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The Lesser Rhea in the Argentine Puna region: Cajal [ ]. Entanglement entropy of subtracted geometry black holes. D 91 , Rhea pennata is classified internationally as a near-threatened species, with the subspecies R.
While there was a record of an orphan egg in September , no nest was found, despite the intensive search made inside the reserve. This drop in the number of individuals may be related to the species' nesting preferences, since individuals tend to select sites with high shrub cover, instead of pastures, which favors concealment and protection against predators and severe climate conditions Bellis et al.
Therefore, it is likely that during the reproductive season, R. NVM personal observation , where the habitat is dominated by an open shrubland of L. Indeed, reproductive groups of males with females, males with chicks, and juveniles have been observed in this environment adjacent to the reserve NV Marinero, unpublished data. We were not able to compare our results with wild populations from Bolivia because there are no studies published on the density of R.
Our density records of R. However, our estimations are lower than the values recorded for R. In Argentina, in general, R. Specifically, the subspecies R. By contrast, the Argentine Patagonia, where R. This work provides the highest density record for R. We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their comments that helped improve a previous version of this manuscript.
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Download PDF. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural December , Density and abundance of Rhea pennata garleppi Struthioniformes: Rheidae in the Puna ecoregion of Argentina. Open Access.
First Online: Background Rhea pennata is classified internationally as a near-threatened species, with the subspecies R. Finding The aim of this study was to provide updated information on the density and abundance of R.
Conclusion This work shows the highest density record for R. Findings The family Rheidae is endemic to the Neotropics and comprises two species of large flightless birds: It is difficult to perform direct observation or monitoring of R. Therefore, we decided to use the fecal count technique as an indirect method for estimating population density Ojasti and Dallmeier [ ]. This method has been used effectively in other studies on wild populations of rheas Bazzano et al.
Six samplings were conducted between and September and November ; March, April, July, and November This randomized design ensured sample independence, allowing us to consider each transect as true replicates by avoiding repetition of a single transect in successive monthly samplings.
The exact perpendicular distance from the path to each encountered feces was measured with metric tape by an assistant.
Thus, the observer never left the transect, avoiding the record of additional feces. All encountered feces were collected to avoid double counting.
Density of R. As we did not have defecation rate data for R. These species are phylogenetically closely related Delsuc et al. The defecation rate used was The monthly abundance of R. Population size range of R.
Abundance dependent variable as a function of months fixed effect was calculated using a heteroscedastic mixed model, considering the sampling years and as random effect.
In addition, given the heteroscedasticity of our data, we indicated that error variance of abundance was different for each month grouping criterion in the mixed model, using the function VarIdent Di Rienzo [ ]. Data were Log 10 -transformed for normalization of residuals.
Statistical analyses were performed using Infostat Di Rienzo et al. Open image in new window. Figure 1 Histogram of the perpendicular distance of feces of R. Population size of the subspecies R. The upper limit of the population was 0. This density is the highest published until now, but close to other records obtained in Argentina: The differences in density estimates might be due to the different methods used, considering that Cajal [ ] states that the use of a motor vehicle to conduct the surveys of R.
By contrast, we used the line-transect method and fit a detection function of probability of signs, which decreases with distance to the observer. This method reduces the potential bias of the density estimator Buckland et al. The lower limit of R. Figure 2 Variation of monthly abundance of R.
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Some typos corrected. Exact fermionic Green's functions from holograpny. Zhong-Ying Fan. Minor corrections, conculsions unchanged.
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