View Table of Contents for Steel Detailers' Manual This highly illustrated manual provides practical guidance on structural steelwork detailing. Diagrams and details presented in this manual were prepared by structural draughtsmen employed . The first volume of Steel Detailers' Manual by Alan Hay-. DETAILING. MANUAL. FDOT STRUCTURES MANUAL. VOLUME 2. JANUARY Basisopleiding Tekla Structures Steel Detailing Modelleren.
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The first volume of Steel Detailers' Manual by Alan Hay- edition has attempted to cover the significant changes ward and Frank Weare was published in Steel Detailer Manual 3rd caite.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. American Galvanizers Association. The material provided herein has been developed to provide accurate and authoritative information about after-.
It comprises a main frame with four rigid connections supporting the vessel cradle supplied by rafter stays rafter10 typ brick cladding steelwork within industrial complexes and was installed others. Use lapped connections not abutting end plates web. This enables shear loads to be transferred by friction between the interfaces and makes HSFG bolts may be tightened by three methods, viz: An important design decision practices and details shown will be suitable for many is whether stability against horizontal forces e. Blast rosion protection afforded through double-dipping is cleaning is widely used to prepare surfaces, and other no different from that provided in a single dip.
The second edition has been updated to take account of changes to standards, including the revisions to BS and includes a new chapter on computer aided detailing.
Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. Steel Detailers' Manual Author s: First published: Print ISBN: Structural Steels: These show the principles of some of the types of see Further Reading, Design, 10 , 11 and 12 produced connection commonly used.
A typical workshop drawing of a roof lattice These books provide details of standardised simple and girder is included in figures 5. Frame must be erected braced. All hollow sections to be fully sealed by welding Figure 5. All welds 6 fillet both sides of all joints UOS. All hollow sections to be sealed by welding. All bolts M20 4. All holes 22 dia. Figure 5. For fabrication works with templating facility this detail not necessary.
UB UB sealant sealant screed screed 75 min. Civil and structural engineers were one of the first groups to make use of computers. The ability to harness the In the early days much computer draughting development computer's vast power of arithmetic made matrix methods was undertaken by large companies who produced and of structural analysis a practical proposition. Virtually no early beginning a whole range of computer programs and interaction could take place between these individual associated software have been developed to deal with most systems, principally due to the inconsistent computer lan- aspects of analysis and design.
In the early days the use of guage adopted by each company. Also most of these sys- the computer to produce drawings, while possible, did not tems were driven by the company's mainframe computer receive much widespread attention. But now the use of which lacked sufficient memory, and because other soft- computers for design and draughting can be said to have ware was used alongside accounts, purchasing, etc.
Computer draughting systems have been available as commercial products since the s. Most of the early With the evolution of the PC from a non-graphical low spec systems were developed by the electronics industry to computer to the modern high-speed graphics workstation meet its own needs in the production of printed and inte- the power and the capabilities have developed to put very grated circuits.
To the civil and structural engineer these sophisticated tools in the hands of the detailer. However, they formed the basis for the subsequent developments of systems more suited to construction.
Within a steel struc- The use of the computer to produce drawings differs in ture, connections will often comprise several intersecting many ways from its use in analysis, design and other members, originating from any number of different direc- numeric activities, and computer draughting is sub- tions. The tasks of resolving such geometry into sound stantially different from the traditional manual method.
The equipment now used typically consists of a visual dis- Traditionally, skilled draughtsmen with many years of play unit or monitor and the computer processor drive detailing experience have been required.
A keyboard and mouse complete the equipment. Add-on peri- The constructional steelwork industry has experienced pherals might include plotters and scanners. While the enormous economic and technological upheavals in recent input to and output from a draughting system are in years. In order to remain competitive, steelwork con- graphical form, the computer's own representation of a tractors have turned to new technologies in order to drawing is as a mathematical model.
The steelwork structure is modelled in 3-D, steelwork fabricators. The draughtsman does not in fact draw, instead he models. In building design, the principal means of communicating However, he is still a draughtsman, as the 3-D modelling design intent is the drawing, whether it is a sketch, a system is his new tool and it will require his input and concept design or a construction document.
The tradi- detailing knowledge. Each item is detailed independently steelwork, bolts, welds, etc. It may contain any information whatso- elements fit together. It is difficult to standardise details ever about any element within the structure. The steel on a contract divided between several draughtsmen. All structure actually exists, perfectly to scale, inside the material lists, bolt lists and computer numerical control computer.
At any stage of the construction of the 3-D CNC programs must be produced manually by interpret- model, detailed drawings, listings or any other information ing the detailed drawings. There are many potential may be produced completely automatically by the system. Once created, the database of information can be utilised by other parts of the software, to generate data in different The first CAD systems were effectively electronic drawing ways such as detail drawings, general arrangements, boards, allowing the user to create lines, circles, text and materials lists, numerical control NC data, etc.
The dimensions which duplicated the manual process, with the steelwork contractor knows that if the data i. In 2-D is correct, then all the subsequent data will also be correct, CAD, basic facilities such as move, copy, rotate, delete, so there is no need to check the drawings for dimensional etc. Some 2-D CAD accuracy.
The 3-D model is the central source of all infor- systems may have several parametric routines and libraries mation, as shown in figure 6. These will assist the manual detailing process and enable better standardisation.
However, each item is still detailed independently and will generally require the same substantial checking as manual draughting. Most packages now have some sort of graphi- material requirements estimating crude 3-D model commercial 3-D drawings, drawings,G. The fabricator can then use the resultant steel model with the detailed model returned to the standard steel connection library — macros structural analysis member design packages detailed 3-D model interactive modelling for non-standard connection details engineer for checking and monitoring purposes.
The relative ease of use and cost-effectiveness of 2-D systems means that they are still a valid solution, particularly for alldrawings drawings—-G. In addition to the All steelwork structures are created within a 3-D frame- required to be carried out on the member, for example work of vertical grids and horizontal datum levels. The cutting a member to a plane such as a rafter to the face of draughtsman will input these into the 3-D model, in a stanchion or cutting out parts of members to create accordance with the architect's or consulting engineer's openings or notches.
The draughtsman must be able to general arrangement drawings. In The sizes of the principal members in a structure will addition, it must be possible to save interactively modelled generally have been determined by an engineer. In addi- details to a library, so that they may be reused on any tion, end reactions are often supplied to the fabricator for particular contract.
There are generally two levels in this hierarchy. The supplied. This can have significant benefits with com- planning of fabrication and delivery to site; it could be a plicated setting-out problems.
The definition of principal lorry load or an erection group. Many steelwork contractors members will be extremely simple, in fact similar to manufacture steelwork in phases which are linked to the drawing lines in 3-D. Initial member definition is done erection programme. Very often the phase of steelwork is between set-out points and before connections are added.
It should be noted that CNC is not specifically tions to use. The 3-D modelling system must have a com- the direct link to the workshop machinery.
In fact it is more prehensive library of different connection types for the a case of links to the NC machine software systems. DSTV standard connections used in the construction of commer- has grown from being a German standard to become the de cial and industrial buildings. In addition, the library may facto worldwide standard for the definition of geometry in also include connections for the cold rolled products of NC systems for structural steelwork.
DSTV is what most major manufacturers. Figure 6. In summary then the 3-D modelling system should be capThe connection library should allow the draughtsman to set able of producing and easily revising all of the following up all the parameters for any connection type to suit both different forms of output: A single parametric set up for any connection type can then be applied to all kinds of different configurations and member sizes.
The library should also be capable of designing a wide range of common connections with associated calculation output for the end reactions input 1 Shop fabrication details For all members, assemblies and fittings.
This could also be used to modify and enhance 5 Materials lists Cutting, assembly, parts, bolts, etc. Obviously, the software that created the object 8 Connection design calculations in the first place understands what it is and what the data For standard connections, in accordance with BS mean. The idea is that different software packages can and UK industry accepted publications. CNC sawing, cutting and drilling machines as well as robot welding machines will derive their instructions from infor- For instance the various elements of a steel modelling mation contained within a 3-D model.
The entire manage- system will understand the concepts of what a piece of ment of steelwork design, manufacture and construction is steel is, the meaning of a section size, the relevance of a now in the computerised hands of the Management Infor- bending moment and connection design forces.
If one piece mation System. By creating structural steelwork industry. Fabricators can already the model from real components such as beams, columns, place orders with their suppliers through MIS links from slabs, etc. The design and detailing of steel struc- constraints, and by further defining the type of con- tures has become more integrated, with consulting engi- nectivity, the system will determine the appropriate neers and design offices imparting information to degree of restraint.
This will eventually be taken into fabricators electronically, instead of providing general account when the element and connection design is carried arrangement drawings.
However, where a 3-D model has out. This will require the transfer of 3-D steel information between different systems. The 6. DXF is either a 2-D drawing or a 3-D transferring complete building model information between graphical image. It contains no real intelligence. This can the various types of system employed in the industry. The give rise to the question of responsibility for data integrity, CIS are a set of information specifications.
They provide since it is still possible to create a CAD drawing incorrectly. CAD drawing and its interpretation are probably viewed as These translators enable the users of such software to more valid than an electronic version. Generally, at export engineering data from one application and import present, if the engineer wishes to give approval to the into another. Similarly, if the steelwork contractor cations software packages, whether they are located wants to issue information to a sub-contractor then he will within the same company or in different companies.
The only benefit is that it can be used as a back- simply methods of creating lines and text on a drawing. Ideally generally has no use. The preferred solution here rests with cerned. Better use of software technology and applications the successful adoption by the industry of CIS product should in the long term be able to improve this situation.
Those working in structural steelwork have for some time had a wide range of software tools to assist them. There is, When the model is passed to others in the design chain, however, a new way of working emerging which involves an then the data include not only the sizes and positions of integrated approach with the steelwork supply chain and members but also the forces, connection design assump- other disciplines working together to generate full building tions and any other necessary information.
This is the basis models in 3-D. Steelwork detailers are well advanced in for co-operative working in a quality assured environment. These involve powering means for communicating and sharing the data. It both the data standards to permit the sharing and transfer is likely that in the future the data will not be passed from of information together with the development of the one company to another but will actually be stored cen- objects to take full advantage of the opportunities which trally and accessed by each member of the design team as can be derived from the emerging technology.
Some of these are taken from The spacing of secondary beams is dictated by the floor actually constructed projects designed by the authors.
The type, typically 2. An important design decision practices and details shown will be suitable for many is whether stability against horizontal forces e. The member sizes are as actually wind or earthquake is to be resisted using rigid connections used where shown, but it is emphasised that they might not or whether bracing is to be supplied and simple connections always be appropriate in a particular case, because of used.
Alternatively other elements may be available such variations in loading or requirements of different design as lift shafts or shear walls, allied with the lateral rigidity of codes. In this case temporary stability may need to be supplied using diagonal A brief description of each structure type is included giving bracings during erection until a means of permanent particular reasons for use and any particular influences stability is provided.
The example shown in figures 7. Beam to column connections are of simple Multi-storey steel frames provide the structural skeleton within certain external walls. Because there are only two from which many commercial and office buildings are storeys the columns are fabricated full height without supported. Steel has the advantage of being speedy to splices. The top of the columns can be detailed to suit erect and it is very suitable in urban situations where future upward extension if required.
Connections for the conditions are restrictive. This is further exploited by the cantilevered canopy beams are of rigid end plate type. Floor systems used include pre- limit state beam reactions for the fabricator to design the cast concrete and composite profiled galvanised metal connections.
Typical connections are shown in figure 7. Such decking is supplied in lengths which span over figures 7. Mesh reinforcement is provided to prevent cracking of the concrete slab. Modern buildings require by Building Regulations to exhibit a degree of fire resis- extensive services to be accommodated within floors and tance that is dependent on the building form and size. Fire this may dictate that beams contain openings.
Here cas- resistance is specified as a period of time, e. In general, floors 1 hour, 2 hours, etc. Reactions are factored loads to BS in kN. Bending moments if any in kNm in brackets e. All steel to EN grade S All beam marks to be at north or east end. All column marks to be on flange facing north or east. All beams at below 1st floor except where shown in brackets e.
Figure 7. All material to EN grade S 2. All bolts M20 grade 4. All holes 22 dia 4. All welds 6 fillet both sides of all joints. Asbestos is no longer used for health reasons.
Boards can be prefinished or decorated and are fixed typically by screwing mainly to noggins or wrap-around steel straps. Typical arrangements are shown in figure 7. The thickness of cladding and fixing clearly affects building details and therefore warrants early consideration. In many countries of the world they are economically constructed in steel because the principal loads, namely the roof and wind are relatively light, yet the spans may be large, commonly up to about 45 m.
Steel with its high strength: The frame efficiently carries the roof cladding independently of the walls thus offering flexibility in location of openings or partitions. Side cladding is directly attached to the frame which gives stability to the whole building. This system is also ideally suited to structures in seismic areas. Sometimes solid side cladding such as brickwork is used part or full height, and it is often convenient to stabilise this by attachment to the frame although vertical support is independent.
Generally level upon its own foundations. This permits flexibility in future use of the floor which may need to contain openings or basements and be replaced periodically if subjected to heavy use. Any internal walls or partitions are generally not structurally connected to the frame so that there is flexibility in relocation for any different future occupancy.
A single bay is indicated but multiple bays are often used for large buildings for economy when internal columns are permitted. Portal frames, the most common type, are described in section 7. Requirements for natural lighting by provision of translucent sheeting or glazing often govern roof shape and therefore the type of frame. Such cladding is available with an insulation layer, which can, if necessary, be incorporated slotted holes level adjustable type figure 7.
Sufficient camber or crossfall must be used to ensure rainwater run-off. Depending upon the required use, provision of a suspended ceiling may also decide the frame type. For industrial buildings internal cranes are usually required in the form of electric overhead travelling EOT type supported by gantry girders mounted on the frame.
Clearances and wheel loads for the crane or Figure 7. The structural form most generally used is the portal frame described in section 7. The stanchions and truss type frames a and 7. Steel portal frames are the most common and are a parti- Presence of the bottom tie is convenient for support of any cular form of single-storey construction.
They became suspended ceilings, but a disadvantage is that the stanchion popular from the s and are particularly efficient in bases must be fixed to ensure lateral stability. The lattice steel, being able to make use of the plastic method of rigid stanchion and truss frame d is suitable for EOT cranes design which enables sections of minimum weight to be exceeding 10 tonnes capacity. Where appearance of the used. Frame spacings of 4. Portal clean conditions, hollow section members are suitable frames provide large clear floor areas offering maximum using triangular lattice girders as g or space grids h.
The adaptability of the space inside the building. They are latter are uneconomic for spans up to about 40 m, but are easily capable of being extended in the future and, if suitable for long spans if internal stanchions are not per- known at the design stage, built-in provision can be made. Multiple bays are possible. Variable eaves heights and spans can be achieved in the same building and selected internal Bolted site connections are generally necessary between columns can be deleted where required by the use of valley stanchions and roof structure with the latter fabricated full beams.
Portal frames can be designed to accommodate span length where delivery allows. Truss or lattice roofs overhead travelling cranes typically up to 10 tonnes capa- usually have welded workshop connections. Secondary city without use of compound stanchions. A vital con- Normally, wind loads on the gable ends are transferred via sideration is longitudinal stability, especially during erec- roof and side bracing systems within the end bays of the tion, which requires the provision of bracing to walls taking building to the foundations.
The gable stanchions also account of the location of side openings. Roof bracing is provide fixings for the gable sheeting rails, which in turn also necessary except where plan rigidity is inherent such support the cladding. Cold rolled section sheeting rails and as with a space grid. Gantry girders for EOT cranes should purlins are usual, but alternatively hot rolled steel angle incorporate details which permit adjustment to final posi- sections are suitable. Various proprietary systems are tion as shown in figure 7.
The sleeved system rails during the life of the structure. Either pinned or fixed bases may be used. Main Span of purlins No. Different arrangements from those illustrated may be necessary to accommodate door or interior ridge trim window openings. It is important to provide restraint UB or RSJ valley beam tee or RSA purlin cleats against buckling of rafters in the eaves region, this usually being supplied by an eaves beam together with diagonal grade 8.
Wind uplift forces often exceed the dead weight of portal frame buildings due to VALLEY low roof pitch and light weight, such that holding down bolts must be supplied with bottom anchorage.
Reversal of bending moments may also occur at eaves connections. It comprises a main frame with four rigid connections supporting the vessel cradle supplied by rafter stays rafter10 typ brick cladding steelwork within industrial complexes and was installed others. Access platforms are provided at two levels below purlin s e centr height to top of crane rail 3.
To be M16 diameter UOS. Grit blast 2nd quality and zinc rich epoxy prefabrication primer. The systems often offer a range of fitments including rafter cleats, sag rods, rafter restraints, eaves beams, etc. Main frame members are normally of universal beams with universal columns sometimes being used for the stanchions only.
Tapered haunches formed from cuttings of rafter section are often introduced to strengthen the rafters at eaves, especially where a plastic design analysis has been Total nominal dry film thickness microns.
It comprises pitched universal beam rafters which are tied at eaves level with RSA ties because the reservoir edge walls are not capable of resisting outward horizontal thrust. Roof plan Grit blast 2nd quality and zinc rich epoxy prefabrica- bracing is supplied within one internal bay to ensure tion primer. One coat zinc rich epoxy paint at site after erection. Total nominal dry film thickness microns. It 40 40 40 The tower is 55 m high and supports electrical equipment was fabricated in the UK and transported piecemeal by ship 18 dia.
The major consideration in the design of tower structures is wind loading due to the height above ground and comparatively light weight of the equipment carried. Open braced structures are usual for towers so as to offer minimal wind resistance. Either hollow sections or former have an advantage in providing for smooth air flow 34 rolled angles would have been suitable and although the 5 ra d.
To be M24 diameter UOS. M30 nuts and 1 no. Developments include: For multiple short up to 30 m and medium spans 30 m to m continuity is common with welded or HSFG bolted site joints to the main members.
Articulation between deck and substructures is generally provided using sliding or pinned bearings mounted on vertical piers often of concrete but occasionally steel. Constant depth main girders are usual, with fabricated precamber to counteract deflection. Curved soffits are sometimes used as shown in figure 7.
Curved bridges are often formed using straight fabricated chords with change of direction at site splices. Composite deck type cross sections are usual for highway bridges as shown in figure 7. Multiple rolled sections are used for short spans with plate girders being used when the span exceeds about 25 to 30 m. Intermediate lateral bracings are provided for stability. Sometimes they are proportioned to assist in transverse distribution of live load, but practices vary between different countries.
Box girders as shown in figure 7. Problems can arise during construction due to distortion and twisting of open top boxes prior to the rigidifying effect of the concrete slab being realised and temporary bracings are thus essential.
Most early composite bridges used in situ slabs cast on removable formwork supported from the steelwork. Recently the high costs of timber and site labour have encouraged permanent formwork.
Various types are in use including profiled steel sheeting especially in the USA , glass reinforced plastic grp , glass reinforced concrete grc and part depth concrete planks. Detailing of the slab needs to be carefully done to avoid congestion of reinforcement and allow proper compaction of concrete.
For footbridges steel provides a good solution because the entire cross section including parapets can be erected in one piece. Cross sections are shown in figure 7. Economic solutions use half-through lattice or Vierendeel girders with members of rolled hollow section and deck plate with factory applied epoxy-type non-slip surfacing 6 mm or less in thickness.
Columns, staircases and ramps are also commonly of steel using hollow sections. For urban areas the half-through section achieves minimum length approach stairs or ramps. Further space can be saved by using stepped ramps which achieve an average slope of 1 in 6 compared with 1 in 10 for sloping ramps. It is suitable for dual three-lane carriageways, hard shoulders and central reserve. It can be adapted to suit different highway widths.
Plan curvature of the motorway is accommodated by an increased deck width. Use of steel plate girders with permanent slab formwork allows rapid construction over the railway and would also be suitable across a river. Weathering steel is used to avoid future maintenance painting. Composite plate girders at 3. The edge girders are 1. Within the span two lines of transverse channel bracings are provided for erection stability.
All site connections are made up using HSFG bolts.
For erection the girders were placed in groups of up to three using a lifting beam as shown in figure 7. This is convenient where the erection period is limited by short railway occupations and was used to erect the prototype of the bridge described. To be M24 diameter type. In other locations a lighter open steel parapet is more usual as shown in figure 7. Inner girders are 1. They are shown fabricated in a single length, but in the UK special permission is required for movement of loads exceeding Alternative UOS.
Welds shall possess similar weather resisting properties to bolted or welded site splices are shown in figure 7. The the steel such that these are retained, including minimum number of flange thickness changes are made, possible loss of thickness due to slow rusting. The consistent with available plate lengths.
This avoids the high design allows for loss of thickness of 2 mm on all costs of making full penetration butt welds. The girders are precambered in elevation so as to counteract dead load deflection and to follow the road geometry. For calculation of the deflection, girder self weight and concrete slab are assumed carried by the girder alone, whilst finishes and parapets are taken by the composite section. It may be noted that a typical precamber for composite girders is exposed surfaces.
During the trial erection the about 0. Girders are fixed against longitudinal movement at one abutment and free to move at the other. The rubber, being contained, is able to withstand high vertical loads whilst permitting rotation. The free abutment bearings incorporate ptfe polytetrafluoroethylene stainless steel sliding surfaces to cater for thermal movements and concrete shrinkage.
Composite true relative levels of the steelwork shall be modelled. All other surfaces shall be maintained free from contamination by concrete, mortar, asphalt, paint, oil, grease and any other undesirable contaminants. Camber shape shall approximate to a parabolic curve. Weld preparations shown follow typical forms shown in BS EN Other preparations may be suitable 2. As shown it is suitable for mounting of internally illuminated signs.
For larger directional signs as used on motorways external illumination is more usual with lighting units mounted on a walkway located in front of and below the signs. Such a walkway could also be used for maintenance access and a heavier type of gantry results. Location is adjacent to the coast.
Rectangular hollow sections are used throughout to give a clean appearance. The legs support a U-girder of Vierendeel form with the signs mounted within the rectangular openings bounded by suitably positioned vertical chords. A proprietary cable tray is carried which also serves as an access walkway.
Sign cables are conveyed within the legs inside steel conduits so as to prevent damage or being unsightly. Welded joints are used throughout except for the leg to girder connections which are site bolted using ten- The holding down bolt arrangement is designed to allow rapid erection during a night road closure.
Hollow sections to be grade SJO. Grit blast 1st quality after fabrication. Minimum total dry film thickness microns. HSFG nuts and hardened washers sq.
It is typical of many staircases built within factories and would be suitable as fire escape stairs in public buildings. Certain design standards relate to staircases regarding proportions of rise: The staircase comprises twin steel flat stringers to which are bolted stair treads and tubular handrails.
The stringers rely upon the treads to maintain stability against buckling. Panels typically 1 m wide and 6 m long or more are supported for elevated walkways and platforms. Normal treatment is galvanizing which ensures that all interstices receive treatment, but between dip treatment can be used for less corrosive conditions.
A number of manufacturers supply this type of flooring. All stair stringer joints to be full strength butt welds.
All other welds to be 6 fillet continuous UOS. All holes for handrail standards and stair treads to be 14 dia.
All other holes are to be 22 dia. Spigot joints to be arranged as req'd. FD all materials galvanized. Technical delivery conditions. Part 1: Department of Transport, Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered or precipitation hardened conditions. Part 2: Part 4: Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels. Cold formed welded structural hollow Part 1: Part 3: Hot finished structural hollow sections in weather resistant steels.
Part 5: Recommendations for welding of bridges.
Part 6: Part 7: Part 8: Metric series. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Frederick Saturnino. Alain Lasserre O. Jimmy SanDiego. Irfan Vadtala.
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