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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Bushido, the Soul of Japan, by Inazo Nitobé This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no. Bushido, the Soul of Japan. Inazo Nitobé. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Bushido, the Soul of Japan, by Inazo Nitobé. This eBook is for the use of anyone . Bushido, the Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobe. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as caite.info: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Many people.
As to the second. Here we may profitably devote a few In making emendations and additions for the present edition. In both cases it was obedience to the call of duty. The wholesome unsophisticated nature of our warrior ancestors derived ample food for their spirit from a sheaf of commonplace and fragmentary teachings. His conscience he followed.
Bushido as an ethical system -- Sources of Bushido -- Rectitude or justice -- Courage, the spirit of daring and bearing -- Benevolence, the feeling of distress -- Politeness -- Veracity or truthfulness -- Honor -- The duty of loyalty -- Education and training of a Samurai -- Self-control -- The institutions of suicide and redress -- The sword, the soul of the Samurai -- The training and position of woman -- The influence of Bushido -- Is Bushido still alive?
Ethics, Social usages, Etiquette, Religion. Japan -- Civilization. Japan -- Social life and customs. Ethics -- Japan. Samurai -- History. Philosophy, Japanese. Read this book online: EPUB with images.
EPUB no images. Kindle with images. For the rest I recommend the reader to two recent writers for well-weighed judgment on this point. Industries advancing. Just think. I shall say nothing against being ridiculed in " In case I fail to public. Often have I wondered whether the Vera- city of Bushido had any motive higher than courage. It was quite a usual thing to insert such clauses as these: In the absence of any positive commandment against bearing false witness.
As a matter of fact. The sense of honor.
Such a recourse to his honor touched the most sensitive spot in the child's heart. Few incidents in history excel in pathos the scene of the first mother plying with heaving breast and tremulous fingers. All the sartorial ingenuity of mankind has not yet succeeded in sewing an apron that will efficaciously hide our sense of shame.
That samurai was right who refused to compromise his character by a slight humiliation in his youth. This first fruit of disobedience clmgs to us with a tenacity that nothing else does. The first and worst punishment which befell humanity in consequence of tasting "the fruit of that forbidden tree" was.
In the name of Honor. The story of a well- meaning citizen who called the attention of a bushi to a flea jumping on his back. At the slightest. The morbid excess into which the delicate code of honor was inclined to run was strongly counterbalanced by preaching magnanimity and patience. To take offense at slight provocation was ridiculed as " short- tempered. It is plainly unfair to take an abnormal case to cast blame upon the Precepts.
Haste not. A literary wit put a characteristic epigram into the mouths of three well-known per-. In one " place he writes to this effect: Though you denude yourself and insult me, what is that to me? You cannot defile my soul by your outrage. To what height of unmartial and unresist-. Take, for instance, this saying of Ogawa: Heaven loves me and others with equal love; therefore with the love wherewith thou lovest thyself, love others.
Make not Man thy partner but Heaven, and making Heaven thy partner do thy best. Never condemn others; but see to it that thou comest not short of thine own mark. Not only did these sayings remain as utterances, but they were really embodied in acts.
It must be admitted that very few attained this sublime height of magnanimity, patience and forgiveness. It was a great pity that nothing clear and general was expressed as to what constitutes Honor, only a few " enlightened minds being aware that it from no condition rises," but that it lies in each acting well his part for nothing was easier:.
Said this sage, " 'Tis in every man's mind to love honor:. The honor which men confer is not good honor. Those whom Chao the Great ennobles, he can make mean again.
When the castle fell. In the many years that you may live. In the memorable siege of Osaka. They knew that honor won in youth grows with age. Of the causes in comparison with which no life was too dear to sacrifice.
Other virtues feudal morality shares in common with other systems of ethics. In spite of Hegel's criticism that the I am aware that personal fidelity is a moral adhesion existing among all sorts and conditions of men.
Life itself was thought cheap if honor and fame could be attained therewith: Montesquieu com- plained long ago that right on one side of the Pyrenees was wrong on the other. In America where " every- body is as good as anybody else. Bismarck had good rea- son to do so. Strict search for hisson not yet grown reveals the fact of his being secreted in a village school kept by one Genzo. At the risk of shocking some of my good readers.
I am afraid. Not content with this. In the privacy of home both had laid themselves upon the altar. He ponders over his school-list. Unwitting of what had passed be- tween them. No less conscious of the resemblance be- tween infant lord and infant retainer. The rest of the narrative may be briefly told.
His despair. Will he be deceived by the false head? The poor Genzo's hand is on the On the day appointed. He himself could not be untrue to his own cruel master but. The officer takes up the gruesome object before him.
Her father-in-law hasbeen for a long time a recipient of Michizane's bounties. That evening in a lonely home awaits the mother we saw in the school. Now the day'syea. Does she know the fate of her child? It is not for his return that she watches with eagerness for the opening of the wicket.
As one acquainted with the exile's family. This interest it bound up with affection natural. Do In both cases it was obedience to the call of duty. The individualism of the West.
We see him afterward praying with all his soul that kind Heaven may visit him with death. Many a Shigemori has his heart torn by the between duty and affection. Sanyo relates in touching language the heart struggle of Shigemori concerning his father's rebellious conduct "If I be loyal.
Since Bushido. Ever as resolute as Widow Windham and her illustrious consort. These are words which do not impress us as any thing extraordinary. Among others he makes them the laws. I am not entirely ignorant of Mr. Loyalty is an ethical outcome of this political theory.
Spencer's view according to which political obedience Loyalty is accredited with only a tran- sitional function. Readers of Crito will remember the argument with which Socrates represents the laws of the city as pleading with him on the subject of his escape. Sufficient unto the day is the virtue thereof.
Suppose his induction is realized will loyalty and its concomitant instinct of reverence disappear forever? We transfer our allegiance from one master to another. Spencer pre- dicts. A few years ago a very stupid controversy. Little did we " serve they know that can.
His conscience he followed. In their zeal to uphold the claim of the throne to undivided loyalty. Thomas Mowbray was a veritable spokesman for us when he said: Alack the day when a state grows so powerful as to demand of its citizens the dictates of their conscience! Bushido did not require us to make our conscience the slave of any lord or king.
Such an one was despised as nei-shin. To dark dishonor's use. In cases of this kind. When a subject differed from liis master. Failing in this. Despite of death. My life thou shalt command. The one my duty owes but my. Life being regarded as the means whereby to serve his master.
Indispensable as they were to a man of culture. Intellectual superiority was. The first point to observe in knightly pedagogics was to build up character. We have seen the important part aesthetic accomplishments played in his education.
A samurai was essentially a man of action. Yu t respectively Wisdom. Like an English poet the samurai believed " 'tis not the creed that saves the man.
Science was without the pale of his activity. He took advantage of -it in so far as -it concerned his profession of arms. From what has been said. Religion and theology were relegated to the priests. Jiu- jittsu be briefly defined as an application may of anatomical knowledge to the purpose of offense or defense.
It differs from other forms of attack in that it uses no weapon. Its object is not to but to incapacitate one for action kill. A subject of study which one would expect to find in military education and which is rather conspicuous by its absence in the Bushtdo course of instruction. Not only that. It differs from wrestling. Its feat consists in clutching or striking such part of the enemy's body as will make him numb and incapable of resistance. Chivalry is uneconomical.
It is to him veritably filthy lucre. Knowledge of numbers was indispensable in He disdains money itself. It was considered bad taste to speak of it. In many feudatories.
Every thinking bushi knew well enough that money formed the sinews of war. Not so with the Precepts of Knighthood. It is true that thrift was enjoined by Bushido. We read that in ancient Rome the farmers of revenue and other financial agents were gradually raised to the rank of knights. How closely this was connected with the luxury and avarice of the Romans may be imagined. Luxury was thought the greatest menace to manhood. These persisted in systematic- ally regarding finance as something low low Of the three services of studies that Bacon gives.
Bushido itself could long remain free from a thousand and one evils of which money is the root. Bushido had decided preference for the last. People whose minds were simply stored with information found no great admirers. Very few abstract subjects troubled the mind of the young. The mental discipline which would now- a-days be chiefly aided by the study of mathematics.
This is sufficient reason for the fact that our public men have long been free from corruption. Spiritual service. He was a father to the fatherless. It believed in a which can be rendered only without service money and without price. A man to evoke such confidence and respect from the young. Thy father and thy mother so runs our maxim " are like heaven and earth.
Usage sanctioned that pupils brought to their teachersmoney or goods at different seasons of the year. They were grave personifications of high spirits un- daunted by adversity. Being immeasurable. Plere the non-arithmetical honor-instinct of Bushido taught a truer lesson than modern Political Economy. Yet we are really as susceptible to tender emotion as any race under the sky. I am inclined to think that in one sense we have to feel more than others yes.
I say apparent stoi- cism. The discipline of fortitude on the one hand. A father could embrace his son only at the expense of his dignity. I remember when. Imagine boys and girls too brought up not to resort to the shedding of a tear or the uttering of a groan for the relief of their feelings.
Itwas considered unmanly for a samurai to betray his emotions on his face. The most natural affections were kept under control. I know of a father who spent whole nights listening to the breathing of a sick child.
On this occasion an American resident resorted to the place. In domestic life. Our history and everyday life are replete with examples of heroic matrons who can well bear com- parison with some of the most touching pages of Plutarch. Among our peasantry an Ian To give in so many articulate words one's inmost thoughts and feelings notably the is taken religious among us as an unmistaka- ble sign that they are neither very profound It is truly jarring to Japanese ears to hear the most sacred words.
It is putting a premium upon a breach of the third commandment to encourage speaking lightly of spiritual experience. Disturb it not It is with speech. Maclaren would be sure to find many a Marget Howe. In rare instances is the tongue set freeby an irresistible spirit. It is the same discipline of self-restraint which is accountable for the absence of more frequent revivals in the Christian churches of Japan. When a man or woman feels his or her soul stirred.
At first you may think him hysterical. Press him for explanation and you will get a few broken commonplaces " Human life has sorrow. Speech is very often with us. So the noble words of a noble Hohenzollern " " Lerne zu leiden ohne Klagen had found many responsive minds among us.
It is a counterpoise of sorrow or rage. I wonder. The suppression of feelings being thus steadily insisted upon. Has gone my hunter of the dragon-fly I" I refrain from quoting other examples. I think we possess a better reason than Dcmocritus him- Abderian tendency for laughter self for our. I hope I have in a measure shown The next ques- tion is. It can force pliant This is plausible as far as it goes. It has also been suggested that our en- durance of pain and indifference to death are due to less sensitive nerves.
I believe it was our very excitability and sensitiveness which made it a necessity to recognize and enforce constant self-repression.
It may be that we do not read Sartor Resartns as zealously as the Englishman. It may be our monarchical form of government does not excite us as much as the Republic does the Frenchman. Why are our nerves less tightly strung? It may be our climate is not so stimulating as the American. Discipline in self-control can easily go too far. Be a virtue never so noble. We must recognize in each virtue its own positive -excellence and follow its positive ideal. It can beget bigotry. The acme of self-control is reached and best illustrated in the first of the two insti- tutions which we shall now bring to view.
To begin with suicide. How absurd! Absurdly odd as it may sound at first to foreign ears. In our minds this mode of death is associated with instances of noblest deeds and of most touching pathos.
Whoever has read the swan- song which Addison makes Cato sing. So wonderful is the trans- forming power of virtue. The Semites habitually spoke of the liver and kidneys and surrounding fat as the seat of emotion and of life. The French. The term hara was more comprehensive than the Greek phren or thwnos. When Moses wrote of Joseph's " bowels yearning upon his brother. Not for extraneous associations only does seppnku lose in our mind any taint of ab- surdity.
Jeremiah and other inspired men of old spoke of the "sounding" or the " " troubling of bowels. See for yourself whether it is polluted or clean. This view of mental physiology once ad- mitted. Des- cartes. Similarly entrallies stands in their language for affection Nor is such and compassion. Without asking a friar. Death's but a sure retreat from infamy. How many acqui- esced in the sentiment expressed by Garth. I dare say that many good Christians.
Petronius and a host of other ancient worthies. Is it too bold to hint that the death of the first of the phi- losophers was partly suicidal? When we are told so minutely by his pupils how their master willingly submitted to the mandate of the state which he knew was morally mistaken in spite of the possibilities of escape.
Now my readers will understand that seppuku was not a mere suicidal process. No physical compulsion here. An invention of the middle ages. It was an institution.
When enforced as a legal punishment. But nobody would charge him with the crime. True the verdict oi the was it " Thou judges compulsory said. Socrates was a clear case of suicide. It was a refinement of self-destruc- ion. Tall candles placed at regular A large hall with a high roof supported by dark pillars of wood. I am tempted to make a somewhat lengthy quotation.
It was an imposing scene. Antiquarian curiosity. In front of the high altar. From the ceiling hung a profusion of those huge gilt lamps and ornaments peculiar to Buddhist temples. He was accompanied by a kaishaku and three officers.
The office is that of a gentleman in many cases it is: In this instance the kaishaku was a pupil of Taki Zenzaburo. Taki Zenzaburo. No other person was present. The seven Japanese took their places on the left of the raised floor. Slowly and with great dignity the condemned man mounted on to the raised floor. One of the three attendant officers then came forward. In this position.
Taki Zenzaburo advanced slowly towards the Japanese witnesses. This he handed. For this crime I disembowel myself. When he drew out the dirk. It was horrible.
During this sickeningly painful operation he never moved a muscle of his face. At that moment the kaishakit. Sakon and Naiki. Their little brother Hachimaro. The old general admired the pluck of the youths who dared an attempt on his life and ordered that they should be allowed to die an honorable death. Two brothers. So canst thou well boast of being our father's child. Sakon turned to the youngest and said ' Go thou first.
If thy dagger anything within and thy feels strength fails. Well said. Lean forward. Dost understand now? The saddest feature was that honor. Life was cheap cheap as reckoned by the popular standard of honor.
No one circle in the Inferno will boast of greater density of Japanese popula- tion than the seventh. A typical fighter. For causes entirely incompatible with reason.
And yet. That I not one testmay lack Of what strength in me remains! In all these ways it stimulates his mind. Legge's translation verbatim. Yc dread sorrows and pains! And heap on my burden' d back. Heaven's decree and no death Incurred in so doing is ignominious. Let quote itme: The reply was. We will now see whether its sister institution of Redress or call it Revenge.
We have thus seen that the Bushido in- stitution of suicide was neither so irrational nor barbarous as its abuse strikes us at first sight. Among a savage tribe which has no marriage. He must perish by my hand. My father. In Judaism. It is the will of my father. The same Heaven shall not shelter him and me. Heaven itself hates wrong-doing. He who killed him did great evil.
Ill revenge there is something which satisfies one's sense of justice. The avenger " reasons: One's own wrongs. The master of the forty-seven Ronins was condemned to death.
Though Lao-tse taught to recompense injury with kindness. A samurai could therefore fully sympathize with Hannibal's oath to avenge his country's wrongs. No more can we witness tragedies of family vendetta enacted. As to seppukit though it too has no y existence de jure. Both of these institutions of suicide and redress lost their raison d'etre at the pro- mulgation of the criminal code. The knight errantry of Miyamoto Musashi is now a tale of the past.
If this had meant that " hunger of the heart which feeds upon the hope of glutting that hunger with the life-blood of the victim. No more do we hear of romantic adventures of a fair maiden as she tracks in disguise the murderer of her parent. The well-ordered police spies out the criminal for the injured party and the law metes out justice.
The whole state and society will see that wrong is righted. The sense of justice satisfied. Strahanf divides suicide. He maintains that " when suicide is accomplished by very painful means or at the cost of prolonged agony. Suicide and Insanity. From these bloody institutions. Many painless and time-saving methods of self-immolation will come in vogue.
Of the two kinds into which Dr. Very early the samurai boy learned to wield it. After this first ceremony of adoptio per arma.
When Mahomet proclaimed that "The the key of Heaven and of sworcl is Hell. It was a momentous occasion for him when at the age of five he was apparelled in the paraphernalia of samurai costume. The go- is hoard contains squares and is supposed to represent a battle-field the object of the game being to occupy as much space as possible.
Constant companions. The two swords. The very possession of the dangerous instrument imparts to him a feeling and an air of self- respect and responsibility. Not many years pass before he wears constantly the genuine steel. When at home. Being venerated. When be reaches man's estate at the age of fifteen. Any insult to it is tantamount to personal affront. Woe to him who carelessly steps over a weapon lying on the floor!
So precious an object cannot long escape the notice and the skill of artists nor the vanity of its owner. Many a. Daily he commenced his craft " with prayer and purification. Even the commonest dirk has due respect paid to it. Shark-skin and finest silk for hilt. The swordsmith was not a mere artisan but an inspired artist and his workshop a sanctuary. The Father of His- tory has recorded as a curious piece oi information that the Scythians sacrificed to an iron scimitar.
The abuse some- times went so far as to try the acquired steel on some harmless creature's neck. Was it the spirit of the master or of his tutelary god that cast a formidable spell over our sword? Perfect as a work of art. The question that concerns us most is. Harmless were its mis- sion.
Too often did the blade flash forth from its peaceful sheath. En- dowed as he once was with almost dictatorial powers. I have released those whose heads should have been chopped off. A dastard or a braggart was he who brandished his weapon on undeserved occasions. Did Bushido justify the promiscu- ous use of the weapon? The answer is unequivocally. A self-possessed man knows the right time to use it.
As it laid great stress on its proper use. Let us listen to the late Count Katsu. Don't you eat ' pepper and egg-plants? A friend said to me one day. In relating some of his remi- niscences to a friend he says. I have a great dislike for killing people and so I haven't killed one single man. I will not cut.
My escape may be due to my dislike of killing. I made up my mind that though they cut me. Here we may profitably devote a few In this they went so far as to tinge the ideals of womanhood with Amazonian character. It itches a little. I had the hilt of my sword so tightly fastened to the scabbard that it was hard to draw the blade.
In the Bushido ideal of woman. The female half of our species has some- times been called the paragon of paradoxes. Ideograph- ically the Chinese represent wife by a woman holding a broom certainly not to brandish it offensively or defensively against her conjugal ally. I have said that it was Amazonian. Bushido women most " similarly praised those who emancipated themselves from the frailty of their sex and displayed an heroic fortitude worthy of the strongest and the bravest of men.
Winckelmann remarks that " the supreme beauty of Greek art is rather male than female. Without confining the sphere of woman's activity to Kuche. These seeming contra- dictions Domesticity and Amazonian traits are not inconsistent with the Precepts of Knighthood. History of European Morals H. Bushido being a teaching primarily intended for the masculine sex.
But these exercises were not followed only for hygienic purposes. The latterwas very often the case: They could be turned into use in times of need. The domestic utility of her warlike training was in the education of her sons. Yet the primary motive for exercises of this martial character was not for use in the field. With her weapon she guarded her personal sanctity with as much zeal as her husband did his master's.
Woman owning no suzerain of her own. Even the Christian conscience with its horror of Fencing and similar exercises. Is not a caution like this worthy of the Christian Perpetua or the Vestal Cornelia? I would not put such an abrupt interrogation. When a Japanese Virginia saw her chastity menaced.
It was a disgrace to her not to know the proper way in which she had to perpetrate self-destruction. For example. A young woman. Her own weapon lay always in her bosom. Far from it! Accom- plishments and the gentler graces of life were required of them. Should she but graze this nether sphere. Dancing was taught I amspeaking of samurai girls and not of geisha only to smooth the angularity of their movements. Some of the finest verses in our literature were expres- sions of feminine sentiments.
The young moon poised above the height Doth hastily betake to flight. The letter she leaves behind ends with these verses. Music was to regale the.
When the epistle is finished. Here again we see the same idea prevailing which we notice in the training of youths that accomplishments were ever kept subservient to moral worth.
Just enough of music and dancing to' add grace and brightness to life, but never to foster vanity and extravagance. I sympa-. The accomplishments of our women were not acquired for show or social ascendency. Domesticity guided their education. It may It was to maintain its honor. Night and day, in tones at once firm and tender, brave and plaintive,.
As daughter, woman sacrificed herself for her father, as wife for her husband, and as mother for her son. Thus from earliest youth she was taught to deny herself. Her life was not one of independence, but of dependent service. Man's helpmeet, if her presence is.
Not infrequently does it happen. Adzuma, the ideal wife in the minds of samurai girls, finds herself loved by a man. Upon pretence of joining in the guilty plot, she manages in the dark to take her husband's place, and the sword of the lover assassin descends. The following epistle written by the wife of a young daimio, before taking her own needs no comment: To take shelter under a common bough or a drink of the same river, is alike ordained from ages.
Since we were joined in ties of eternal wedlock, now two short years ago, my heart hath followed thee, even as its shadow followeth an object, inseparably bound heart to heart, loving and being loved. Learning but recently, however, that the coming battle is to be the last of thy labor and life, take the farewell greeting of. I have heard that Ko-u, the mighty warrior of ancient China, lost a.
Yoshinaka, too, brave as he was, brought. Why should I. She was no more the slave of man than was her husband of his liege-lord. I know the. The gratitude we owe him is as deep as the sea and as high as the hills. Why should I not. I say the doctrine of service. The point I wish to make that the whole teaching of Bushido is was so thoroughly imbued with the spirit of self-sacrifice.
My readers will not accuse me of undue prejudice in favor of slavish surrender of volition. Bushido is based on eternal truth.
I accept in a large measure the view advanced with breadth of learning and defended with profundity of thought by Hegel. We hear much of the outward respect " God and the European knights paid to ladies. Can such a revolt succeed? Will it improve the female status? Will the rights they gain by such a summary process repay the loss of that sweetness of disposition. Was not the loss of domesticity on the part of Roman matrons followed by moral cor- ruption too gross to mention?
Can the American reformer assure us that a revolt of our daughters is the true course for their historical development to take? These are grave questions. Hallam that the morality of Chivalry was coarse.
The effect of Chivalry on the weaker vessel. Changes must and will come without revolts In the meantime let! Spencer tells us that in a militant society and what is feudal society if not militant?
Guizot contending that Feudalism and Chivalry wrought wholesome influences. Thus what Herbert Spencer gives as the charac- teristics of a militant type of society may be said to have been exclusively confined to the samurai class. The military class in Japan was restricted to the samurai. Guizot's theory true of Japan. Below them were masses of the common people mechanics.
Above them were the military nobles. In reply I might aver that both are right. This is well illustrated by the position of woman. Now is M. Strange to say.
Among the higher nobility. When we think in how few respects men Thus Spencer's dictum was fully exemplified in Old Japan. I shall be guilty of gross injustice to if my words historical truth give one a very low opinion of the status of woman under Bushido.
As to Guizot's. I do not hesitate to state that she was not treated as man's equal. Such a method of calculation excludes from consideration the most important kind of value which a human being possesses. In view of the manifold variety of requisites formaking each sex fulfil its earthly mission.
Were the law the only scale by which to measure the position of woman community. When the American Declaration of Independence said that all men were created equal. But the question is Is there a correct standard in: Is it right.
So with us. Why among so military a nation as the Romans. It tried to guage the value of woman on the battle-field and by the hearth. There she counted for very little. While fathers and husbands were absent in field or camp. The warlike exercises of women. Not as fighters or law-givers. Was it not because they were matrona. The education of the young. It sounds highly irrational to our ears.
When it is told that such phrases as "my foolish father. Is it good taste to speak of one's self as "my bright self. I have noticed a rather superficial notion prevailing among half-informed foreigners. To me it seems that our idea of marital union goes in some ways further than the so-called Christian. The Teutonic races beginning their tribal life with a superstitious awe of the fair sex though this is really wearing off in Ger- many!
But in the martial ethics of Bushido. I have diverged at some length because the polite debasement of one's consort was a usage most in vogue among the samurai.
Of these we have brought to our reader's notice. Being founded on natural affections. I might fill pages with Japanese versions of the story of Damon and Pythias or Achilles and Patroclos. Upon the rest. I have only dwelt incidentally as occasion presented itself.
In this connection. Democracy raises up a natural prince for its leader. As the sun in its peaks with russet rising first tips the highest hue. We have brought into view only a few of the more prominent peaks which rise above the range of knightly virtues. No HS. It is not surprising. Virtues are no less contagious than vices. Was it not rather the work of the squires and gentlemen? Very truly does M. They were not only the flower of the nation but its root as well.
All the gracious gifts of Heaven flowed through Prate as we may of the triumphant march of Anglo-Saxon liberty. What Japan was she owed to the samu- rar. Taine say. Had he been there. The innumerable avenues of popular amusement and instruction the theatres. In the most chivalrous days of Europe. Knights formed numerically but a small fraction of the population. I admit Bushido had its esoteric and exoteric teachings.
Though they kept themselves social- ly aloof from the populace. Chikamatsu and Bakin. The peasants round the open fire in their huts never tire of repeating the. The very babe just beginning to toddle is taught to lisp the adventures of Momotaro. The clerks and the shop-boys. Even girls are so imbued with the love of knightly deeds and virtues that.