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Site Analysis - Edward t White[1] - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or view presentation slides online. caite.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Site analysis: a contextual approach to sustainable land planning and site design / James A. LaGro processes. Edward T. White (, p.1) comments.


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Site Analysis: Diagramming lnformation for Architectural Design CopyrightQ by Edward T. White All rights reserved Printed in the United. EDWARD T. WHITE SITE DIAGRAMMING INFORMATION FOR Space Adjacency Analysis: Diagramming lnformation for Architectural Design Images of Italy. Site Analysis Edward t White - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

All of these concerns should help ustoanticipate the kindof sitedata that will be neededduringthe design phase of the project. The notion of "fit" does not necessarily imply subordina- tion of our building to site conditions. We must have some idea about how long a e n event or pressure ass. The building includes all the interior and exterior physical manifestations of our design such the walls. It is particularly useful to analyze our site just prior to embarking on the generation of site zoning concepts. This would also include opinions regarding permanency in terms of difficulty or expense to remove features.

Data includes duration and peak loads for surrounding vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement, bus stops, site access edges, traffic generators, service truck access and intermittent traffic parades, fire truck routes, concerts at nearby auditorium. Traffic analysis should include future projections insofar as they Y can be made. Typical utility types include electricity, gas, sewer, water and telephone.

Where utilities are some distance from the site, those dimen- sions should be given. It is useful to docu- ment the depths of utilities when they are underground as well as the pipe material and diameter. It is of behavioral and sociological aspects. This the months of the year.

Also included are value to record the type, duration, intensity category is different from "Neighborhood prevailing wind directions, sun-path and and quality positive or negative of the Context" listed earlier in that the latter ad- vertical sun angles as they change over the sensory issues. As discussed earlier, this dresses the physical while this category year and potential natural catastrophes often involves making some judgments deals with the activities, human relation- such as tornados, hurricanes and earth- about the relative desirability of the differ- ships and patterns of human characteris- quakes.

It is helpful to know not only how ent sensory conditions on and around the tics. Issues here might involve population climate conditions vary over a typical year site. Also of importance are any scheduled velocity. Vandalism and crime patterns, although not pleasant, are of value to designers when conceptualizing site zoning and building design.

It involves know- contextual analysis. The contextual ing what we have t o work with in terms analysis should be an inventory of existing of site before we begin to work with i t and projected conditions assuming no new in site zoning. Like function, image or building on the site so that when we begin building envelope, i t is another way of to design for the site we do not confuse entering the problem, of making our what is actually there now with what we wish was there or hope to put there.

I t is useful in discussing the influence of contextual analysis on design to dif- ferentiate between function and con- text as forces which locate building spaces and activities on the site. Func- tion tends to locate building spaces in an introverted way in that they are primarily looking inward to each other for the rationale behind their positions in the scheme. Context, on the other hand, wants the spaces to migrate to different positions on the site in re- sponse to conditions outside the build- ing.

I n function, the attraction is be- tween spaces. In context, the attrac- tion is between spaces and external site conditions. Usually in a design problem these two and all the other project issues pull and push the spaces Operations need- Operations need- to determine their final placement in ing access to de- ing shelter from the scheme.

They are in a very real livery and pick- high activity sense competing with each other to up vehicles.

Building entry lo- Activities needing cated to relate to direct access for Some examples of situations that might primary ap- vehicles. Activities needing ing scale and geometric pat- terns. Spaces needing should strongly direct sunlight.

Our first efforts at optimum placement of Where relation to context is judged to 3. The third approach is appropriate functions or spaces on the site in response be more important than internal func- where the project is particularly large to contextual pressures may involve any of tional efficiency, we may take each with several site components.

Here we three approaches. Where function is considered a more optimum zone on the site indepen- our building or buildings as wholes critical form-giving determinant than dently oftheother spaces. When all the before we can address the location of context, we may place the bubble dia- spaces have been placed including their spaces.

In this approach the prin- gram on thesiteand allow thespaces to exterior spaces then we may begin to ciples and intentions are no different migrate and shift within the bubble so condense our spaces and knit them than those in the first two approaches. The scale of the components we are relate to the appropriate site condi- manipulating on the site is simply tions. Here the connecting lines be- larger. Once our buildings are placed in tween the spaces in the bubble are zones on the site, then we may use made elastic while still remaining con- either of the first two approaches to nected to the space bubbles so that the zone the building spaces in response to functional ties are always maintained their context.

Reasonsfor locatinga building in a particu- tual analysis as a stimulant for concep- lar area of the site may involve soil bearing tualization is vital to responsible de- conditions, contours that minimize earth sign. I t helps to ensure that there is an work during construction, ridges to take appropriateness t o those design ideas advantage of views or breezes, streets or that surface i n our minds i n that they corners that ensure high visibility to the were triggered by the relevant project building, alleys that allow easy service ac- cess, site scars that have already caused issues, conditions and needs and not disruption collect existing scars with the arbitrarily fabricated and imposed on scars caused by construction or the the project.

Too r'i? I t is important to remember that site design and building and space place- ment can involve sectional issues as we analyze long enough, we will be led to the solution. This will never happen. We must well as plan issues. As spaces down hillsides and stacking of designers we must continually work to ex- spaces in relation to contours and neigh- pand and deepen our vocabulary of ar- borhood scale are a few of the potential chitectural forms and concepts so that reasons to study the zoning of our facility there is something there to draw upon on the site in section as well as in plan.

That confidence facilitates the several ways to ascend to our building from conceptualization of site responses in de- a parking lot. These conceptual solution sign and contributes to the heuristic proc- types constitute the design vocabulary that ess of idea formulation. In doing the con- we accumulate from reading, travel, past textual analysis and engaging the site issues projects we have designed and visiting through diagramming, we trigger design buildings.

Analysis will give us the condi- response imagesfor dealing with the site. It will tell us The contextual analysis acts as a switch that we have a great view but not what to to recall the parts of our design vocab- do about it. We must draw from our vo- ularies that apply to the site problems cabulary of design responses for the appro- priate concepts.

We may graphically express our site information in plan, section, elevation, perspective, isometric or any of the other types of draw- ings available to us. The types of drawings we useshould besympathetic to thetypeof information we are recording. Some data is better expressed in plan, some in section, L L some in perspective, etc. Normally there are two components to any site information diagram. First, we must have a referent drawing of the site to provide a context for the particular site information we want to record.

Second, we must diagram the site fact itself. The referent drawing may be a simple plan of the site boundaries with bordering streets or a section through the siteshowing only theground plane. We use these simple site drawings as frameworks for diagramming the particular site issues that we wish to express.

There are two rather different postures we may assume regarding the recording of the site informa- tion over these referent drawings.

J one referent drawing. The second approach segregateseach piece of site information to a separate referent drawing. This method values the expression of each issue sepa- rately so that it can be easily understood.

By dealing with each fact individually we We should begin to develop our own may be less likely to ignore something. Where it is for us and may be used as an effective ations of any scale and is relevant to both appropriate to our situation it is perfectly graphic shorthand for documenting exterior and interior project issues.

We may permissible to use both methods within the site conditions. There are essentially analyze a region, a city, a neighborhood, a same contextual analysis. We must design the initial dia- interior space. The discussion that follows actually record our site information over grammatic form, refine and simplify it, will deal principally with the analysis of the referent drawings are many and varied. Some attention will There are no rules for the forms these must through graphic hierarchy and em- also be given to the contextual analysis of take and no universally agreed upon vo- phasis and finally introduce whatever interior space under "Other Contextual cabulary for them.

Analysis Forms. We should think about the nature of the project, its needs, require- 2. Site analysis should never be done at "long range. As discussed previously, our goal tives? What roles can the building play should be to analyze all relevant issues in enhancing the site and its surround- This "hands-on" direct encounter about thesite because thoroughness is vital ings? All of these concerns should help with site from a personal and sen- to project success.

The visit to the siteallows us todevelop a sense of what is unique, valuable and important about the site. This checklist will help ensure that g. Solid-void space relationships. Street lighting patterns. Architectural patterns such as roof tify the site concerns to be included in our forms, fenestration, materials, analysis. A prototypical checklist of potential site issues follows. Location miglht place special restrictions or a.

Location of the city in the state responsibilities on our design work including relationship to roads, such as "historic district. Nearby buildings of particular b. Location of the site neighborhood value or significance. Fragile images or situations that c. Location of the site in the neigh- should be preserved. Sun and shade patterns at different borhood. Distancesand travel times between times of the year. Major contour and drainage pat- lated functions in the city. Neighborhood Context 3.

Size and Zoning a. Map of the neighborhood indicat- a. Dimensions of the boundaries of ing existing and projected property our site. Dimensions of the street rights of b. Existing and projected building way around our site. Location and dimensions of ease- c. Age or condition of the neighbor- ments. Present site zoning classification. Present and future uses of exterior e. Front, back and side yard setbacks requiied by zoning classification.

Any strong vehicular or pedestrian f. Square feet of buildable area inside traffic generating functions in the setbacks should also subtract neighborhood. Existing and projected vehicular g. Building height restrictions re- movement patterns. Major and quired by zoning classification.

Drainage patterns on the site in- i. The number of parking spaces re- cluding directions of surfacedrain- quired if we know the building age perpendicular to contours , area. Any conflicts between what the collection ditches, arroyos, river- present zoning classification al- beds, creeks, etc.

Zoning classifications that the site jacent property and any neighbor- would need to be changed to in hood water-related patterns such as order to accommodate all the viaduct systems or storm sewers. Existing natural features on the site I.

Any projected changes that would and their value in terms of preserva- alter the dimensional characteris- tion and reinforcement versus al- tics of the site such as street widen- teration or removal.

This would ings or purchase of additional also include opinions regarding property. Legal or expense to remove features. Legal description of the property. Covenants and restrictions site type and size , ground cover, rock area usage allowed, height restric- outcroppings, ground surface tex- tions, screening of mechanical ture, holes or ditches, mounds, on equipment or service yards, restric- site water pools, ponds, lakes, riv- tionson rooftopelements, architec- ers and stable or unstable areas of tural character, design require- the site site scars versus virgin ments in historic districts, etc.

Name of the property owner. Type of soil at different levels below d. Name of the governmental levels surface and bearing capacity of the or agencies which have jurisdic- soil. Soil type. Any projected or potential changes 6. Man-Made Features in any of the above categories.

Size, shape, height and location of 5. Natural Physical Features any on site buildings. If these are to a. Topographic contours. Major topographic features such as interior layout should also be high points, low points, ridges and documented. If the buildings are to valleys, slopes and flat areas. Location and type of walls, retain- of use and volume of use. Off site pedestrian movement pat- c.

Buku edward T White Site Analysis

Location, size and character of ex- terns using the same characteristics terior playfields, courts, patios, mentioned for on site movement. If a pedestrian movement pattern is areas. Where it may be important to our served or reinforced, our analysis design we should record the paving should also include an evaluation patterns of man-made surfaces. Location and size of curb cuts, be improved.

O n site or adjacent vehicular stop shelters. Also included should detailed analysis of the existing ar- be intermittent traffic such as chitectural character surrounding parades, festivals, concerts, fire our site.

This is particularly impor- truck routes, service truck fleets, tant where the architectural etc. Off site or neighborhood vehicular design of our facility historic dis- movement issues such as traffic trict, etc.

Some factors to consider generators buildings or uses that i n analyzing surrounding architec- are significant destinations or ori- tural character include scale, gins of vehicular traffic as well as proportion, roof forms, window the other traffic characteristics out- and door patterns, setbacks, mate- lined under on site traffic.

Adjacent rials, colors, textures, open space or nearby parking areas that may be versus built space, visual axes, used for off site car storage in our landscaping materials and pat- project. Off site traffic patterns terns, paving textures and patterns, should also include the relation of porosity extent of openness and our site to the public transportation assertiveness ins and outs of wall routes, stops at or near our site, forms, connections, details and ac- probable directions of approach to cessories, exterior lighting, outdoor our site by the users of the new furniture and carstorage methods.

Traffic 7. Circulation analysis should document future a. Locations of probable or optimum "back" of the site or dealing with access to our site for each type of site barriers or difficult soil condi- pedestrian and vehicular traffic that tions.

Sensory Views from the site including posi- g. Travel time to walk across our site, tions on the site where the views to drive across the site or by the site where these times may be impor- are not blocked, what the views are tant to our design time it takes to of, whether the views are positive or negative, the angles within walk between classes at a school.

Utilities aries. Includes what the views are a. Location, capacity and con- of, whether the views are positive veyance form type of pipe, etc. This should involve they are blocked, the angles within the depth of each utility under- which the views can be found and ground and, in the case of power, whether the object of the views whether it i s above or below grade.

Location of power poles. Mews to the site from areas outside b. Where utility lines stop short of our the ,site boundaries, including site boundaries, their distances streets, walks, other buildings and from our site should be given.

Where there are multiple oppor- seen, angleswithin which it isseen, tunities to connect to utilities that most dramatic views of the prop- are adjacent to our site, we should erty, best views of the site and areas record those locations or edges on that are viewable, particular points our site that seem to offer the best of interest that may be objects of connection opportunities. This views from outside our site and may be due to the capacities of the potential for these views to con- utility lines, contour conditions on tinue or be blocked by develop- our site i n relation to sewer, the ment outside our site over the long need to minimize on site utility term.

Views through our site from posi- e. Relative permanence of the neiah-- tions outside the property. Involves borhood'population. Neighborhood trends in termsof all various positions where the views the factors mentioned above. Climate tive or negative, the angles within a. Temperature variation over the which the views can be found, and months of the year including the the likelihood of the view targets as maximum hiahs and lows and the well as the view paths remaining maximum a d average day-night open over the long term.

Humidity variation over the noise on or around the site. This months of the year including analysis should include likelihood maximums, minimums, and aver- ofcontinuanceover the long term. Rainfall variation over the months odors, smoke or other airborne of the year in inches.

Should in- pollution on or around our site. Snowfall variation over the months man and Cultural of the year in inches. Should in- Documentation of neighborhood clude the maximum snowfall that cultural, psychological, behavioral can be expected in any one day. Potential e. Prevailing wind directions for the information includes population months of the year including veloc- density, age, family size, ethnic pat- ity in feet per minute or miles per terns, employment patterns, in- hour and variations that can be ex- come,, recreational preferences pected over the course of the day and informal activities or events and night.

Should also include the such as festivals, parades or fairs. Sun path at the summer and winter nal activities. I t is not as important how the have gotten"to the bottom" of them. We site facts are classified as that they are must follow what may at first seem tangent concerns until we establish that they are days or BTU's of sunlight falling on adequately covered somewhere in our irrelevant or that they do indeed contain our site.

We must not h. Potential natural catastrophes such allow the implied segregation of data on as earthquakes, hurricanes and There is always a danger inherent in any checklist. Checklists make it easy the checklist to inhibit an understanding of tornados. May includedocumenta- the linkages between our site conditions. It tion of earthquake zone that our for us to mentally disengage from the i s of value, for example, to juxtapose all the site lies within and history of natu- task at hand and sometimes give us a issues dealing with time or schedule on the ral catastrophes in the area.

We feel that if time frame of a typical day and for different Depending on our particular project, some we simply "put something" under each times of the year. This allows us to see the of these issues will be more important than heading we will have fulfilled our re- ' ebb and flow of the site forces in concert others.

Some analysis categories may drop sponsibility to analyze the site. We rather than in isolation. It also permits us to out completely and new ones may be re- cannot allow our site analysis to be- feel the composite of the forces on the site quired.

In some cases this information must come from others, while in other cases we may gather it directly ourselves. Sources of information may vary from city to city and from site to site. It is importantto keep in mind that for some types of data a single source w i l l suffice. This i s true primarily for quantitative or technical in- formation. Other types of data, principally the qualitative type, may require several sources for purposes of verification. An outlineof potential information sourcesfol- lows.

Location State maps may be miniaturized with only major highways and cities shown. City maps of a reasonable size can be found in most telephone books. We only need to relate our site to major streets or landmarks.

It may be helpful to purchase an aerial photograph of our site and neighborhood from an aerial survey company. These can be pro- duced at different scales and allow us to trace the neighborhood streets and facilities from the photo. We may trace the neighborhood context from a zon- ing map which can be found in the municipal planning department or ob- tained from local blueprinting com- panies.

Documentation of the dis- tances and travel times must be done by actually driving them or, in the case of pedestrian circulation, by walking them. Neighborhood Context ning department should have informa- formation including classification, set- Zoning for our site and neighborhood tion on existing and projected traffic backs, height restrictions, allowable can be learned at the municipal plan- around the site.

Particular routes of site coverage, allowable uses and park- ning department or at local printing specific vehicular types trash, busses, ing requirements involve first finding companies that have the zoning maps fire trucks must be collected from each out what the present zoning classifica- on file. Learning about zoning trends company or agency.

Major drainage tion is. This may bedone by obtaininga may involve conversations with real patterns can be interpolated from U. These can pany or city planning department. The municipal planners. We must directly usually be purchased at local printing specific information about what our observe the existing building and ex- companies, from the Geological Sur- site zone classification allows can be terior space uses while talking to area vey district office or the city engineer.

Size and Zoning ordinance, a book which documents agents and municipal planners about Much of the information under Size this information for each zone classifi- projected uses. Several other issues re- cation. A copy of the ordinance may be and Zoning, Legal, Natural Physical quire direct observation. These include Features and Man-made Features purchased from municipal planning or architectural patterns, solid-void rela- borrowed from the library.

Conflicts would be collected and documented tionships, significant buildings, fragile between what our site zone allows and by a survey engineer if we were to have situations, street lighting, and the con- a topographic survey done for our site.

The municipal must be determined by comparison. If These surveys can be tailored to in- planning department should be con- there is a conflict, theclient musteither clude more or less of our site data list sulted about the existence and re- apply for a variance to the municipal depending upon how much of the re- quirements of any special neighbor- board of adjustment or apply for a dif- search we are able to do ourselves and hood classifications such as "historic ferent zoning classification that does how much our client i s able to pay for district.

Typically, clients are re- ferent times of the year involve doc- He may also purchase additional prop- sponsible for providing the site survey umentation of the building and land- erty or purchase a different piece of information to the architect. For our scaping areas and heights and the purposes, we will assume that we must property. Another option is to simply shadow patterns at typical times of the amend the planned uses to fit those that collect all the data.

The number of square feet mer and winter solstice and perhaps at Site boundary dimensions must be of buildable area is calculated by tak- the equinoxes. Building heights and measured directly to be verified but ing the area inside the site boundary areas must be estimated by direct ob- can be obtained in recorded form from lines and subtracting the area of any servation with perhaps the aid of pho- title insurance companies or the setbacks oreasements.

Normally, park- tography. Sun azimuth horizontal county tax assessor's office. Present ing and on site roads may occupy the angle and altitude vertical angle can and future street rights of way can usu- unbuildable area inside setbacks.

Legal Graphic Standards, other standard ref- transportation department while Most of the legal information about the erences or the local weather bureau.

The owner or the level. Once weestablish theoverall fall value of natural site features may be title insurance company should have of the site then we can estimate the rate recorded in the form of notes around this information.

The county tax asses- of fall contour intervals between the the map where the features are re- sor's office may have someor all of it as high points and low points. These also involve looking well. Jurisdiction is normally a matter If we require a more accurate record of ahead to the project in deciding about of finding out whether the site i s inside the site contours, we must conduct a the appropriateness and value of the or outside of the city limits.

Sometimes formal topographic survey. Projected changes in this infor- sloped and flat areas involve direct ob- and bearing capacity. Sometimes the mation require conversations with our servation and recording the informa- soils test is not done until after sche- client, the appropriate jurisdictional tion on the contour map. This is especially true for large observation. Drainage patterns will sites where only a small percentage of are responsible for the covenants and always be perpendicular to the site restrictions.

Soils tests contour lines. In addition, we should are normally paid for by the client and 5. Natural Physical Features look for major and minor drainage col- are conducted by a soils engineer or a The majority of the information in this lectors in the valleys of the site.

These testing laboratory. Man-made Features topographic survey showing site con- On site features are normally included Permanent bodies of standing or mov- tours. These would include Topographic contours are included in contour map. The edge of this water such items as buildings, walls, retain- the property survey done by the survey will obviously be one of the contour ing walls, ramadas, fences, playfields engineer. Depending on how con- lines and one of the low edges of the and courts, patios, plazas, drives, toured our site is, the intervals may site.

O n very Existing natural features on the site in- poles, hydrants and bus stop shelters. Where we are in- and recording over the contour map. Where exact location terested only in a general feeling about Where precise location of these is im- is not crucial, their size and location the slope of the site we may do so by portant we should measure their posi- may be estimated from an aerial pho- standing at the four corners of the tion in relation to some site reference tograph ofthe site.

We are interested in who circu- the city and the major street system. If these are not available we where their traffic originates and where rival and departure and probable gen- may need to actually measure the it terminates. These concepts should be documented on separate diagrams to and egress from our site can be site can be done by sketching or pho- projected by considering all the circu- tography together with 'notes that rec- using the existing patterns as an initial graphic framework.

This begins to enter the ord our observations and judgments. It realm of design decision but? We must walk the site and and details. There may also be reports ning or transportation street load pat- record the time it takes to cross it.

We already done about historic areas terns, etc. The municipal planning depart- Adjacent and nearby parking requires travel times. Where the situation i s particularly complicated we may 8. Utilities Circulation start our analysis with an aerial photo- Documentation of all utility informa- Documentation of all streets, roads, al- graph.

Often these companies can under previous site data categories. This should also in- tion. We need to verify with each utility clude direct observation for the that these drawings are current and Data concerning the pedestrian net- specific locations of stops and shelters accurate. Sensory this is relatively inefficient and may not All information about views on and produce a real consensus of the neigh- around our site requires direct observa- borhood value system. We may use photographs and sketches to assist in this regard.

Human and cultural considerations can extend beyond the immediate site Noise data can be collected by direct to political processes, city wide issues experience on the site with the use of regarding the project and similar fac- sensing equipment and by studying tors. The inclusion or exclusion of noise related data in other information these issues in our contextual analysis categories traffic, surrounding uses, depends on our view of the meaning of etc.

It is important to document noise "project context. Climate All climate data is usually available Odors, smoke and other pollutants re- from the local weather service. There quire direct observation and experi- are also weather profiles for different ence on the site. Where pollution is locations which are published by the large in scale, aerial photographs may armed services and by universities. It is help in studying source and direction. These individuals may work at night, etc, i s also important.

Human and Cultural or armed service base. A considerable amount of data can be The analysis of all eleven data classifica- obtained from census statistics on the tions should include future projections to neighborhood. This information is the extent that they can be made. It may be useful to discuss the human and cul- tural neighborhood factors with repre- sentatives of the neighborhood associ- ations or with social service and recrea- tional agencies, retail, religious andlor educational services that operate in or for the neighborhood population.

As previously discussed, there are at least two ways of approaching the dia- gramming of contextual information.

One involves an integration of thediagrams into one composite graphic form. The other separates each contextual fact onto a sepa- rate diagram.

Site Analysis Edward t. white

The composite or integrated approach attempts to state all the site data on one drawing to emphasize the total situation and to sensitize us to the rela- G.. This drawing is normally relatively large in scale to avoid graphic clutter. The poten- tial difficulty with the drawing is that it may become too complex and confusing. This i s particularly true for a complex site.

When we approach our contextual analysis i n this way we should be sure to maintain a sense of clarity and hierarchy in our graphics to ensure that the major site issues are given the major graphic em- phasis in the diagrams. The referent drawing is re- peated as many times as we have data to present.

This more "itemized" approach helps us to avoid overlooking a site factor. Further, it allows each piece of contextual data a clear uncluttered expression.

Because each diagram has its own referent drawing L.. A we have the flexibility of shifting the re- ferent from plan to perspectivetosection or elevation depending on the type of infor- mation being diagrammed. It permits us to think in terms of optimum site concept responses to each site factor when we begin schematic design. The potential dif- ficulty with this technique is that a piece- meal approach to the graphic recording of data may foster a piecemeal approach to design.

In deciding whether to diagram in the integrated or segregated mode we should think about how we design and which of these approaches fits most com- fortably with the way wetend to concep- tualize our project. Because it more clearly illustrates the dif- ferent ways to diagram site data we will use the segregated approach to discuss some techniques of contextual diagramming. Even if we eventually integrate these dia- grams into one drawing, we may want to the site data during collection sepa- rately because this allows us to use smaller, more convenient referent drawings during the on site analysis.

Referent drawings may be plans, sec- Depending on how far reaching geograph- As we will see, "purity" in the use of the tions, perspectives, isometrics or ele- ically a particular site factor is, our referent integrated or the segregated approach is vations.

The choice of which of these drawing will extend a greater or lesser dis- not an issue. We may separate data dia- to use relates to the typeof data we are 'awe beyond our actual site.

T pdf site analysis edward white

If we are grammatically in the integrated approach recording and how best to view it as a discussing the re- and integrate certain data on a single re- site force top view, perspective view, ferent drawing may extend several blocks. The sizes of the The referent drawings over which we dia- referent drawings depend on the complex- gram the site issues may occur in several ity of the diagrams we will be making forms and at several scales.

They will also and the extent to which we may want to contain differentamountsofdetaildepend- miniaturize the diagrams for convenience ing on the contextual information being in data collection or for presentation.

A large percentage of site data seems to be -I L planpriented. Normally, a typical referent 5hd drawing i n plan w i l l include the, site boundaries and street pattern immediately adjacent to the site. We must be sure to make the referent drawing as simple as possible keeping in mind that the data to be recorded over it must be graphically bolder and more important than the referent in- formation.

II II""-' If we are using line for the referent drawing the line weight should be very light. The YPfrenf referent must alwavs be in the background graphically in our contextual analysis.

We are then ready to diagram the site issues. Our diagrammatic forms must be able to record and express both the visible and the invisible forcest Pressures, prob- Some example diagrammatic forms are tions and alternatives.

The examples will show possibilities as well as opportunities to We are also interested in diagramming fu- Some typical ways of diagrammatically create combinationsand synthesesof these ture or potential contextual issues. If the diagrams are to be viewed by others we may spend some time fine tuning our graphics. When first learning to diagram it is a good idea to refine and simplify all of our work until we develop an ability to diagram with effective, simplified forms in making our initial fact collection sketches.

Refinement involves making the dia- grammatic forms as communicative as possible while simplification i s con- cerned with the process of subtracting any extraneous graphic information from the diagrams.

Diagrammatic refinement should thoroughly evaluate each visual charac- teristic of each graphic element in the dia- gram todetermine if it can be improved. Improvement i s essentially toward strengthening the meaning transfer be- tween what the diaeram i s savine, " visu- ally and what t h e i i t e fact i s saying contextually. Refinement can also involve the streamlin- ing of the graphics simply for the sake of better graphics. In this case we attempt to elevate the qual- Typical aspects of diagrams that may be ity of the graphic images to upgrade the targets for refinement are presented Qnthe visual competence of the presentation.

These Our goal in simplification is to reduce the just listed and is an integral component of extraneous graphicsdo not contribute diagram to the minimum graphic informa- refinement. When simplifying a diagram we are and often convey inadvertent mes- This reduction helps to ensure that we have interested i n subtracting any elements, sages that are misleading.

They cloud a diagram that is more likely to communi- over the essence of the message by cate thedesired information and less likely shapes, wrinkles or relationships that to be misinterpreted. Some examples of muddle the meaning transfer between producing visual noise. Simply put, graphic emphasis involves making sure that the essence of what we are communicating with the dia- gram receives the strongest expression In contextual analysis, this means that we want the referent drawing to recede into the background graphically and whatever we have diagrammed over the referent the site issue to be the boldest visual aspect in this is accom- I-.

JL The referent drawing is usually made with a thin line and no tonework. The site fact: Once we realize that the essence of a site - - -"p- - nm2.

If we have chosen to use color, we should use the same color to code the essence of all our escalate the boldness of our diagrams as much as we want as long as the relative strength of the essence of the diagrams diagrams.

That color should remain the dominates the graphics. If we have begun to use a particular color to code the key points of our diagrams we should not create confusion by shifting the use of the color around from meaning to meaning. The essence of pattern i s consistency and once we have educated the eye t o look for a color or tone to signal the essence of the diagram's meaning, i t becomes extremely confusing and an- noying t o have that pattern change arbitrarily.

It is of value to graphically code the site factors which we feel are of particular im- portance or which may have significant form giving implications in design. This may be done with dots, frames around important diagrams or other graphic means.

We do, however, need to write sufficient notes on the diagrams to ensure that the site factors are communi- cated clearly. This is more critical when the diagrams are not only for ourselves but for someone else as well another designer, client, etc.

There are also legal implications related to the thoroughness of contextual analysis and site design. We must be especially careful to attend to the impacts of our site concepts on adjacent and surrounding property, Inadvertent design decisions basedon incomplete site data may result in negativeconsequencesforthe neighborsof our project both during construction and after our project is complete and in use.

Blockage of neighborhood water drainage patterns as they enter our site may cause flooding. Rerouting drainage patterns so that water leaves our site in a different place may result in water damage. Our building placement may block views from adjacent structures. The vehicular traffic generated by our facility may increase the congestion and noise level in the neigh- borhood. Excavation of our site could cause footing damage to nearby buildings.

Sun reflection offour buildingmay result in increased cooling loads in neighboring buildings or create traffic hazards for driv- ers near our site due to glare. Shadows cast byour structurecould damage landscaping of neighborsor deny them accessto thesun for solar collectors. All these situations and othersare potential negativeconsequences of our designs on adjacent property that have legal implications for both our clients and ourselves.

Thorough site analysis and attention to detail during site use concep- tualization are vital if we are to avoid the negative situations and achieve the posi- tive ones.

If we hope to do a thorough contextual analysis, there are several things we should remember about the data we are collecting. Q- It is important not to do the analysis "at long range" but to actually go to the site and feel it.

See the views, listen to the sounds, look at the activity. Walk or drive the site to get a sense of the time-distance factor between boundaries and to feel how the contours change. It is important to judge first hand the value of on site amenitiessuch as trees. The issueof time must beapplied to all our site information.

We must havesome idea about how long a e n event or pressure ass, when it peaks, when it starts and ends, how it.

Edward T. White

For each fact we collect we should ask ourselves about the future with respectto that particularcategory. Our building will occupy the site for a long time. We want it to effectively respond to all surrounding conditions over its life span. It is desirable to look at the next con- textual layer of issues beyondthe ones we are addressing. Contextual analyses are theoretically open ended in that there are no inherent logical stopping points.

We could continue to On the other hand there is sometimes a temptation to arbitrarily terminate our analysis before we should. The important point here is to think about the appropriate extension of the analysis for each piece of information. How far do we go with our data collection for each information type?

Examples include deciding how many blocks beyond our site to incorporate inthe analysis, whether to analyze what created existing traffic patterns, whether to infer certain things about the neighborhood by what we seeand whether to conduct house to house interviews. These judgments all involve decisions on our part about the importance and relevancy of the informa- tion to either the verification of data or to design.

In contextual analysis we are con- stantly making judgments about how deeply or accurately we must research a particular site topic. This issue is being raisednot to providean excusefor asloppy job but to recognize that the "absolutely complete" contextual analysis does not exist andthat under the pressureof time we mustbesomewhatselectiveaboutwhat we address in our site study. The goal is a contextual analysis researched through all its contexts of contexts. The reality is al- ways something short of that.

Our contextual analysis should record what information is "hard" non- negotiable and what is "soft. Hard data involves things like site boundary, legal description, site area and utility locations. Some thin. It is helpful to classify the information according to "firmness" because it provides a sense of the required sequence of attention to data when we begin design, We generally must couewith the hard datafirst inourearlv site decisions There should be a sense of priority This is normally a result of the intensity of about the information we collect and the site conditions and whether they are record.

It is useful when we begin design to have a sense of whether something is of great value and should be saved, enhanced and reinforced or whether something is very negative and should beeliminated, avoided orscreened. A systematic approach more easily permits us to cope with information overload in complex situations.

A fine-grained approach to analysis fosters a fine-grained approach to de- sign synthesis where contextual oppor- tunities and problems have less of a chance tor1slipthrough the cracks" and thus be left behind during design synthesis.

The more individual contextual factors we uncover and document in analysis of the site, the more cues we provide for ourselves in triggering site response concepts. We are not concerned with design responsesto the site at this stage but ratherwith finding out all we can about the site. We are interested in facts. The facts about our site will always include both hard and soft data.

The hard data usually relate to physical site factors and involve no judgments about their existence or na- ture. Typical hard data would be site loca- tion, dimensions, contours, on site features and climate. Soft data may involve some value judgments on our part in conducting the contextual analysis. These deal prima- rily with the sensory and human aspects of the site that are not quantitative and which require an opinion about the existenceand positive or negative characteristics of cer- tain sitequalities.

Typical examplesinclude good and bad views from the site, best approach directions to th. This "soft data", although it initially involves judgments, tends to become "hard data" once it is documented in the contextual analysis.

It is import We ways open to interpretation in design and should never expect the amount and are usually the most negotiable when de- importance of site data to be equal signing for the site in schematics.

Eachsite In attempting to organize the types of is different and the imbalance in how information that we collect about a the information is distributed among site, there are several headings that the headingsand the different Patterns of emphasis given to the information communicate a great deal to us when we begin to respond to the contextual analysis in design. The data outline presented next has no particular meaning behind its sequence other than the fact that it separatessite data from climate data and proceeds from gen- eral overview issuesto more detailed ones.

City map may also show distances and travel times to related functions in other parts of the city. This may be extended further to include an important factor or because of the scale of the project.

Map may show existing and projected uses, buildings, zoning and any other conditions that may have an impact on our project. SIZE AND ZONING Documents all the dimensional aspects of the site includ- ing boundaries, location and dimension of easements and present zoning classifica- tion with all its dimensional implications setbacks, height restrictions, parking for- mulas, allowed uses, etc. Analysis should also document the present and projected zoning trends, plans by the city transportation department to widen roads change rights of way and any othertrend that mightaffectour project in the future.

LEGAL This category presents the legal description of the property, covenants and restrictions, present ownership, present governmental jurisdiction city or county and any future projections that may influ- ence the project such as the fact that the site is in afuture city urban renewal area or within the boundaries of eventual univer- sity expansion.

Off site features may include characteristics of surrounding de- velopment such as scale, roof forms, fenestration patterns, setbacks, materials, colors, open spaces, visual axes, paving patterns, landscaping materials and pat- terns, porosity and assertiveness of wall forms and accessories and details. Dataincludes duration and peak loads for surrounding vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement, bus stops, site access edges, traffic generators, service truck access and intermittent traffic parades, fire truck routes, concerts at nearby auditorium.

Traffic analysis should include future projections insofar as they Y can be made. Typical utility types include electricity, gas, sewer, water and telephone. Where utilities are some distance from the site, those dimen- sions should be given. It is useful to docu- ment the depths of utilities when they are underground as well as the pipe material and diameter. It is of behavioral and sociological aspects.

This value to record the type, duration, intensity category is different from "Neighborhood and quality positive or negative of the Context" listed earlier in that the latter ad- sensory issues. As discussed earlier, this dresses the physical while this category often involves making some judgments deals with the activities, human relation- about the relative desirability of the differ- ships and patterns of human characteris- ent sensory conditions on and around the tics.

Issues here might involve population site. Also of importance are any scheduled or informal activities in the neighborhood Vandalism and crime patterns, although not pleasant, are of value to designers when conceptualizing site zoning and building design. CLIMATE Presents all the pertinent cli- mate conditions such as rainfall, snowfall, humidity and temperature variations over the months of the year. Also included are prevailing wind directions, sun-path and vertical sun angles as they changeover the year and potential natural catastrophes such as tornados, hurricanes and earth- quakes.

It is helpful to know not only how climate conditions vary over a typical year but also what the critical conditions might be maximum daily rainfall, peak wind velocity. It involves know- ingwhat we haveto work with interms of site before we begin to work with it in site zoning. Like function, image or building envelope, it is another way of entering the problem, of making our first conceptual decisions which form the designer-made context for sub- sequent decisions.

Althoughthe facts we collect about our site may be influenced by the building images that inevitably come to mind as we do the contextual analysis, we should attempt to keep conceptualization separate from the contextual analysis. The contextual analysis should be an inventory of existing and projected conditions assumingno new building on the site so that when we begin to design for the site we do not confuse what is actually there now with what we wish was there or hope to put there.

It is useful in discussing the influence of contextual analysis on design to dif- ferentiate between function and con- text as forces which locate building spaces and activities on the site. Func- tion tends to locate building spaces in an introverted way in that they are primarily looking inward to each other for the rationale behindtheir positions in the scheme.

Context, on the other hand, wants the spaces to migrate to different positions on the site in re- sponse to conditions outsidethe build- ing. In function, the attraction is be- tween spaces. In context, the attrac- tion is between spaces and external site conditions. Usually in a design problem these two and all the other project issues pull and push the spaces to determine their final placement in the scheme. They are in a very real sense competing with each other to determine the building form.

Some examples of situations that might cause a space or activity to be placed in the scheme due to external linkages to context are presented below. Operations need- ing access to de- livery and pick- up vehicles. Building entry lo- cated to relate to primary ap- proach direc- tion. Zoning of parking areas away from view lines to building. Activities needing indirect natural lighting. Activities needing direct sunlight.

Operations need- ing shelter from high activity zones. Activities needing direct access for vehicles. Integration of form with surrounding contextual im- ages. Relationship of spaces to exist- ing scale and geometric pat- terns.

Spaces needing their own con- trolled exterior environment. Our first efforts at optimum placement of functions or spaces on the site in response to contextual pressures may involve any of three approaches. Where function is considered a more critical form-giving determinant than context, we may place the bubble dia- gram on thesiteand allow thespaces to migrate and shift within the bubble so that their orientations and placements relate to the appropriate site condi- tions.

Here the connecting lines be- tween the spaces in the bubble are made elastic while still remaining con- nected to the space bubbles so that the functional ties are always maintained while we are searching for a contextu- ally responsive placement of spaces.

Where relation to context is judged to be more important than internal func- tional efficiency, we may take each function or space and place it in its optimum zone on the site indepen- dently oftheother spaces. When all the spaces have been placed including exterior spaces then we may begin to condense our spaces and knit them together with a circulation system. The third approach is appropriate where the project is particularly large with several site components.

Here we may needto deal with the placement of our building or buildings as wholes before we can address the location of their spaces. In this approach the prin- ciples and intentions are no different than those in the first two approaches.

The scale of the components we are manipulating on the site is simply larger.

Once our buildings are placed in zones on the site, then we may use either of the first two approaches to zone the buildingspaces in responseto their context. Reasonsforlocatinga buildingin aparticu- lar area of the site may involve soil bearing conditions, contours that minimize earth work during construction, ridges to take advantage of views or breezes, streets or corners that ensure high visibility to the building, alleys that allow easy service ac- cess, site scars that have already caused disruption collect existing scars with the scars caused by construction or the avoidance of some particularly valuable asset that should be preserved trees or some particularly negativecondition poor view or noise.

I t is important to remember that site design and building and space place- ment can involve sectional issues as well as plan issues.

Relation of floors to contours, heights of spaces in relation to views, stepping of spaces down hillsides and stacking of spaces in relation to contours and neigh- borhood scale are a few of the potential reasons to study the zoning of our facility on the site in section as well as in plan. A thorough contextual analysis gives us confidencethat we havethe site conditions all recorded.

That confidencefacilitates the conceptualization of site responses in de- sign and contributes to the heuristic proc- ess of idea formulation. In doing the con- textual analysisandengagingthe site issues through diagramming, we trigger design responseimagesfor dealingwith the site.

T site analysis white pdf edward

Thecontextual analysisactsasaswitch to recall the parts of our design vocab- ularies that apply to the site problems and opportunities. The role of contex- tual analysis as a stimulant for concep- tualization is vital to responsible de- sign.

It helps to ensure that there is an appropriateness to those design ideas that surface in our minds in that they were triggered by the relevant project issues, conditions and needs and not arbitrarily fabricated and imposed on the project.

Too r'i? This will never happen. We must analyze the context to trigger design re- sponses, but the design responses or vo- cabularies must be there to be triggered. As designers we must continually work to ex- pand and deepen our vocabulary of ar- chitectural forms and concepts so that there is something there to draw upon when we "flip theswitch" through analysis.

These conceptual solution types constitute the design vocabulary that we accumulate from reading, travel, past projects we have designed and visiting buildings. Analysis will give us the condi- tions but not the responses.

It will tell us that we have a great view but not what to do about it. We must draw from our vo- cabulary of design responsesfor the appro- priate concepts. Diagramming the information learned through contextual analysis may utilize any of the conventional drawing frameworks to record the data. We may graphically express our site information in plan, section, elevation, perspective, isometric or any of the other types of draw- ings available to us. The types of drawings we useshould besympatheticto thetypeof information we are recording.

Somedata is better expressed in plan, some in section, L L some in perspective, etc. Normally there aretwo components to any site information diagram. First, we must have a referent drawing of the site to provide a context for the particular site information we want to record. Second, we must diagram the site fact itself. The referent drawing may be a simple plan of the site boundaries with bordering streets or a section through the siteshowing only theground plane.

We use these simple site drawings as frameworks for diagramming the particular site issues that we wish to express. There are two rather different postures we may assume regardingthe recording of the site informa- tion over these referent drawings. J one referent drawing. The second approach segregateseach piece of site information to a separate referent drawing. This method values the expression of each issue sepa- rately so that it can be easily understood.

By dealing with each fact individually we may be less likely to ignore something. Keeping these two approaches pure and unadulterated is not important.

Where it is appropriate to our situation it is perfectly permissibleto use both methods within the same contextual analysis. The diagrammatic forms that we may useto actually record our site information over the referentdrawings are many and varied.

There are no rules for the forms these must take and no universally agreed upon vo- cabulary for them. We should begin to develop our own vocabulary of diagrammatic forms so that they may become second nature for us and may be used as an effective graphic shorthand for documenting site conditions. There are essentially four steps to diagramming any site fact. We must design the initial dia- grammatic form, refine andsimplify it, emphasize and clarify the meaning through graphic hierarchy and em- phasis and finally introduce whatever notes and labeling are necessary.

Contextual analysis may be applied tositu- ations of any scale and is relevant to both exterior and interior project issues. We may analyze a region, a city, a neighborhood, a parcel of land, the interior of an existing building or the interior of a single existing interior space.

The discussion that follows will deal principally with the analysis of single parcels of land. Some attention will also be given to the contextual analysis of interior space under "Other Contextual Analysis Forms.

As discussed previously, our goal should be to analyze all relevant issues about thesite becausethoroughness is vital to project success.

It is useful in choosing from among the available site issue categories to let our choices be influenced by at least two im- portant inputs: We should think about the nature of the project, its needs, require- ments and critical issues. What is the essence of the project?

What isthe building's reasonfor being? What are its major goals and objec- tives? What roles can the building play in enhancing the site and its surround- ings?

All of these concerns should help ustoanticipate the kindof sitedata that will be neededduringthe design phase of the project. Site analysis should never be done at "long range. This "hands-on" direct encounter with site from a personal and sen- sory point of view gives us another set of clues for choosing the types of site information that should be addressed in our contextual analysis. The visit to the siteallows us todevelop asense of what is unique, valuable and important about the site.

This checklist will help ensure that we do not forget any important site factor and will assist us to more efficiently iden- tify the site concerns to be included in our analysis.

A prototypical checklist- of potential site issues follows. Location a. Location of the city in the state including relationship to roads, cities, etc. Location of the site neighborhood in the city. Location of the site in the neigh- borhood.

Distancesandtravel times between the site and locations of other re- lated functions in the city. Neighborhood Context a. Map of the neighborhood indicat- ing existing and projected property zoning.

Existing and projected building uses in the neighborhood. Age or condition of the neighbor- hood buildings. Present and future uses of exterior spaces in the neighborhood.

Any strong vehicular or pedestrian traffic generating functions in the neighborhood. Existing and projected vehicular movement patterns. Major and minor streets, routes of service vehicles such as trash, bus routes and stops. Solid-void space relationships. Street lighting patterns. Architectural patterns such as roof forms, fenestration, materials, color, landscaping,formal porosity, relationship to street, car storage strategies, building height, sculptural vigor, etc.

Neighborhood classifications that' miglht place special restrictions or responsibilities on our design work such as "historic district. Nearby buildings of particular value or significance.

Fragile images or situations that should be preserved. Sun and shade patterns at different times of the year. Major contour and drainage pat- terns. Size and Zoning a. Dimensions of the boundaries of our site. Dimensions of the street rights of way around our site. Location and dimensions of ease- ments. Present site zoning classification. Front, back and side yard setbacks requiied by zoning classification.

Square feet of buildable area inside setbacks should also subtract easements. Building height restrictions re- quired by zoning classification.

Zoning formula for determining re- quired parking basedon the typeof The number of parking spaces re- quired if we know the building area. Any conflicts between what the present zoning classification al- lows and the functions we are planning for the site. Zoning classifications that the site would need to be changed to in order to accommodate all the planned functions. Any projected changes that would alter the dimensional characteris- tics of the site such as street widen- ings or purchase of additional property.

Legal a. Legal description of the property. Covenants and restrictions site area usage allowed, height restric- tions, screening of mechanical equipment or serviceyards, restric- tionson rooftopelements, architec- tural character, design require- ments in historic districts, etc.

Name of the property owner. Name of the governmental levels or agencies which have jurisdic- tion over the property. Any projectedor potential changes in any of the above categories.

Natural Physical Features a. Topographic contours. Major topographic features such as high points, low points, ridges and valleys, slopes and flat areas. Drainage patterns on the site in- cluding directions of surfacedrain- age perpendicular to contours , major and minor arteries of water collection ditches, arroyos, river- beds, creeks, etc.

Existing natural features on the site andtheir value interms of preserva- tion and reinforcement versus al- teration or removal. This would also include opinions regarding permanency in terms of difficulty or expense to remove features. On site features might include trees type and size , ground cover, rock outcroppings, ground surface tex- ture, holes or ditches, mounds, on site water pools, ponds, lakes, riv- ers and stable or unstable areas of the site site scars versus virgin areas.

Typeof soil atdifferent levelsbelow surface and bearing capacity of the soil. Soil type distribution over site. Man-Made Features a. Size, shape, height and location of any on site buildings. If these are to remain; the exterior character and interior layout should also be documented. Ifthe buildings are to be part of our project, we mustdo a Location and type of walls, retain- ing walls, ramadas or fences. Location, size and character of ex- terior playfields, courts, patios, plazas, drives, walks or service areas.

Where it may be important to our designwe should recordthe paving patterns of man-made surfaces. Location and size of curb cuts, power poles, fire hydrants or bus stop shelters. This is particularly impor- tant where the architectural character will be a factor in the design of our facility historic dis- trict, etc.

Somefactors to consider in analyzing surrounding architec- tural character include scale, proportion, roof forms, window and door patterns, setbacks, mate- rials, colors, textures, open space versus built space, visual axes, landscaping materials and pat- terns, paving textures and patterns, porosity extent of openness and assertiveness ins and outs of wall forms, connections, details and ac- cessories, exterior lighting, outdoor furniture andcarstoragemethods. Circulation a. On site sidewalks, paths and other pedestrian movement patterns in- cluding users, purposes, schedule of use and volume of use.

Off site pedestrian movement pat- terns usingthe same characteristics mentioned for on site movement. If a pedestrianmovement pattern is considered valuable and to be pre- served or reinforced, our analysis should also include an evaluation of how the existing pattern could be improved.

On site or adjacent vehicular movement patterns including type of traffic, origins and destinations, schedule, volume of traffic and peak loads. Also included should be intermittent traffic such as parades, festivals, concerts, fire truck routes, service truck fleets, etc. Off site or neighborhood vehicular movement issues such as traffic generators buildings or uses that are significant destinations or ori- gins of vehicular traffic as well as the other traffic characteristics out- lined under on site traffic.

Adjacent or nearby parking areasthat may be used for off site car storage in our project. Off site traffic patterns should also include the relation of our site to the public transportation routes, stops at or near our site, probable directions of approach to our site by the users of the new building and directions of dispersal of traffic from our building. Traffic analysis should document future Locations of probable or optimum access to our site for each type of pedestrianand vehicular traffic that will use the new building or move through the site.

Travel time to walk across our site, to drive across the site or by the site where these times may be impor- tant to our design time it takes to walk between classes at a school. It may also be useful to record the time it takes to drive to or from related locations in the city from our site to downtown, the univer- sity, the shopping center, etc.

Utilities a. Location, capacity and con- veyance form type of pipe, etc. This should involve the depth of each utility under- ground and, in the case of power, whether it is above or below grade. Location of power poles. Where utility lines stop short of our site boundaries, their distances from our site should be given. Where there are multiple oppor- tunities to connect to utilities that are adjacent to our site, we should record those locations or edges on our site that seem to offer the best connection opportunities.

This may be due to the capacities of the utility lines, contour conditions on our site in relation to sewer, the need to minimize on site utility runs, being able to collect utility runs, bringing utilities in at the "back" of the site or dealing with site barriers or difficult soil condi- tions. Sensory Views from the site including posi- tions on the site where the views are not blocked, what the views are of, whether the views are positive or negative, the angles within which the views can be found, whether the views change over time and the likelihood of view continuance for the long term.

Includes what the views are of, whether the views are positive or negative, positions on the site where the views are bestand where they are blocked, the angles within which the views can be found and whether the object of the views changes over time. Mews to the site from areas outside the ,site boundaries, including streets, walks, other buildings and vistas. Views through our site from posi- tions outside the property. Involves the objects of the views and the various positions where the views occur, whether the views are posi- tive or negative, the angles within which the views can be found, and the likelihood of the view targets as well as the view paths remaining open over the long term.

Locations, generators, schedules, and intensities of any significant noise on or around the site. This analysis should include likelihood ofcontinuanceover the longterm.

Locations, generators, schedules and intensities of any significant odors, smoke or other airborne pollution on or around our site. This analysis should include like- lihood of continuance over time. Potential information includes population density, age, family size, ethnic pat- terns, employment patterns, in- come,, recreational preferences and informal activities or events such as festivals, parades or fairs.

Negative neighborhood patterns such as vandalism and other crimi- nal activities. Neighborhood attitudes about the project that is about to be designed and built on our site. Neighborhood attitudes about what is positive and what is nega- tive in the neighborhood.

Relative permanenceof the neiah-- borhood'population. Neighborhoodtrends intermsof all the factors mentioned above. Climate a. Temperature variation over the months of the year including the maximum hiahs and lows and the maximum a d average day-night temperature swing for the days of each month.

Humidity variation over the months of the year including maximums, minimums, and aver- ages for each month and for a typi- cal day of each month. Rainfall variation over the months of the year in inches. Should in- clude the maximum rainfall that can be expected in any one day. Snowfall variation over the months of the year in inches. Should in- clude the maximum snowfall that can be expected in any one day. Prevailing wind directions for the monthsof the year includingveloc- ity in feet per minute or miles per hour and variations that can be ex- pected over the course of the day and night.

Should also include the maximum wind velocity that can be expected.

90997030-Site-Analysis-Edward-t-White.pdf

Sun path at the summer and winter solstice high point and low point including altitude and azimuth at particular times of the day for summer and winter sunrise and sunset, position at 9 a.

Energy related data such as degree Potential natural catastrophes such as earthquakes, hurricanes and tornados. May includedocumenta- tion of earthquake zone that our site lies within and history of natu- ral catastrophes in the area. Dependingon our particular project, some of these issues will be more important than others. Some analysis categoriesmay drop out completely and new ones may be re- quired.

It is important to avoid being so con- cerned about the "legalities" of the classification system that we lose sight of the meaning and importance of site analysis. It is not as important how the site facts are classified as that they are adequately coveredsomewhere in our analysis. There is always a danger inherent in any checklist. Checklists make it easy for us to mentally disengage from the task at hand and sometimes give us a feeling of false security. We feel that if we simply "put something" undereach heading we will have fulfilled our re- ' sponsibility to analyze the site.

We cannot allow our site analysis to be- come a mindlessfilling of "data bins. We mustfollow what may at first seem tangent concerns until we establish that they are irrelevant or that they do indeed contain some valuable information. We must not allow the implied segregation of data on the checklist to inhibit an understandingof the linkages between our site conditions. It is of value, for example, to juxtapose all the issuesdealing with time or scheduleon the time frame of a typical day andfor different times of the year.

This allows us to see the ebb and flow of the site forces in concert rather than in isolation. Italso permits us to feel the composite of the forces on the site in a way that approximates reality.

In some cases this information must come from others, while in other cases we may gather it directly ourselves. Sources of information may vary from city to city andfrom site to site. It is importantto keep in mind that for some types of data a single source will suffice. This is true primarily for quantitative or technical in- formation. Other types of data, principally the qualitative type, may require several sources for purposes of verification.

An outlineof potential information sourcesfol- lows. Location State maps may be miniaturized with only major highways and cities shown. City maps of a reasonable size can be found in most telephone books. We only need to relate our site to major streets or landmarks. It may be helpful to purchasean aerial photograph of our site and neighborhood from an aerial survey company.

These can be pro- duced at different scales and allow us to trace the neighborhood streets and facilities from the photo. We may trace the neighborhood context from a zon- ing map which can be found in the municipal planning department or ob- tained from local blueprinting com- panies. Documentation of the dis- tances and travel times must be done by actually driving them or, in the case of pedestrian circulation, by walking them. Neighborhood Context Zoning for our site and neighborhood can be learned at the municipal plan- ning department or at local printing companies that have the zoning maps on file.

Learning about zoning trends may involve conversations with real estate agents who work in the area and municipal planners. We must directly observe the existing building and ex- terior space uses while talking to area businessmen and residents, real estate agents and municipal planners about projected uses. Several other issues re- quire direct observation.

Theseinclude architectural patterns, solid-void rela- tionships, significant buildings, fragile situations, street lighting, and the con- dition of the buildings. The municipal planning department should be con- sulted about the existence and re- quirements of any special neighbor- hood classifications such as "historic district.

Building heights and areas must be estimated by direct ob- servation with perhaps the aid of pho- tography. Sun azimuth horizontal angle and altitude vertical angle can be collected from Architectural Graphic Standards, other standard ref- erences or the local weather bureau.

The local transportation or traffic plan- ning department should have informa- tion on existing and projected traffic around the site. Particular routes of specific vehicular types trash, busses, fire trucks mustbecollectedfrom each company or agency. Major drainage patterns can be interpolated from U.

Geological Survey Maps. These can usually be purchased at local printing companies, from the Geological Sur- vey district office or the city engineer. Size and Zoning Much of the information under Size and Zoning, Legal, Natural Physical Features and Man-made Features would be collected and documented by a survey engineer ifwe were to have a topographic survey done for our site.

These surveys can be tailored to in- clude more or less of our site data list depending upon how much of the re- search we are able to do ourselves and how much our client is able to pay for the survey. Typically, clients are re- sponsible for providing the site survey information to the architect.

For our purposes, we will assumethat we must collect all the data. Site boundary dimensions must be measured directly to be verified but can be obtained in recorded form from title insurance companies or the county tax assessor's office. Present and future street rightsof way can usu- ally be obtained from the municipal transportation department while easements involve contacting all the utility companies. All the zoning in- formation including classification, set- backs, height restrictions, allowable site coverage, allowableusesand park- ing requirements involve first finding out what the present zoning classifica- tion is.

This may bedoneby obtaininga zoning map from a local printingcom- pany or city planning department. The specific information about what our site zone classification allows can be collected from the municipal zonhg ordinance, a book which documents this information for each zone classifi- cation. A copy of the ordinance may be purchasedfrom municipal planning or borrowed from the library.

Conflicts betweenwhat our site zone allows and what our client wants to put on the site must be determined by comparison. If there is a conflict, theclient musteither apply for a variance to the municipal board of adjustment or apply for a dif- ferent zoning classification that does allow all the planned uses on the site.

He may also purchase additional prop- erty or purchase a different piece of property. Another option is to simply amendthe planned usestofit thosethat are allowed. The number of square feet of buildable area is calculated by tak- ing the area inside the site boundary lines and subtracting the area of any setbacksoreasements.

Normally, park- ing and on site roads may occupy the unbuildable area inside setbacks. Legal Mostof the legal information about the site including the legal description, The owner or the title insurance company should have this information. The county tax asses- sor's office may have someor all of it as well.

Jurisdiction is normally a matter of finding out whether the site is inside or outside of the city limits. Sometimes there may be special jurisdictional is- sues such as those regarding Indian reservation land or federal or state land. Projected changes in this infor- mation require conversationswith our client, the appropriate jurisdictional agencies, neighborhood associations, previous owners or whatever parties are responsible for the covenants and restrictions.

Natural Physical Features The majority of the information in this category requires direct observation of the site and recording the data over a topographic survey showing site con- tours.

Topographic contours are included in the property survey done by the survey engineer. Depending on how con- toured our site is, the intervals may rangefrom onefoot to ten feet. On very large sites the intervals may be even more.