepared by Rabbi Moshe Miller, a member of the Habad Hasidic movement.

The trans- lation, completed by Michael Berg, was published in twenty-three volumes between — The edition begins with lengthy intro- ductions by Philip Berg, the founder of the Kabbalah Center, and his son Michael, which present the neo-Kabbalistic ideas of their movement.

The Bergs accept traditional Kabbalistic perceptions regarding the authenticity of the Zohar, its authority and its holiness, but they integrate these perceptions with typical New Age ideas.

Accordingly, Michael Berg explains the purpose of his translation project based on the traditional perception that studying and spreading the Zohar will bring redemption closer, but as far as he is concerned redemption equals transformation to a higher level of global consciousness: The following translation of the Zohar strives to open a door to the great cosmic mysteries for those who are genuinely interested in understanding the structure and laws of the universe.

It is thus utterly vital for the spiritual and physical survival of humanity; and its teachings are designed to lead humanity to the days of the Mashiach, the long-prophesized return of the golden age, when peace, compassion, wisdom and love will prevail among people, when harmony will rule in the depths below as it does in the heights above.

Such are the true goals of all metaphysical systems… Transformation of consciousness is the point, for from that comes the elevation of global consciousness, given our current condition, we cannot afford to ignore the gift of these Holy words any longer. It is time to change the world.

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Fiftieth Gate Publication, New York: Kabbalah Center International, — The critical moment of change would arrive in conjunction with the Aquarian Age… The Aquarian inluence will be a subtle force that will permit the gradual spread of the Holy Grail until it becomes an integral force of humankind.

To address these inluences, which can at times be positive or negative, the Holy Grail was assigned the task of tapping these positive inluences and eliminate sic the negative inluences.

Each year brings with it a host of different inluences. Nevertheless, the scanning-reading charts that will become available after the publishing of the entire Holy Grail, will assign the appropriate section of the Holy Grail to each and every week in any given year. He speaks out against abridged editions probably referring to the Soncino Edition and against the anthologies that came out in English: Those who think they are familiar with the text, from often highly abridged edi- tions or ones that assemble aphorisms into subject categories, will invariably ind this edition utterly different from what they have been accustomed to thinking of as the Zohar.

The other works are best viewed as being like the trailers one sees Ibid. His objection is directed against academic translators such as Daniel Matt, who began his translation project in the same period. Those involved with producing this edition were faced with the question of whether to present it in a formal academic manner — with footnotes, scholarly digressing on linguistic matters, and so on — or to offer it to the world in a form as simple and unadorned as possible, so that its purpose would remain solely what it always has been: We chose the latter course, since providing material for yet more obscure treaties on metaphysical the- ology serves no real purpose, but it does betray the real purpose of the Zohar.

For all the translations of the Zohar that have been and continue to be created over the generations, there is one common denominator — the desire to spread it among audiences who are unable to read it in its original format. The various translations, however, differ from one another in the reader-audience they address, in the choice of Zoharic material translated, in the reasons used to justify the translation and in the ideological, political and economic factors that stimulated and enabled the various translation projects.

In several cases, common ideological factors stand behind translations done in different languages. Thus, Sabbatean ideology motivated eighteenth-century Zohar translations into Yiddish and Ladino, with Sabbatean circles also pos- sibly involved in Latin translations of the period. During the Renaissance and the Baroque period, and in the modern era as well, Christian Kabbalists, con- verted Jews and missionaries translated Zoharic articles into Latin, German, French and Yiddish.

Theosophical and occultist circles translated the Zohar Ibid. Jewish scholars afiliated with these circles translat- ed Zoharic articles into Arabic and German. At the outset of the twentieth century, Jewish scholars afiliated with neo-romantic and Zionist circles trans- lated the Zohar into German, Hebrew, Yiddish and English. Various English, French and Hebrew translations were written in the twentieth and twenty-irst century from an academic perspective, based on a historical-philological re- search approach.

Other translations in Hebrew and English were done during this same period by contemporary Jewish Kabbalists, using traditional and neo-Kabbalistic approaches. The various theological and ideological perspectives from which the Zohar translations were created, as well as the diverse audiences they were intended for, formed the nature and scope of the different translations. Some chose to translate particular sections of the Zohar.

Others created anthologies of translated Zoharic articles, which were chosen by different criteria. Christian Kabbalists like Sommer and Norellius chose to translate Zoharic articles that, according to their understanding, conveyed Christian conceptions. Tradition- al Jewish Kabbalistic circles generally chose to translate articles considered Peshat Zohar, mainly anecdotes and moral stories. The more comprehensive translations written by Jews in the twentieth century, for example the Soncino translation in English and the Yerid Hasefarim in Hebrew, also refrained from translating the most esoteric units of the Zohar, such as the Idrot and Sifra Detzniuta.

In fact, it was exactly these esoteric parts that were translated by Sabbateans into Ladino and by the Christian Kabbalist, Knorr von Rosenroth, into Latin. Following von Rosenroth, these texts became central in occultist circles at the turn of the nineteenth century. In contrast, the modern antholo- gies of Zoharic articles that have been written from an academic perspective are generally divided according to subjects that relect the categories according to which academic research of Kabbalah is carried out.

There was often competition between the different ideological circles behind the Zohar translation projects over the cultural capital and sometimes the economic gains that Zohar translation provided.

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The more the fame of the Zohar and its value as a cultural commodity increased in communities that were unable to read it in its original tongue, the more competition between various groups around the control of translation and distribution of the Zohar increased as well. As we have seen in this review, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century great interest in the Kabbalah arose among Western esoteric circles in Europe and the United States.