FM.F 4/26/00 PM Page iCLIFFSCOMPLETEShakespeare'sTwelfth Night Edited by Sidney Lamb Associate Profe. Shakespeare Theatre Company's production of. Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. This season, the Shakespeare Theatre. Company presents seven plays. MARIA. For God's sake, Sir Toby, you've got to come home earlier at night. My lady Olivia, your niece, disapproves of your late-night partying. SIR TOBY BELCH .
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night, when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the. Vapians passing the equinoctial of Queubus: 'twas very good, i' faith. I sent thee sixpence for thy leman : hadst. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Twelfth Night; or, What You Will is a comedy, believed to have been written around –02 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment .
Scene 1 Scene 2 Scene 3 Scene 4 Scene 5. It was reported as "unsold and destroyed" to the publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher has received any payment for this "stripped book. Go, sir rub your chain with crumbs. She tells Malvolio to hurry off and do it. While this fact means that much of the textual debate that surrounds other Shakespeare plays such as Hamlet, whose quarto and folio versions are significantly different is avoided when considering the text of Twelfth Night, it in no way ensures that the text we have today is what Shakespeare wrote. However, theatre the wealthiest spectators.
Viola Oh, my poor brother! Mine own escape unfoldeth to my hope, Where to thy speech serves for authority, The like of him. Viola What is his name? Captain Orsino. Arion was the poet-musician of the Greek island of Lesbos; about to be put to death by pirates, he asked for a last chance to play his lyre, then leaped overboard and was carried ashore by a dolphin that had been enchanted by the music.
My escape makes me believe my brother might have escaped, and your speech encourages that hope. Captain A noble Duke, in nature as in name. I have heard my father name him. He was a bachelor then. Captain A virtuous maid, the daughter of a count That died some twelvenmonths since; then leaving her In the protection of his son, her brother, Who shortly also died: It may be worth thy pains; for I can sing And speak to him in many sorts of music, That will allow me very worth his service.
What else may hap to time I will commit; Only shape thou thy silence to my wit. When my tongue blabs, then let mine eyes not see. Viola I thank thee; lead me on. Nature often encloses things nasty or evil in a beautiful exterior. On stage, this scene is often played before the curtain to speed up the production.
Originally, the play was performed on a bare stage — no traverses areas formed by using a partition or curtain , balconies or inner rooms — enabling the scenes to change constantly from place to place without breaking up the flow of action.
Believing they are the only survivors, Viola grieves for her brother, who was also aboard the ship and, she imagines, has drowned with the rest of the crew. Although we have yet to meet Olivia, we know that she has also recently lost a brother.
Even in her grief, she reveals an uncommon generosity of spirit. Though she has just been set on a foreign shore with no other possessions than her clothes and the small sum of gold in her purse, Viola rewards the Captain without a second thought. Although Viola is new to Illyria, the Captain knows the country well and tells her that Duke Orsino rules these lands.
Viola has heard of the Duke from her father and wonders whether he is still a bachelor. The Captain provides some information, suggesting that Orsino is still a bachelor, though he has heard gossip that Orsino is in love with the Countess Olivia.
According to the Captain, in her grief, she has sworn to see no men. Viola decides that she wants to serve Olivia.
As they are both grieving the loss of a brother, her service would provide her with an opportunity to share her grief with someone who would really understand. Perhaps she believes serving someone else may prove an effective means to avoid morbid self-pity. Rather than cloister herself like Olivia, putting her own grief at the center of her existence, she chooses to abnegate her self in service of another.
The Captain, however, informs her that Olivia will admit no kind of suit that is, she will not grant any public audiences, to wooers or anyone else during her mourning period. Viola quickly adopts a new strategy. She will serve the Duke disguised as a boy. Here, Viola exhibits her immense improvisational talents, surprising the Captain with her determination, resourcefulness, and ingenuity. But first, with subtle irony, she questions whether she can trust his outward appearance of goodness, immediately following up her rhetorical question about the truth of appearances by creating a deceptive ActI.
The slippery nature of identity in this play is first hinted at here; Shakespeare subtly calls our attention to this fact by warning us not to trust appearances. Viola, as the heroine of this play, embodies all that is most virtuous in Shakespeare: Compare her relationship to music to that of Orsino.
Viola uses music to give pleasure, while Orsino is a consumer of music, someone who gluts himself and then quickly sickens of it. His taste in Act I, Scene 2 37 music is significantly more narrow than hers. Orsino fixates on one or two songs; Viola is open and receptive to new music and things at all times.
Although Orsino may believe that music is the food of love, we might do better to think of music as a surrogate for love. From this standpoint, the manner in which a character experiences music hints at the way they experience love. Maria proves Sir Andrew to be a fool. Your cousin, my lady, takes great exceptions to your ill hours. Maria Ay, but you must confine yourself within the modest limits of order.
Sir Toby Confine! These clothes are good enough to drink in; and so be these boots too. An they be not, let them hang themselves in their own straps. Maria That quaffing and drinking will undo you. I heard my lady talk of it yesterday; and of a foolish knight that you brought in one night here to be her wooer. Maria Ay, he.
Sir Toby Why, he has three thousand ducats a year. Confine myself: Spanish coin. Italian gamba, leg a stringed instrument like a violincello, held between the knees and scraped with a bow. Act I, Scene 3 Sir Toby cannot say subtractors after all the drink he has taken. Castiliano vulgo: Andrew supplied Toby with money. A nautical term, when one ship comes alongside of another. He mistakenly believes Accost is her name. Who are they? Sir Toby With drinking healths to my niece. What, wench!
Castiliano vulgo! Sir Toby Sweet Sir Andrew! Sir Andrew Bless you, fair shrew. Maria And you too, sir.
Sir Toby Accost, Sir Andrew, accost. Maria My name is Mary, sir. Sir Andrew By my troth, I would not undertake her in this company. Is that the meaning of accost?
Maria Fare you well gentlemen. Sir Andrew An you part so, mistress, I would I might never draw sword again. Fair lady, do you think you have fools in hand? Maria Now, sir, thought is free. I pray you, bring your hand to the butter-bar and let it drink.
Sir Andrew Wherefore, sweetheart? Maria A dry jest, sir.
Sir Andrew Are you full of them? When did I see thee so put down? Sir Andrew Never in your life, I think, unless you see canary put me down. Methinks sometimes I have no more wit than a Christian or an ordinary man has; but I am a great eater of beef, and I believe that does harm to my wit. I would I had bestowed that time in the tongues that I have in fencing, dancing, and bear-baiting. O, had I but followed the arts!
Sir Andrew was probably bald under the large wig he affected. A caper is also an ingredient used in sauce to spice mutton. Sir Andrew Why, would that have mended my hair? Sir Toby Past question, for thou seest it will not curl by nature. The count himself here hard by woos her. Sir Andrew As any man in Illyria, whatsoever he be, under the degree of my betters; and yet I will not compare with an old man. Sir Andrew Faith, I can cut a caper. Sir Toby Wherefore are these things hid?
My very walk should be a jig. What dost thou mean? Is it a world to hide virtues in? I jig: Shall we set about some revels? Sir Toby What shall we do else? Sir Andrew Taurus! Andrew confuses Taurus with Leo, as Toby points out. Sir Toby No, sir; it is legs and thighs. Let me see thee caper. W Although Olivia is in mourning, the rest of her household, with one notable exception Malvolio , is in a more festive mood, drinking, singing, and carousing.
Olivia quietly disapproves, and the duty of restoring order falls to her puritanical steward, Malvolio, whom we meet later in this act. Chances are that Maria has her own reasons for keeping Toby around. He is a gentleman, and if Maria were to marry him, she would move a step up the social ladder.
Yet there are indications that Maria, too, would prefer a less drunk Sir Toby. She may find his drinking amusing at times, but as a prospective wife, how could she not find his excessive drinking a concern for the future?
For as she warns him, quaffing and drinking will undo him. Sir Andrew is a ridiculous, cowardly knight with a shallow wit and deep pockets. He has an income of 3, ducats a year. Similar to Slender, a foppish moron in The Merry Wives of Windsor, and anticipating the gull Roderigo in Othello, Sir Andrew is an ineffectual suitor of Olivia who trusts his courtship to a middleman Toby who abuses that trust.
Sir Andrew is tall and thin, and he is often portrayed wearing a yellow wig of straw-like hair — as Sir Toby notes, it will not curl and hangs like flax on a distaff. Sir Toby also has a potential for cruelty that Falstaff does not possess. The over-the-top greetings between Toby and Andrew set the tone of their comedic scenes throughout the story — an exaggerated, silly, drunken, near ActI. In this scene, Shakespeare introduces his use of the double meanings of words and phrases to humorous effect, which he will continue throughout the play.
At other times, however, characters consciously use wordplay to their advantage. Maria plays with words in order to put down Andrew 64— Taking his hand, she tells him to let it drink.
A confused Andrew asks what her meaning is. And finally, as she lets go of him, she shifts once more; she is barren, that is, she is dry of humor, having no more jokes to make at his expense. This exchange highlights how Andrew is usually portrayed as a boastful idiot, though he does have moments of incipient self-recognition. His need to be liked, however, prevents him from being too honest with himself or others. If he were only a little bit smarter, he might be capable of the kind of self-awareness that leads to growth.
But his attention, or brainpower, falls just short of critical mass. Maria stays one step ahead of Sir Andrew with her dry jests.
Andrew, however, has lost faith, seeing his courtship with Olivia as a bust. If his appetite for food and drink leads Toby to endure the tedious company of Andrew to maintain his supplies, Andrew is driven by his need to be well liked and respected. In this play, characters glut themselves on their appetites and are made fools of by their own desires. Toby takes great pleasure in tricking Andrew into playing the idiot — or at least exhibiting his silliness and stupidity. Toby encourages Andrew to brag and then consistently puts his bragging to the test.
Their talk of dance steps is an egregious example of this dynamic. Their exit is often staged with Andrew the selfproclaimed master of the back-trick cutting a ridiculous figure as he attempts to cut a caper and lands on the seat of his pants.
Orsino entrusts Viola as his messenger to woo Olivia. Viola, in an aside to the audience, confides that she is in love with Orsino. He hath known you but three days, and already you are no stranger.
Viola You either fear his humour or my negligence, that you call in question the continuance of his love. Is he inconstant, sir, in his favours? Viola I thank you. Here comes the count. Viola On your attendance, my lord; here. Duke Stand you a while aloof. Foreign as the custom is to us in the twentieth century, wooing by proxy was often practised in Britain and Europe. The danger was that the proxy the messenger would reap personal advantage from the encounter.
Duke Be clamorous and leap all civil bounds Rather than make unprofited return. Viola Say I do speak with her, my lord, what then? Duke Oh, then unfold the passion of my love, Surprise her with discourse of my dear faith 20 ActI. Act I, Scene 4 45 25 Viola I think not so, my lord. Duke Dear lad, believe it; For they shall yet belie thy happy years, That say thou art a man.
Some four or five attend him, All, if you will; for I myself am best When least in company. Prosper well in this, And thou shalt live as freely as thy lord, To call his fortunes thine. This theme comes into play throughout Twelfth Night. In a later scene, Feste mocks Orsino for his inconstancy. Orsino himself says that he is constant in his affection for Olivia and inconstant in everything else.
Orsino enters, dismisses his attendants, and takes Cesario aside. He means to send Cesario to Olivia to plead his love for her. He implores Cesario to do whatever it takes to see Olivia in person: Cesario accepts the task, but wonders why he should be successful after so many failures by others.
Orsino tells Cesario to unfold the passions of his love, adding that he will be well rewarded for acting his woes, that is, presenting his love sickness to Olivia in a moving manner.
The idea of performing his woes comes naturally to Orsino; he does perform them himself. His passionate longing and suffering for love has a self dramatizing quality. Orsino probably has concluded that Olivia would reject him outright, ending his courtship once and for all.
For an audience today, CliffsComplete Twelfth Night the difficulty lies in believing that Cesario, played by a woman, can pass for a man. Much of the comedy in this play depends on the elusiveness of identity gender or otherwise. Viola promises to woo Olivia. But having fallen in love with Orsino herself, she has no love of the task. She would pursue him herself, but how can she, disguised as a boy? The love complications have just begun. Feste the jester. Maria Nay, either tell me where thou hast been, or I will not open my lips so wide as a bristle may enter in way of thy excuse.
My lady will hang thee for thy absence. Clown Let her hang me; he that is well hanged in this world needs to fear no colours. Make that good: Clown He shall see none to fear. Maria A good lenten answer. Clown Well, God give them wisdom that have it; and those that are fools, let them use their talents.
Maria Yet you will be hanged for being so long absent; or, to be turned away, is not that as good as a hanging to you? Maria You are resolute, then? Clown Not so, neither; but I am resolved on two points. Maria That if one break, the other will hold; or, if both break, your gaskins fall.
Here comes my lady. Make your excuse wisely, you were best.
Those wits, that think they have thee, do very oft prove fools; and I, that am sure I lack thee, may pass for a wise man. For what says Quinapalus?
Olivia is in mourning and she has no patience for foolery. Feste, the jester, employs a kind of logical reasoning called the syllogism, consisting of the major and minor premises followed by a conclusion. His argument is a parody of the syllogistic method. Olivia Take the fool away. Clown Do you not hear, fellows? Take away the lady. Besides, you grow dishonest. Clown Two faults, madonna, that drink and good counsel will amend: If that this simple syllogism will serve, so; if it will not, what remedy?
The lady bade take away the fool; therefore, I say again, take her away. Clown Misprision in the highest degree!
Lady, cucullus non facit monachum. Good madonna, give me leave to prove you a fool. Olivia Can you do it? Clown Dexteriously, good madonna. Olivia Make your proof. Clown I must catechize you for it, madonna. Good my mouse of virtue, answer me. Act I, Scene 5 49 60 Clown Good madonna, why mournest thou? Clown I think his soul is in hell, modonna. Olivia I know his soul is in heaven, fool.
Take away the fool, gentlemen. Malvolio Yes, and shall do till the pangs of death shake him. Infirmity, that decays the wise, doth ever make the better fool. Clown God send you sir, a speedy infirmity, for the better increasing your folly! Sir Toby will be sworn that I am no fox; but he will not pass his word for two pence that you are no fool.
Malvolio thinks the Clown is weak and sick. Malvolio I marvel your ladyship takes delight in such a barren rascal. I saw him put down the other day with an ordinary fool that has no more brain than a stone. Unless you laugh and minister occasion to him, he is gagged. Olivia O, you are sick of self-love, Malvolio, and taste with a distempered appetite. To be generous, guiltless, and of free disposition, is to take those things for bird-bolts that you deem cannon-bullets. There is no slander in an allowed fool, though he do nothing but rail; nor no railing in a known discreet man, though he do nothing but reprove.
Clown Now Mercury endue thee with leasing, for thou speakest well of fools! Olivia Who of my people hold him in delay? Maria Sir Toby, madam, your kinsman.
Olivia Fetch him off, I pray you; he speaks nothing but madman; fie on him! If it be a suit from the count, I am sick, or not at home — what you will, to dismiss it.
Clown Thou hast spoke for us, madonna, as if thy eldest son should be a fool, whose skull Jove cram with brains! What is he at the gate, cousin? Sir Toby A gentleman. Olivia A gentleman! How now, sot! Clown Good Sir Toby! Olivia Cousin, cousin, how have you come so early by this lethargy? Sir Toby Lechery? I defy lechery. Olivia Ay, marry, what is he? Sir Toby Let him be the devil, an he will, I care not.
Give me faith, say I. Go, look after him. Act I, Scene 5 51 I told him you were sick; he takes on him to understand so much, and therefore comes to speak with you.
I told him you were asleep; he seems to have a foreknowledge of that too, and therefore comes to speak with you. What is to be said to him, lady? Malvolio Why, of mankind. Olivia Of what personage and years is he? Olivia Let him approach. Call in my gentlewoman. Malvolio Gentlewoman, my lady calls. Your will? Viola Most radiant, exquisite and unmatchable beauty, — I pray you, tell me if this be the lady of the house, for I never saw her.
I would be loath to cast away my speech, for besides that it is excellently well penned, I have taken great pains to con it. Good beauties, let me sustain no scorn; I am very comptible, even to the least sinister usage.
Olivia Whence came you sir? Good gentle one, give me modest assurance if you be the lady of the house, that I may proceed in my speech. Viola No my profound heart; and yet by the very fangs of malice I swear, I am not that I play. Are you the lady of the house? Viola Most certain, if you are she, you do usurp yourself; for what is yours to bestow is not yours to reserve. But this is from my commission. I will on with my speech in your praise, and then show you the heart of my message.
Olivia It is the more like to be feigned; I pray you, keep it in. I heard you were saucy at my gates, and allowed your approach rather to wonder at you usurp: If you be not mad, be gone; if you have reason, be brief. Act I, Scene 5 Maria Will you hoist sail, sir? Viola No, good swabber; I am to hull here a little longer. Some mollification for your giant, sweet lady. Tell me your mind, I am a messenger. Maria was small.
What do you want? What are you? What would you? Viola The rudeness that hath appeared in me have I learned from my entertainment. Speak your office. Viola It alone concerns your car. I bring no overture of war, no taxation of homage. I hold the olive in my hand; my words are as full of peace as matter. Viola Most sweet lady, — Olivia A comfortable doctrine, and much may be said of it.
Where lies your text? Olivia In his bosom! In what chapter of his bosom? Viola To answer by the method, in the first of his heart. Olivia Oh, I have read it; it is heresy. Have you no more to say?
Olivia Have you any commission from your lord to negotiate with my face?
You are now out of your text; but we will draw the curtain and show you the ActI. Look you, sir, such a one I was this present. Olivia Oh, sir, I will not be so hard-hearted; I will give out divers schedules of my beauty.
It shall be inventoried, and every particle and utensil labelled to my will: Were you sent hither to praise me? Viola I see you what you are, you are too proud; But, if you were the devil, you are fair. My lord and master loves you. Olivia Olivia Why, what would you?
Act I, Scene 5 55 The impression of hallooing, reverberating, and babbling gossip is very brilliantly and masterfully created in this passage by the use of vowel sounds, assonance, and alliterative onomatopoeia. What is your parentage? Viola Above my fortunes, yet my state is well; I am a gentleman. Let him send no more; Unless, perchance, you come to me again, To tell me how he takes it. Fare you well. I thank you for your pains; spend this for me.
My master, not myself, lacks recompense. Farewell, fair cruelty. Thy tongue, thy face, thy limbs, actions, and spirit, Do give thee five-fold blazon. Not too fast: Unless the master were the man. How now! Even so quickly may one catch the plague?
Well, let it be. What ho, Malvolio! He left this ring behind him, Would I or not. Desire him not to flatter with his lord, Nor hold him tip with hopes; I am not for him. Hie thee, Malvolio. Olivia keeps up this pretense to avoid letting Malvolio suspect that she, the countess, has fallen in love with Cesario. Hie thee: What is decreed must be, and be this so.
Their rapid-fire one-liners attest to their familiarity with one another. Although the text refers to Feste as a clown, portraying him in a traditional clown costume is not necessary. This selfacceptance leaves him free to poke fun at the desires of others, as when he teases Maria about wanting to marry Sir Toby 25— We sense Feste may be weary of his role in the house. Maria exits, and Olivia appears, looking very grave, dressed in black and wearing a mourning veil.
Her steward Malvolio, also in black, is a stiff, no-nonsense person. Feste puts his hands together in a mock prayer to Wit the fool invokes the spirit of good humor, or Wit, as if it were a god , to make him funny.
She replies that he is a dry fool and dishonest. Feste asks Olivia for permission to prove she is a fool. She grants it, and he poses her questions that prove she is foolish to cry for her dead brother as his soul is in heaven, a better place than earth. This thought pleases ActI. This is exactly the purpose of a fool, to give people perspective on their folly via humor.
The nature of comedy depends upon both the wit of the comedian and the receptivity of the audience. Olivia asks whether the fool mends, that is, gives pleasure.
Malvolio shows nothing but scorn for Feste and denies any positive effects that fooling might provide. Malvolio is the perfect companion for Olivia while she mourns; he is serious and somber. Like the Puritans who condemned the theater in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century in England, Malvolio undervalues the role of feelings in life and over-emphasizes social utility and reason. Malvolio scorns people who laugh at fools and encourage their jests, as if it were time and labor wasted, rather than a mutually beneficial merriment.
Olivia tells Malvolio that he is sick of self-love and cannot appreciate a good joke. It takes one to know one; and Olivia is not so different from her steward, at least with regard to being sick of self-love overly self-absorbed and self-important. Yet, her ability to diagnose Malvolio may signify that she herself has the potential for self-knowledge — the only cure for this particular disease. The sickness of self-love hits epidemic proportions in this play; Malvolio is just the only sufferer who does not belong to the nobility.
Captain True, madam: Mine own escape unfoldeth to my hope, Whereto thy speech serves for authority, The like of him. Know'st thou this country? Captain Ay, madam, well; for I was bred and born Not three hours' travel from this very place. Captain A noble duke, in nature as in name. Captain Orsino. I have heard my father name him: He was a bachelor then. Captain And so is now, or was so very late; For but a month ago I went from hence, And then 'twas fresh in murmur,--as, you know, What great ones do the less will prattle of,-- That he did seek the love of fair Olivia.
Captain A virtuous maid, the daughter of a count That died some twelvemonth since, then leaving her In the protection of his son, her brother, Who shortly also died: Captain That were hard to compass; Because she will admit no kind of suit, No, not the duke's. VIOLA There is a fair behavior in thee, captain; And though that nature with a beauteous wall Doth oft close in pollution, yet of thee I will believe thou hast a mind that suits With this thy fair and outward character.
I prithee, and I'll pay thee bounteously, Conceal me what I am, and be my aid For such disguise as haply shall become The form of my intent. I'll serve this duke: Thou shall present me as an eunuch to him: It may be worth thy pains; for I can sing And speak to him in many sorts of music That will allow me very worth his service.
What else may hap to time I will commit; Only shape thou thy silence to my wit. Captain Be you his eunuch, and your mute I'll be: When my tongue blabs, then let mine eyes not see. I am sure care's an enemy to life.
I'll confine myself no finer than I am: I heard my lady talk of it yesterday; and of a foolish knight that you brought in one night here to be her wooer. Who are they? I'll drink to her as long as there is a passage in my throat and drink in Illyria: What, wench! Castiliano vulgo! VIOLA You either fear his humour or my negligence, that you call in question the continuance of his love: Here comes the count.
Clown Let her hang me: Clown He shall see none to fear. I can tell thee where that saying was born, of 'I fear no colours. Clown Well, God give them wisdom that have it; and those that are fools, let them use their talents. MARIA Yet you will be hanged for being so long absent; or, to be turned away, is not that as good as a hanging to you? Clown Many a good hanging prevents a bad marriage; and, for turning away, let summer bear it out.
Clown Not so, neither; but I am resolved on two points. Clown Apt, in good faith; very apt. Well, go thy way; if Sir Toby would leave drinking, thou wert as witty a piece of Eve's flesh as any in Illyria. Here comes my lady: The sea-coast. My stars shine darkly over me: Let me yet know of you whither you are bound. But I perceive in you so excellent a touch of modesty, that you will not extort from me what I am willing to keep in; therefore it charges me in manners the rather to express myself.
You must know of me then, Antonio, my name is Sebastian, which I called Roderigo. After the twins Sebastian and Viola survive a shipwreck, neither knows that the other is alive.
Viola, in the meantime, has fallen in love with Orsino. Malvolio is tricked into making a fool of himself, and he is locked in a dungeon as a lunatic. In the meantime, Sebastian has been rescued by a sea captain, Antonio.
When Viola, as Cesario, is challenged to a duel, Antonio mistakes her for Sebastian, comes to her aid, and is arrested. Olivia, meanwhile, mistakes Sebastian for Cesario and declares her love. When, finally, Sebastian and Viola appear together, the puzzles around the mistaken identities are solved: Malvolio, blaming Olivia and others for his humiliation, vows revenge.
Folger Shakespeare Library http: From the Director of the Folger Shakespeare Library.