The maximum practical thickness for residential/office/public buildings is . DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES Reinforced concrete structures can be designed by using. and specifications governing practical design. In this course we will learn to understand the basic performance of concrete and steel as structural materials, and. [PDF] Design Of Reinforced Concrete Structures By M. L. Gambhir Book Free Download Cover a large number of worked-out practical design examples and .
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Practical Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings. FULL ACCESS Download PDF MB Read online. Keywords. Shear Reinforcement. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The main objective of this project is to analyze and design a multi-story building (3D-dimensional reinforce concrete frame), the design of reinforced concrete slabs, science of structural engineering besides the knowledge of practical Design of concrete structures / George Winter, Arthur H. Nilson. Buy Practical Design Of Reinforced Concrete Structures by GHOSH, KARUNA MOY PDF Online. ISBN from PHI Learning. Download Free.
He has over four decades of wide and varied experience of teaching and research in various capacities. Ventilation is necessary for the following reasons: January Request an e-inspection copy. The approach will be unique as it will focus primarily on the design of various structures and structural elements as done in design offices with an emphasis on compliance with the relevant codes. This book is a comprehensive presentation of the practical aspects of analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures.
Disposition of doors and windows greatly affect internal privacy.
Lighting may be natural or artificial. Natural lighting is achieved by properly positioning the adequate number of windows to admit the required amount of sum inside the room. Good day lighting means not too much light but sufficient light free from glare. Sanitary Convenience: Urinals, Bathrooms and their number should be sufficient in relation to the occupant load. The other factors are: The visualization of elevation should always be kept in mind while preparing plan.
Architectural design and composition should be studied in detail for achieving success in creating an elegant structure. Selection of site for the building greatly affects the elegance. A slight adjustment or modifications in the elevation through the requirements of the plan are maintained will definitely improve the elegance of building. Economy restricts the liberties which otherwise would have been enjoyed by the planner to.
But economy should no affect the utility and strength of the structure. Infact, no rules can be framed to achieve economy. It is at ingenuity of an individual. Which he would like to adopt. This consideration is very important for designing the houses for middle class families or other building where economy is the main consideration. Orientation also involves proper placement of rooms is relation to the sun wind rain topography and at the same time providing a convenient access both the street and backyard.
The placing of the building with respect to the geographical directions. The direction of wind and azimuth of sun is known as orientation building. Orientation is relationship to its environment. Good ventilation is an important factor in providing comfort in building. Ventilation is necessary for the following reasons: To create air movement.
To prevent accumulation of carbon-DI-oxide and moisture in a building. To provide required amount of oxygen in air. To prevent condensation in the building. To prevent the concentration of bacterial carrying particles. To reduce the concentration of body odors fumes. To prevent suffocating conditions in committee halls.
From comfort point of view the following factors should be considered they effect ventilation to a greater degree. Rate of supply of fresh air. Air movements or air change. Temperature of air. Purity or quality of air. Use of building.
For accurate analysis a continuous slab carrying ultimate load is analysed using elastic method with redistribution of moments. It transfers the transverse load to its supporting edges by bending in both directions. In fact, since the depth of slab is not known in advance and the width of support is normally greater than the effective depth of slab, in practice the effective depth of slab is taken equal center to center distance between the supports to be on safer side.
In practice spacing is kept between mm to mm. In case of slabs, design shear may be taken equal to maximum shear Vu.
In other cases, the maximum shear may be calculated from principles of mechanics. It is the bottom steel at simply supported end and top steel at Continous end. If not increase the depth. This check for shear is mostly satisfied in all case of slabs subjected to uniformly distributed load and therefore many times omitted in design calculations. It may be noted that when the check of shear is obtained, it is not necessary to provide minimum stirrups as they are required in the case of beams.
The effective depth do is for outer layer of short span steel and effective depth di is for inner layer of long span steel at mid span. As far as support section is concerned, the effective depth is do only for both spans. In this edge strip, only distribution steel will be provided. Distribution steel will be provided for middle strip bars at top of supports.
At middle of short edge, Vu. Long edge: So two way slab interior panel. Design moments: Check for deflection: M kN- Ast mm2 B. M kN- Ast B. A beam is a structural member that is capable of withstanding load by primarily resisting bending. The designing of the beam mainly consists of fixing the breadth and depth of the beam and arriving at the area of steel and the diameter of bars to be used. The breadth of the beam is generally kept equal to the thickness of the wall to avoid offset inside the room.
It shall also not exceed the width of the column for effective transfer of load from beam to column. The dimensions of the beam that we have chosen are: Procedure to design beams: The beam is analyzed first in order to calculate the internal actions such as Bending Moment and Shear Force. A simplified substitute frame analysis can be used for determining the bending moments and shearing forces at any floor or roof level due to gravity loads.
The Moment distribution method is used for this purpose. In order to analyze the frame, it is needed to calculate the loads to which the beams are subjected to. The different loadings are as follows: Depending on the position of the slab, the loading may be decided.
In the case of two way slabs, trapezoidal load comes from the longer side while the triangular load comes from the shorter side. The load transferred from the slab on the right side is denoted as ws2 and the slab from the left side is denoted as ws1. The equivalent U. M and S. Design ultimate load: Given total No.
While designing it should first be noted if it is a flanged section or a rectangular section. Most of the intermediate beams are designed as rectangular sections. The main beams may be designed as flanged sections. For rectangular beams, the maximum depth of N. A lies at the centre. For flanged sections, check if the N.
A lies within the flange or not and then proceed to calculate the moment. The dimensions of flanged section as designed as per the code IS: A is known to lie within the flange.
This is the case that usually governs the slab-beam construction. The continuous beams at supports are generally required to be designed as a doubly reinforced section. Steps to design a doubly reinforced section: Select number and diameter of bars.
Required spacing may be calculated as per the code. Find the shear force acting ,F from the frame analysis. Incase bars are bent up for provision of shear reinforcement, then the additional force coming in due to the bent up must also be considered.
Design of Intermediate secondary beam B Load calculations: L for B. L for S.
Check for shear: Beam details: The reinforcement in the middle is provided at the bottom while at the ends is provided at the top because the middle portion should resist compression while the ends should resist tension. Design of a beam as a T-beam: Beam 22 1: Since Max moment is considered, through analysis we get, Rax3- However, in most of the practical cases, the beams are analyzed and designed as rectangular beams. Only, sometimes where economy is given due consideration, the beams are designed as T-beams.
In this particular project, all the beams are designed as rectangular beams. Beam Size of No. However, before proceeding for design of columns, it is necessary to analyze the frame of the building in order to know how much load is being taken by the column.
It is also sometimes done before design of columns to know the moments to which the beams are subjected to.
A brief introduction: We come across various structures in our day to day life ranging from simple ones like the curtain rods and electric poles to more complex ones like multistoried buildings, shell roofs, bridges, dams, heavy machineries, automobiles, aeroplanes and ships.
These structures are subjected to various loads like concentrated loads, uniformly distributed loads, uniformly varying loads, random loads, internal or external pressures and dynamic forces. The structure transfers its load to the supports and ultimately to the ground. Treating an entire structure as a single rigid body and finding the reactions from supports is the first step in analyzing a structure. While transferring the loads acting on the structure, the members of the structure are subjected to internal forces like axial forces, shearing forces, bending and torsional moments.
Structural analysis deals with analyzing these internal forces in the members of the structures. The frame analysis of roof, ground floor and an internal frame is done. The results of the internal frame analysis are applied to other internal frames as well and hence the internal forces namely shear forces and bending moments are obtained. The following steps may be taken: Do similar excersice for all joints.
This upsets the balance of the joint. If sway is there in the frame, then the following procedure may be adopted. Carry out analysis as explained above. This is called non-sway analysis. Considering the free body diagrams of column, find horizontal forces developed at supports. For the given sway force, it is difficult to find the end moments developed.
Then, fixed end moments developed in column, AB and CD are: Then Moment Distribution is carried out to get final moments.
The design of column necessitates determination of loads transferred from beam at different floor levels. Loads are transferred from slabs to beams and then to columns. Hence, slabs and beams are normally designed prior to the design of columns. However, in practice, many times situations arise which require the design of columns and footings to be given prior to the design of slabs and beams.
In such a case, loads on columns and footings are required to be assessed using judgement based on past experience and using approximate methods. The loads can be determined approximately on the basis of floor area shared by each column.
In such cases, the design of column is likely to be uneconomical. Categorization of columns: This is the first step in designing of the columns because the procedure for design of columns in each of the three categories is different. I Internal columns or Axially loaded columns: Internal columns carrying beams either in all four directions or only in opposite directions are predominantly subjected to axial compression because moments due to loads on beams on opposite sides balance each other.
II Side columns or columns subjected to axial compression and uniaxial bending: Columns along the sides of a building which carry beams either in three orthogonal directions or a single beam in one direction are subjected predominantly to axial load and uniaxial bending due to unbalanced moment transferred from a single beam on one side, while the moments from the other two beams in opposite directions balance each other provided their spans and loads on them are nearly equal.
If such columns are to be designed as axially loaded columns using approximate method, the axial load is required to be increased to account for the effect of uniaxial bending in column.
The load thus arrived is called equivalent acial load for the purpose of design of column section. III Corner columns or columns subjected to axial compression and biaxial bending: They require large increase in axial load to account for the effect of biaxial bending for obtaining an equivalent axial load.
Computation of loads on columns: There are two methods namely for this purpose. They are: This method is used to compute loads if the beam end shears are known prior to the column design. These have been calculated while analyzing the loads on beams and designing them. Total load L. This method is used when the design of footing is required to be given prior to design of slab and beam and approximate sizes of column are required to be assumed. This is done by knowing the influence area and the load in the area that is borne by that particular column.
In such cases, approximate loads are required to be calculated on beams first and column load are obtained from beam shears. Calculation of Moments in Columns: The moments in the columns are obtained directly and exactly if the entire structural frame is analysed using Moment Distribution method. However, if the building cannot be divided into a number of frames due to peculiar positions of columns, as in some cases of residential buildings or in building frames in which the connections are assumed to be simple, the moments in columns at any floor level can be obtained by considering substitute column frame which consists of only the relevant column together with connected beams fixed at their far end.
The calculated moment in column shall not be less than Mumin. However, it may be noted that the moment due to this eccentricity is opposite to the moment transferred by the beam to the column at that level. This, in fact results in reduction of the effective moment and hence the moment due to this eccentricity need not be considered. It needs consideration only when there is no floor beam in the plane of the offset.
Grouping of Columns: In such a case, column carrying maximum load may only be designed in that group and the same section be adopted for all the columns in that group. This saves the computational efforts and labour, considerably during the execution of work.
This is of prime importance in practical design.
Design of column section: The design of column section may be done by any of the two methods: A Approximate Equivalent axial load Method: In this approach, total equivalent axial load is obtained by adding calculated approximate axial loads.
Preliminary section is designed for this total equivalent axial load using the procedure for design of axially loaded columns. The section so obtained is later on checked by exact method for actual compression and bending moment.
B Exact Method: This method of designing column depends upon the type of column short or slender and the type of loading and whether the column is subjected to axial load only or subjected to combined axial load and uniaxial bending or combined axial load and biaxial bending. The columns are easy to design using the design aids given in SP I Axially loaded short columns The column shall be designed as a short axially loaded compression member if the minimum eccentricity does not exceed 0.
Normally, 6mm diameter ties are used for main bar diameter less than 25mm. Determine the bending moments in columns. Assume arrangement of bars. These charts can be used without significant error for any number of bars greater than 8, provided the bars are equally distributed on the four sides.
It may be noted that the second arrangement requires large area of steel than that required by the first arrangement. In case of ambiguity of deciding the arrangement, the second one is definitely safer. Rest of the procedure is the same as given below. Assume bars to be placed uniformly all around the periphery as this is better for bi axial bending.
Calculate Mux1. Calculate Muy1. If the left hand side of the equation p is less than 0. Reduce the reinforcement or reduce the section and repeat the procedure if desired. Continue with the trials until the section and economical. III Slender columns: Obtain Puz and Pub as mentioned earlier. This is now the design moment for the column accompanied by given Pu. For safe side, most of the columns, which could be designed as axially loaded were designed considering them as axially loaded columns with uniaxial bending.
The load on column from roof on the 5th floor: Total axial load from the adjacent beams i. Now, load on the 4th floor: Hence, all the columns are designed in this manner and are finally grouped for convenience so that the design of less number of columns may be required.
Depending on their load conditions and reinforcement requirement, they are categorized.
Footings are of two types: We have designed isolated footing and the procedure is given below. The various steps involved in the design are given below: The maximum load transferred to the soil is equal to axial load on column plus self weight of the footing.
The fourth and final part discusses the precast reinforced concrete workshop building. The important activities required to be carried out prior to structural analysis—structural arrangement planning, materials selection, examination of buildability and environmental impact—are covered in the initial chapters in each part.
The book presents the various structural analyses and design calculations I an exhaustive manner. The text is illustrated with a large number of visuals. Important additional information relevant to this field can be found in the references provided at the end of various chapters. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Customers who bought this item also bought.
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