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History of architecture by george salvan pdf

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Architectural Theories of Design - George Salvan - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd The East as the origin of light is also the source of. View Notes - history of architecture by george caite.info from CEAT at Palawan State University. You can Read History Of Architecture By George Salvan or Read Online History Of Architecture By George. Salvan, Book History Of Architecture By George.


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Cfusiol1 of two towers. When it is viewed from ground level, its central core element may not be clearly visible, and the radiating of its linear arms may be obscured or distorted through perspective. Scale is so subtle that it affects even the smallest things that its mastery must be acquired through cultivation of good taste and an instinct for har- mony in Archi tecture. Instead of a wall-sized painting, an elec- tronic sculpture welcome visitors. He moved trees, houses and even mountains about so that they will conform to a pattern which embodies the principles of good design. Movie- Cinema House -a place of relaxation or recreation after a hectic day of discharging one's obligations of the day. Self preservation.

The Acropolis, Athens 2. Seville Cathedral 3. Cross Vault 3. Pisa Cathedral 3.

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Milan Cathedral 4. Cologne Cathedral 5. Doric Belfry - attached to church Chinese vs Japanese Pagodas 2. Ionic Campanile - detached from church 1. Chinese - octagonal plan, Japanese 3. Corinthian - square 4. Tuscan Types of Domes 2. Chinese - 9 or 13 storeys, 5.

Composite 1. Simple Japanese - 5 storeys 2. Compound Egypt Methods of Natural Lighting 3. Clerestory shape 1. Latin cross 2. Skylight 2. Greek cross 3. Temple door Periods of Renaissance 1. Early Renaissance Types of roofs Gateways 2. High Renaissance 1. Gable 1. Egyptian - Pylon 3. Baroque 2. Hip 2. Greek - Propylaeum 4. Rococo 3. Hipped gable 3. Indian - Torana 4. Mansart 4. Chinese - Pai-lou 12 Architects of St. Gambrel history of architecture 5. Japanese — Torii 1.

Donato Bramante 6. Butterfly 2. Giuliano da Sangallo 7. Rainbow Pyramid vs. Fra Giocondo 1. Pyramids have sloping faces; 4. Raphael 5 Points of New Architecture ziggurats have diminishing faces 5. Baldassare Peruzzi 1.

Framework structurally independent 2. Pyramids used stone as building 6. Antonio da Sangallo of walls material, ziggurats used mud-bricks 7. Michelangelo 2. Pyramids have sides facing the 8.

Giacomo della Porta 3. Roof garden cardinal points, ziggurats have 9. Domenico Fontana 4. Open planning corners facing the cardinal points Vignola 5. Cube form elevated on stilts or Carlo Maderna columns Hellenic vs Hellenistic Germany — Jugendstil 2nd Phase - Christopher Wren 3. Austria — Sezessione 4. Italy — Stile Liberty 5. Spain - Modernismo. Related Papers. Similarly in a small room, the walls can be made to recede by painting them with cool colors such as green and blue.

If members of a fami- ly have tastes which differ widely, they may be satisfied by sel ecting the colors of their own rooms. The plan of living of a household group should be studied before any color selections are made. Someone engaged in a business which uses a great deal of energy shl"luld have a retreat at home-a room with a quietly harmonious color scheme.

A person whose day is spent in a monotonous business, on the other hand, will probably enjoy color contrasts and bright colors. But all the colors in such an installation must relate to each other and to a central scheme. There are a number of reasons for such color the main one being that there is usually a certain amount of circulation of personnel ; and everyone may have different col - or opinions.

In most cases the walls of the lobby of a commercial building should be stimulating and exciting, and the corridors should be neutral, so that when the doors of the offices are open, harmony will be apparent.

Individual offices may vary in color, texture and materials, but they must have a basic similarity. The main objectives in determining the color scheme of a commercial installation are to provide colors which are rich, definite, and harmonious which will be easyto live with, and which will contribute to the efficiency and well-being of all who tenant the building.

Colors should be subtle; for example, no brash greens or blues should be used unless compensating colors are used with them. Where offices are located upon an uninterest- ing interior court, the colors of such offices should be ''sunny" and brilliant. It will depend, to a large extent, upon the type of operation performed. It is equally important that the proper kind of light be used to avoid shadows and glare.

For ease of seeing, it is generally wise to keep the wall color darker than the machines or work benches. If the space is small, the walls can be warm in color yellow, orange, etc. J , a, fV protectfo. Action" n- ll , ,, , ,.. Also an obligation to wear p8raonal rl. WiUl1 "marka such n and floor. First aid 4. The aim should be to provide an atmosphere that is friendly and inviting. Color and illumination are probably the most important of the visual elements. While pastel colors are most often emplo' ed in patient rooms, variety can be obtained by deep- ening the tone of the bed wall, painting the window wall plus an adjacent wall a deeper tone, or perhaps using a contrasting color on one or two of the other walls.

If the room is an odd shape, the judicious use of the two tones of color can help visually improve its proportions. A dado of wood or other material is an additional tool for providing color variation. The use of pattern to provide visual relief should be taken Into consideration in the overall scheme of patient rooms as well on other areas. Reception areas, dining rooms, day rooms, libraries, and chapels can provide patients, staff and visitorS with welcome relief from the functional areas.

Colors, furnishings, and illumination can be varied to provide relaxing atmosphere. Laboratories and specific examination areas such as X-ray, operating and other treament rooms may be attractively designed with cheerful coJors. There is no reason why an X-ray or radiology room cannot be treated in a decorative manner, despite the seriousness of the activity therO quite abstract graphic design on a wall, complementary to the color scheme, may provide just the right balance to the awesome equipment to remind both the patient and professional that they are not isolated from the real world.

The use of colorful utility cabinets and other accessories can also be considered. Vinyl wall coverings should also be considered. As with any other group of spaces, there shouldbe a basic scheme to unify the whole, but the individual areas should each reflect their own personality. Long corridors can be used as a tool to unify; the tack ot interest can be countered with art work and with colorful accents- unusual treatment of the ends of the corridors, of doors and frames, or periodical spaces, or of handrails, for examples.

The flooring in corridors should also r. In most contemporary schools almost anything that can be colored is treated in a bright and brilliant way. Corridor walls, for instance, are sometimes yellow; rooms facing cool north light are given warm tones, and those facing warm south light are given cool tones.

The front wall of each classroom is often painted darker than the other walls of the room. Every effort should be made to select a color that will be of approximately the same value as the color of the chalkboard so as to minimize eye fatigue. It colors are pastels. Doors and trim are usually darker than the walls in which. However, while a stimulating atmosphere is desirable in a teaching situation, care should be exercised to prevent overstimulation, which may produce restlessness, tension and fatigue.

NOTE Establishments such as department stores and retail or specialty shops require special color treatments. By careful observation, one can be able to formulate guidelines similar to those given above. Each type of building has its own needs, and these must be analyzed before any color scheme is designed for a specifi c proj ect. When the room was finished, it was impossible to distinQuish any difference in colour bet- ween the walls painted c and e, and the same was true forthe walls painted q and i.

In the corner where e and i met, however, a distinct difference in colour could be seen and this was also the case in the corner c, q. The explanations is that the two sides of a corner form part of a room.

As a result of this pressure, we try to perceive a uniform colour and this is easier when the. They are then perceived as the satne local colours in different il- lumination. This perception is impossible if the difference in lightness is too great, and then lhe two wall colours are perceived at different local colours. One special result of the influence of form on col our is the "spread1ng effect". In this figure, divide into halves by a finger or pencil placed between the black and wh1te gnlles.

Where the red meets the black parts of the grill, it becomes darker tllan where it meets the white, an ef- fect directly opposed to contrast induction. This may be called the "area effect". It is well known to architects and interior decorat ors that a wall painted in accordance with a given colour sample has a much stronger colour than the sample itself. The colour on a figure may change at times according to the distance from which it is observed.

The deep blue and pale yellow bands change to black, and nearly white when looked at from a distance. Thjs is apparently caused by the diminution in size of the retinal image.

Colours on a non-uniform background Such colours are subject to many unexpected changes. The blue areas in the pattern below are printed with exactly the same colour ink. Note their different appearance, a hightened ef- fect can be seen if the design is tilted or looked at from a distance. The blue areas in the pattern are printed with exactly the same Ink.

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Note that the left s1de blue seems darker than the blue at the right. Now look at it from a distance, the effect is heightened.

The effect of colour on form If the form are able to change the colour, then the colour is also able to change the form. THe figure sliows what is called al"! Fields of different colours whose breadth is geometrically equal may, at times, be perceived as having different breadths. When blue band became bigger geometric ally, when seen fron afar, RWB seems to be all the same breadth.

The iradiation effect-the white figure looks larger in size than the black one. They are geometrically equal. It deals with unity, balance, rhythm, and composition. It is organized around a central plot, as in a novel. It has design, as has a sonata. It can be rhythmic as the dance. A painting has contrast of color, and a fine piece of sculpture has beauty of form and line. Good architecture attains pleasing composition through the relation of contrasting masses and tones.

It is difficult to isolate a singl e quality and consider it alone. A synthesis of all the principles is necessary in order to insure a unified and satisfactory composition, but for the sake of study, it will be to analyze separately these qualities and their application to archi- tectural problems.

Mere recognition of these principles does not, however, insure a success- ful design. An individual may be a good critic but still be unable to write a poem, paint a landscape, or design a building. Creative ability, in addition to a knowledge of application of the elements of design, is neces- sary for the production of distinguished results. Ability to discern between what is fine and what is mediocre that quality which we call TASTE-must be developed. Good taste steers an individual through the seas of social adjustments and aesthetic decisions.

It enables him to choose correctly in accordance with cultural or artistic standards. Popular taste, however, is so often a matter concerned with group action and changes so with the times, that it is not a reliable guide. Taste must, therefore, be based upon a knowledge of the rules of proper conduct with respect to our actions and of the prin- ciples of good composition in regard to our artistic endeavors.

Good taste and creative abili- ty together should produce buildings which merit the name architecture. In each pair, one design is definitely more unified, better balanced or more interesting than the other. I A t;;:: On these pages are eight pairs of designs; they are not intended to depict or represent anything or look like any familiar object.

Study each pair as long as you wish and check the one, A or B. If all selections correct - you should have faith in your taste or innate artistic sense, how- ever, there is a great difference between appreciati ng art and creating art. In addition to appreciation, the creation of fine art requires talent, study, training and indefatigable effort.

We can hear because of the contrast between silence and sound, because of the difference between the lengths of the sound We can feel because of the contrast between the quality of objects. The nerves in our finger tips tells us that some things are cold and smooth whereas others are warm and rough. We can see a building because of the contrast in the shapes and textures of the surfaces which enclose space to make architecture.

Not only is it possible for us to see a building through the element of contrast but also the building is given beauty and interest by t he difference between the types of treatment which are introduced.

It is essential that certain areas, directions, and colors vary or differ from others so that by contrast the qualities of each are emphasized. It is t hrough contrast that we secure proper scale, proportion, and unity and consequently, a satisfactory design.

Square and circular areas may create a diversified interest. If form is more properly conceived in three dimensions, the architectural result is mass If bulks are combined, it is possible that the resulting composttton may be rnterestmg and satisfying. It is possible to have a horizontal line op- posing a vertical or diagonal lines may form a composition. It may be curved or straight, regular or irregular, broken, or continuous. In an architectural example, contrast of type of line gives an interesting contour or silhouette to a building.

If this change in size is gradual and uniform, the result is called gradation. The exterior of the building is given interest on account of the contrast between the dark roof and the light walls. This feeling is strenghtened by the introduction of the darks of the openings and by the shadows cast by the projecting wings of the build- ing. Contrast of tone is secured in the examples below of abstract design, by the use of black and white, or gray and white, areas.

An architectural composition is presented which illustrates in a combined way some of the various types ot contrast. There is, first of all, contrast of mass - not only with references to whether it is cylindrical or rectangular , but also wi th reference to the direction of the mass or volume. The entire composition is decidedly horizontal ; but variety is secured by the ver- tical direction of the tower, of the end wings, and the chi mneys.

Contrast of shape is also present in the rectangular and arched openings of the building, and contrast of tone is secured by the darks and lights of the roots, walls, and windows.

If similarity exists to a marked degree, the ef- fect is monotony. The facade of a building may consist of a si mple, unadorned wall pierced with many uninteresting windows, and the effect may be very monotonous. On the other hand, it is--possible to go to the other extreme and to have contrast which is too violent. Pi - laster, belt courses, and decoration may be used too profusely.

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The resul t will. It is thus, necessary that contrast be present in and just the correct amount: Here there is contrast of vertical and horizontal volumes giving a composition in abstract form which becomes capable of housing human interests through the introduction of windows, doors, and floor levels.

A pleasing composi- tion is secured chiefly by the relationship which exists between the various block-like units of the buildings and by the disposition of the windows which give interest to the surfaces of the masses. In this figure, attention should be called to the manner in which the eye is carried along to the tower by means of a series of minor vertical units which prepare one for the climax of the dominant element near the centre.

Consideration should also be given to the horizontal treatment of the windows on the left, which emphasizes the direction of that portion of the building and opposes the vertical feeling of the forms near the main entrances. It is well to remember that contrast is opposition. If verticals did not oppose horizon- tals, if openings did not differ from wall, and if accents did not successfully compete for the interest of the observer, contrast would not exist.

There is also here a transition in the relationship between masses. This situation is shown where the adjacent volumes prepare the observer for the dominant vertical near the centre of the composition. The termination of the tower gives additional emphasis and contrast to that part of the structure. There is also present in this connection contrast of tone, which is seen in the deco- rative treatment of the upper and lower portions of the tower.

Interest in other parts of the facade is secured by the contrast of the windows with the wall surfaces. In the wing at the right, the upper windows are pointed and are larger than the rectangular ones below, while at the left the arched openings with balconies are surrounded by large areas of wall space which again give variety and contrast. The different elements must be wide or narrow. In addition, there should be a variation in the projections of the various parts of the plan, in order that the proper emphasis may be secured.

The church must have ecclesiastical character and the parish house must harmonize with the former, but not to such an extent that it might be mistaken for a place of worship. This calls for a subtle balance of contrast and similarity- the con- trast of character. Here the spire of the church which we associate with ecclesiasti cal buildings gives a suggestion of function, and the import ant entrance indicates the public character of the structure. The house has smaller windows than the church, their size being regu- lated by the interior which they are to light.

Tt,e shutters and chimneys impart a touch of domesticity and intimacy which would not be desirabl e in the church and which is lacking therein. Contrast of direction is also present. The church is vertical, whereas the parish house is horizontal.

Contrast of size is evident - the large church over the smaller dwelling. Ac- cents are also obtained by the change in di- rection of the voussoirs of the lower arches. Interest is secured by changing the character of the treatment of the upper and lower portion of the facade. The arch entrance also offers the quality of variety when used with the rectangular door and windows, while contrast or opposition is secured by the upward thrust of the columns against the inert weight of the entablature.

In the roof, the lines of the tile oppose the horizon- tal direction of the roof itself.

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A satisfactory contrasting relation exists between the width of the windows and that of the piers. The piers are wider than the windows and provide for dissi- milarity of surface, or an interesting proportion of parts. It is evident that contrast result from dissimilarity, or the association of unlike masses, areas or tones.

Contrast is also opposition -opposition by which one element wages a successful battle against competing elements. One shape or color clearly dominates the others.

This con- dition may also be called emphasis, but this emphasis must be present in just the proper amount. If a doorway, a window, or a panel seems to detach itself from the wall or appears to be unrelated to the rest of the composition, it may be too emphatic in its appeal. The ele- ment of contrast is too strong. There is not a satisfactory transition between the surrounding wall surface and the dominant architectural motif. Therefore, although contrast is essential to a unified composition, transi- tion shoul d always tend to alleviate the burden imposed by excessive and sudden changes in treatment.

Mouldings and decorative details should have structural or circulatory elements, and belt courses, cornices, and quoins should help one surface to member gracefully wit h the next and assist in tying t he entire arrangement together in a pleasing and interesting manner. It is evident by a comparison which the eye makes between the size, shape, and tone of various objects or parts of a composition.

These are certain geometrical forms which have very definite proportions. These are the: Just as a circle is more evident and less intriguing than a freehand curve, so is a square less interesting t han a rectangle. However a rectangle should very definitely take on the propor- tions of that particular shape. It should not approach a square in its dimensions, because a state of doubt will exist in the mind of the observer as to its classifi cation.

On the other hand of the roctangle becomes too long, it approaches the area of two squares, and there is an un- conscious tendency for the eye to divide it into two equal space. To get the most pleasing rectangular porportion. It is static and stable. It's centre of gravity is low, and it tapers in a regular manner from the base of the composition. It goes so far in insuring good results that the privelege of using it has been abused, and it is regarded as the easiest way out of a difficult situation.

A sense of harmony will be the results of use is made of a rythmic repetition of moti fs whi ch have a common geo met ric shape as a base. See figure above. It will be noticed that the diagonals pass through important parts in the composition. One of the most important phases of proportion and one which should be considered in the development of a facade is the relat ion of the solids to the voids, of the wall surfaces to the openings.

It is necessary that one clearly dominate the other that the element of a contrast will be present. If there is a similarity between the width of the windc;,ws and the spaces bet- ween, indecision or competition will exist.

In classical , Romanesque, and Renaissance buildings, where heavy stone constructi on pre- dominates. The windows and doors usuall y occupy a minor portion of the facade and the wall surfaces are quite dominant. When the Gothic builders learned the art and science of transmitting t he thrust or weight of the vaults to isolated buttresses.

Large areas of stained glass took the place of these walls, and regularly spaced piers carried the load of the roof and vaul ts. In contemporary architecture, the cantil ever of concrete and steel f rees the designer from many restrictions of masonry and construction and there is a tendency to use openings free- ly. This 15 a Thts IS a more. Natural Material Proportions All building materials in architecture have distinct properties of stiffness, hardness and durability.

And they all have an ultimate strength beyond which they cannot ex- tend themselves without fracturing, breaking or coll apsing. Masonry units like brick, are strong m compres- sion and depend on their mass for strength, and are volumetric in form logs are also volumetric in element and is used in log cabin construction. Wood is flexible and is used as beams and posts steel are strong both in com pression and tension.

Manufactured Porportions Many architectural elements are sized and proportioned not only according to their structural properties and func- tion, but also by the process through which they are manufactured. Be- cause these elements are mass- - produced in factories, they have standard sizes and proportions im- posed on them by the individual manu- factures.

While plywood is common in 1. Iaiiy column r'J Mode of Construction or Structural Proportions The size and proportions of structural elements such as beams, columns, are directly related to the structural tasks they perform and can be, therefore; visual indicators of the size and scale of the spaces they help enClose. Since beams transmit their loads nori- zontally across space to their vertical supports, its depth, therefore is the critical dimension.

The proportion of a column may de- pend upon the spacing or its height. The proportion of the height of a room is controlled by local building ordinances, logic and artistic sense. Auditorium proportions are influenced by visual and acoustical considerations. Proportions between heights and areas of rooms are controlled by the capacity and lighting requirements of the room. Traditions and Generally A ccepted Taste a.

At the exterior, the height of an edifice should be in proportion to the character th;H the edifice demanc1s. Buildings of worship such as: Classical buildings usually have proportions based upon traditional rules.

Relative Proportion -deals with the re lationship between the parts of an object and the whole e ample ratro between the diameter of a Classical col umn and its height or the relation of the panels of the door and the whole door. Absolute - deals with the relationship between the different parts of an object or the whole to the various parts.

Proportion of a cabinet or appliance to the room. Anthropo- morphic proportioning methods seek not abstract or symbolic rat ios, but functional ones. The dimensions and proportions of the human body affect the proportion of things we handle, the height and distance of things we must reach, the dimensions of the furniture we use to sitting, working, eating, and sleeping. In addition to these elements that we used in a building, the dimensions of the human body also affect the volume of space we require for movement.

Le Corbusier. He tkerefore t: These sysiEm of meDsurement governs leHgtl1, surfaces. Third step 1ransfer tl1e diagonal to the b: This is a formull!

OS - As the modulor uses LS3 r! After a serie5 of mathematical co11versio11s, trials at1d measurementG. It is found out that huma11 is composed of 7. At1d so iu get your f1ead aime11sior1, measure your height it1 meters next divide your height by 7. SZM 1. J5 lOS Height of persot1 7. JG a Go! G part; belottg to 1e family of prq: They caH provide a of order i11, at1d heignte11 the COt1tinuity of a s-equet1ce of They caH efabf refatio11ships t: They can alternate at1d they cart.

A cammot1 difr! Exampte 1 fr tf a 1, Y2 of tke diago11al ig tke widtn cf -tHe 11ext square 2. This dyHamic , projected itt two eJ witH of COmpleting tke Gecmd usi11g tHe -tke diag:: Jtfal d-z draw c3f an:: It-s rate of t11roout the 5erie;;. AP for aeetic a11d ecettomy i11 the duplildtion of moaule7 frum their t imber? Arithmetic mean tht Wtal? Um divided by 2, therefore?. JI c. Considering similar triangles, programmed so that the longest side of one triangle becomes the shortest side of the next, they subtend similar angles at the origin, the centre of rotation.

The whirling equilateral triangle is the simplest, completing a regular hexagon in one revolution. In any two similar triangles, the ratio of areas equals the square of the ratios of corresponding sides. Therefore, when whirling a 3, 4, 5 triangle, the correspondidng sides of adjacent triangles are in ratio of 5: Their areas are in ration of Whirling a right angled triangle so that the medium side of one becomes the shortest side of the next produces a spiral sitting neatly on the x andy axes.

A whirling isosceles triangle generates a logarithmic spiral. An approx. Scale has reference to proportions which are good for humans. Scale deals with the relation of architectural motifs, such as doors, windows or mouldings, to each other and the human figure. Architecture must be adapted to human needs. Doors should be large enough to walk through in comfort but not so gigantic that they require an almost impossible physical effort to close them. Steps should be of such a size as to permit easy ascent and descent.

Ceiling heights must be properly proportioned to the size and function of the room. In order to prevent one from fall- ing from one level to the next, a balustrade should be related to the human figure in such a way that safety is secured. Thus, design is a matter of the adjustment of architectural ele- ments to meet the needs of the human race, and proper scale should be present when this adaptation is made.

While proportion refers to the mathematical relationships among the real dimensions of a form or space, scale refers to how we perceive the size of a building element or space rela- tive to other forms. In visually measuring the size of an element we tend to use other ele- ments of known-size in their context as measuring devices. These are known as scale-giving elements, and tall into two general categories.

In architecture, therefore, we are concerned with two types of scale: In this figure, there is an area which represents the facade of a building but it has no scale. There are no details of any kind which might tell whether the building is thirty or one hundred fifty meters long. The structure lacks doors, windows. Mldittg In the above figures, a man has been introduced and immediately we are in a posi- tion to estimate the size of the structure,whether it is a one or a two storey building.

Scale is thereby established. The above figures show how the number of doors and windows give a definite clue to the comprative sizes of the other. If the top figure is about 15 meters long then the figure below is about 30 meters long. Correct scale is then to bring all parts of the building and landscape into proper rela tion with each other. The various elements should be correctly related to human uses. A door should be of such a size that they may be entered without fear of dis- comfort.

While, the windows should have a better relationship to the floor levels, wall areas and functions of the interior. Normal requirements of human beings.

Sizes of fami liar materials and those of nature. Example, the size of bricks or hol- low blocks which is usually 0.

Beauty or appearance. Scale is so subtle that it affects even the smallest things that its mastery must be acquired through cultivation of good taste and an instinct for har- mony in Archi tecture. Character whether it is monumental, residential, rustic or formal. Functi on or purpose usually, classroom areas or theatre areas affect the design of a room.

Location or visual distance mouldings, bas reliefs and statues outside the building should be bigger than that is viewed from the inside.

Economics depends upon the budget of the owner. A limited budget will provide a smaller building, a lower ceiling height. A building maybe in proper scale but is entirely out of proportion.

Proportions are only referrable to one another, and therefore, a building may have good proportions and yet be enti rely out of scale or vise versa. A well-proportioned door for a residence may be out of scale for" a huge cathedral.

The gravitation of people towards suburbs. However, nature is variable. If there is marked lack of rain, a drought results. If there are too many people for the food supply, there is famine. The proper balance between supply and demand has not been maintained. A person should also have a balanced diet in order not to be thin or stout or get sick. Furthermore, the books of accounts of an office or business establishment is balanced so as to have a clear view of the assets and li abilities.

If balance does not exist, there must necessarily be lack of balance or inequality. Balance is equality. It is composition. It is the foundation upon which arrangement, harmony and adjustment of weights, tones, values, etc. Proper balance satisfies the eye with reference to the relative importance of the various parts of the desig'1. AXIS The most elementary means of organizing forms and spaces in architecture.

It is a line estab- lished by two points in space and about which forms and spaces can be arranged in a regular or irregular manner. Although imaginary and not visible, an axis is a powerful, dominating, regulating device. Although it implies symmetry. The specific disposition of elements about an axis will determine whether the v.

I An axis has qualities of length and direction, and induces movement and views along its path. An axis must be terminated at both of its ends and can be reinforced by defining edges along its length. These terminating elements can be any of the following: Inequality, balance is equality.

It is composi tion. It is the foundation upon which arrange- ment harmony and adjustment of weights, tones, values etc. Proper balance satisfies the eye with reference to the relative importance of the various parts of the design. The notion of an axis can be reinforced by defining edges along its length. Tbose edges can be simply lines on the ground plan, or vertical planes that define a linear space coincidental with the axis.

Central axis-the easiest and simplest kind of balance in which the elements are arranged in precisely the same manner on either side of a central axis or line. Not only is the arrangement similar but each object is exactly like the one occupy ing the corresponding position on the opposite side. In this kind of balance the eye catches at a glance the equality of attraction on each side of the centre of the composition. All elements are duplicated -shape for shape, size for size, and tone for tone.

The left half of the composition is identical with the right half. This type of balance gives a feeling of repose and order. It is straight forward and direct. The effect of monumentality is more readily secured by the use of a symmetrical com- position than by an informal grouping of units. T'r1e Saguio Cafl'lf? Baguio Gty, Prlilippi11es. Formal There is another type of balance which approaches absolute symmetry but which lacks some of the essentials of this kind of composition.

At first glance the elements on one side of the central axis appear to be identical with those on the opposite side, but upon closer examination it is found that such is Aot the case. The general mass and grouping of parts may be similar, but there are dissimilar- ities in plan, elevation, or details.

The volumes of the balancing units may corres- pond, but there may exist a difference in their shapes and surface treatments. This type of composition is called 'Formal Balance. However, they are unlike in plan and in elevation, though the general eff ect is still one of simple balance. Radial Is characterized by an arrangement where all the parts radiate from a center like the spokes in a wheel.

It attempts to satisfy the eye without any effort to place equal masses at similar distances from the center of the composition. It is the grouping, in an informal manner, of elements of vary- ing sizes and shapes. But the eye must be trained to perceive the accomplishment of this result. A see-saw is used as an example wherein a lighter weight is farther from the fulcrum and a heavier one nearer.

In an informal arrangement the larger and heavier masses should be nearer the centre of the group, while the lighter, lower and more horizontal elements may constitute the long arm. The centre of gravity of the composition is near the main entrance, and one feels that the long, low mass to the right is balanced about this fulcrum by the heavier, more compact portion at the left.

I 3. This type of com- position is often far removed from conscious composition. Picturesqueness is the opposite of symmetrical composition. Essentially, it is a quality which is not composed but freely results from time and the forces of nature. One sense. The gravitational is typi cal arrangement of nature, in which a landscape is informal in its disposition of parts.

Its arrangement is ac- cidental, and it may be good in its composition or it may be lacking in this quality. Nature works in an unconscious manner with no attempt to meet man-made rules. The artist puts upon canvas his interpretation of the scene before him, modifyi ng it t o suit his own particular fancy.

He moved trees, houses and even mountains about so that they will conform to a pattern which embodies the principles of good design. He secures informal balance in a number of ways. I --i. Jetter I. In picture-making, balance refers to a "felt" optical equilibrium between all parts of the work.

The artist balances forces horizontally, vertically, radially, diagonally in all directions and positions. These factors or variables are position or placement, size, proportion, quality and direc- tion of the elements of these factors, position plays the lead role. If two shapes of equal physical qualities are placed near the bottom of a picture frame, the work will appear bottom heavy or out of balance with the large upper space.

Such shapes should be placed in positions which wi ll contribute to the total balance of all the involved picture parts. In seeking balance, it should be recognized that the elements of art represent " moments of force".

The eye, as it travels over the picture surface, pauses momentarily for significant pic- ture parts which are contrasting in character. These contrast represent moving and direc- tional forces which must count erbalance one another sc that a controlled tensi on results.

It is a combination of sounds arranged in such a manner as to arouse various reactions of pleasure, interest or excitement. Architecture is an art which is seen. It is a composition of elements so arranged as to serve a utilitarian purpose and, in addition, to have an emotional appeal.

The music of the western world is based upon rhythm, melody and harmony. Rhythm is the foundation of music.

Although it is necessary that there be tones of pleasing quality, still these tones must first be organized into some kind of time or spacing. Unorganized sounds result in discord or dissonance; unorganized architectural forms cause confusion. Movement is the basis of rhythm. The movement in music may consist of the time, which may be fast or slow, or it may be the Tempo or repetition of the theme through the composition, regular or irregular. There is the same feeling of movement in architecture.

A building is, of course, static. It re- mains indefinitely upon its foundations. But there is a movement of the theme as it travels across the facade of the building- the eye pausing here to look at this detail and then going on to the next. An unbroken wall has no rhythm.

There is nothing except texture to arrest the attention; nothing to be seen beyond the shape and contour of the surface. It incorporates the fundamental notion of repetition as a device to organize forms and spaces in architecture. Almost all building types incorporate elements that are, by their nature, repe- titive. Beams and columns repeat themselves to form repetitive structural bays and modules of space. Windows and doors repeatedly puncture a building's surface to allow light, air, views, and people to enter its interiors.

Spaces often recur to accomodate similar or repetitive function- al requirements in the building program. This section c;liscusses the patterns of repet iti on that can be utilized to organize a series of recurring elements, and the resultant visual rhythms these patterns create. It must be directed and controlled. If unrelated noises occur, such as the din of the factory, there is no organization and hence no rhythm.

If windows and doors are thrown into the facade of a building in a haphazard manner, there is no scheme or sense to the arrangement and again no rhythm. Rhythm may be one of the following: Rhythmic use of color - movement of the eye across a painting from spot to spot of similar color. Rhythmic use of line-repetition of a similar type of line in a piece of sculpture.

Rhythm of motion-the movement of dancers. Rhythm of direction -continuity of a series of arches forming an arcade. JU J Iglesia! If a structure has unity, it must have contrast, rhythm and scale. To have harmony, all the unrelated parts of an architectural arrangement are brought into proper relation to each other so that a satisfactory composition is obtained.

If unity prevails, all the unimportant parts must be kept in their places and be made simply to assist the major units in the roles which they are to play in the development of the structure.

This is similar to a well-organized business group or a disciplined army. There must be the leaders and those who assist the leaders, each with his own particular function to pertorm. Like repetition of sound or beads of the same size and spacing. To give emphasis and interest, an accent is then introduced. In an architectural composition, the elements must be arranged in such a way as to insure the domination of the less important parts by the major masses of the building.

There must be a central motif, a theme, or a center of interest. The attention of the observer must be drawn to this focal point. The major masses of the building should dominate the less important ones. All the units should together form a compact and coherent ensemble: The element of emphasis must be introduced. By limiting the amount of treatment seen at one time. By selecting styles, furnitures and furnishings in harmony with the surroundings.

There is competition. The towers appear attenuated and unstable.

Architecture pdf george of salvan by history

The shared element is too weak to counteract the overturning force acting on the towers. There is no harmonious treatment and dissimilarities in architectural elements such as door, windows are combined. There is no definite architectural character and no central the"me. Cfusiol1 of two towers.

In the figure below an attempt has been made to correct the faults which are apparent in the confusing figure above. There is simplicity. The two towers have been reduced to a single. These differences reflect in a sense, the degree of importance of these forms and spaces, and the functional, formal, and symbolic roles they play in their organization. The value system by which their relative importance is measured will, of course, depend on the specific situation, the needs and desires of the users and the decisions of the designer.

The values expressed may be individual or collective, personal or cultural. In any case, the manner is which these functional or symbolic differences among a building's elements are revealed as critical to the establishment of a visible, hierachical order among its forms and spaces. For a form or space to be articulated as being important or significant to an organization, it must be made visibly unique.

This can be achieved by endowing a form or shape with the following: Normally, the dominance is made visible by the sheer size of an element. In some cases, an element can also dominate by being significantly smaller than the other elements in the organization and placed in a well -defined setting. A discerni- ble contrast in shape is critical , whether the diffe'rentiation is based out a change in geometry or regularity. Forms and spaces may be: Hierarchically important locati ons for a form or space include the following: Ies of a kou5e aro a: The element of character grows out of the function of the building and the consideration of all the creative principles of composition.

Character in architecture is derived from three 3 types. They are characters from: The use of a structure naturally calls for a cer- tain disposition of parts, and this arrangement affects the appearance of the exterior, by which we largely judge character. Museum-must have galleries with ample wall space and top light, which elimi- nates windows and necessitates the use of skylights.

A school building- must contain many windows to admit the necessary side light and to offer an interesting contrast with the possible monotony of the classroom walls. Shop - a structure with large show windows is usually a shop for the display and sale of merchandise. Factory- readily seen from the exterior to express the efficient operation of the manufacturing within.

The exterior shows often only the structural mem- bers- which are stripped of all unnecessary decoration together with the enclosing expanses of the glass to light the interior. The building has little architectural show, it is simple since it is to raise revenue. Monument-serves to perpetuate a memory of a person or an important event. It does not produce any revenue. It must be impressive and should have dignity and command respect. Its function, then, is to be monumental, usually symmetrical.

A Bank-should have dignity-it is a building designed to house an activity which is very near to the heart and mind of the average citizen-that of caring for his money. The building should Inspire confidence in its integrity.

This building houses an activity which is work. Movie- Cinema House -a place of relaxation or recreation after a hectic day of discharging one's obligations of the day. In this building psychological use of color and decoration is important. Bright colors and unusual or unique architectural ef- fects quicken the imagination and cater to the holiday spirit. This building houses an activity of man-that of relaxation. House- should reflect the informal intimacy of home life.

Architectural Theories of Design - George Salvan

We know by association anq experience that the various races have different phy- sical characteristics and we are thus able to distinguish between an Oriental, a Negro, a Cau- cacian, and an Indian. We often associate such features as color, eyes, height, nose and others. In a similar manner, we have come to recognize buildings by features which have long been associated with that particular structure. A spire atop a building with stained glass windows has always told us that the edifice was a church.

The use of the classical orders often indi- cates the presence of a bank, and Collegiate Gothic frequently discloses the identity of an educational institution.

However, when a mode of construction or type of design is found to be antiquated, it may be discarded, provided that a worthy successor has been developed to take its place.

The ultra-modernists would eliminate all association with the past. They would allow the func tion of the building to control the exterior regardless of the effect. The contemporary movement in architecture has, however, caused many revisions in our as- sociation of ideas. It has been necessary to adjust our points of view to the many influences which are now changing the character of our modern buildings.

New method of construct- ion have grown out of new materials, and it is now possible to use openings in ways which were not practicable according to our former conceptions of the limitations of btick and stone.

Our attitude toward physical comfort has been revolutionalized. The home must be more efficient in operation and more pleasant in its interior treatment. The museum is no longer a place in which to contract museum fatigue by climbing monu- mefltal stairways, and factories are now airy and cheerful. If a building functions properly and is composed according to the rules of good design, it then follows that the character shall or rather should be satisfactory. A bank for example, need no longer be heavy and semi-fortified.

Our bank architecture was borrowed from the temples of Greece. The massive walls inspired the depositors with confidence. Changing conditions have brought about a realizat ion that there is a little relation between thick stones, barred windows, and the security of investments and savings.

Only the conspicuous vault doors remain to advertise the safety of the deposits. Our banks have now become effi- cient places in which to work, and they present cheerful and dignified interiors in which to transact business. It is found. Members of thevarious races have different traits-some common to several groops, some peculiar to a particular group. The plantation Negro is often happy. The oriental is a mystery to the Caucasian; the Indian is stoical and taciturn.

Individuals are gay or gloomy, sparkling or stupid, graceful or gawking. Buildings have qualities which are directly related to their functions, but in addition, they may possess characteristics which have to do rather with the emotional reaction set up in the mind of the observer.

Like members of the human race, buildings may be sterri and for- bidding, light and playful, or sedate and dignified, with reference to the impressions which they are capable of giving. It is to these qualities of vitality, repose, grace, restraint, festivity, dignity, etc. If the building is designed. It is quite essential that this intangible quality agrees with the function of the building.

Nothing could be more disastrous than to have a power plant look like an entertainment pavilion -a substitution of festivity for effi ciency. A dilapidated warehouse has a feeling of humility. A magnificent city hall can take pride in its size and position. Personality in a building has more to do with the spirit of the building than its pur- pose-They are abstract rather that concrete.

A building may display the quality of strength. It may be simple or ornate, picturesque or formal. A building in itself may be of good design but out of place when transplanted to a set- ting for which it is not intended.

A mountainous summer home would appear in- congruous in Makati, and a magnificent cathedral would look ridiculous on the lonely long superhighway. Character is thus also a matter of location. An exposition building designed and intended to convey the spirit of gayety and festivi- ty. This is built for entertainment. The personal character is given through its lightness and spontaniety of the decoration and the use of vertical accents, banners, etc.

The walls are light in thickness, indicating perhaps, a temporary structure. It also has a feel- ing of openness which relates the interior to the surrounding landscape treatment. Strong walls are deemed necessary, ana heavy masonry with few openings is used to give the de- sired character.

Here all is business all is ;seriousness. A large house- for those who want to display evidence of his wealth. A simple designed house-for the quiet and unassuming people. However, when scale is reduced, these characteristics are lessened if notre- versed. Example is triangular massing. The huge proportions applied in the parts of the classical buildings give them the formal character. On account of tradi- tions, certain styles of Architecture were adapted for specific types of buildings. This give the proper or good "Ambience" say, for example, a neat and orderly modern design of a beergarden as compared to a beergarden with indigenous, all local materials used.

A logical plan must have a reason behind it - " a parti", or scheme. If an exterior which tends toward symmetry, or monumentality, is desired, the plan elements may.

A plan may be simple or complex, depending upon the use to which the building is to be put and upon the number of units or rooms required. Regardless of the complexity which plans may assume. They may all be reduced to the simple geometrical shapes which form the basis for all architecture. Plans and also elevations consist of areas which are recognized as the square, circl e, rectangle, etc. This direction is related to the shape and to the relative importance of the sides which bound the plan.