Preface Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive PrefaceOrder of Writing Academic English is intended to be covered in one .. Here's the link to the FREE report □□□ caite.info XDNXSICPME10» Kindle Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition (The Longman Academic Writing Series, Level 4). Writing Academic English, Fourth. Alice Oshima, Ann Hogue | | PDF | ISBN: | Pages | 48 MB Now in its fourth edition, Writing Academic English, by Alice.
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Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive rhetoric and sentence structure Instructors familiar with the third edition will find these changes. Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition (The Longman - SEAS of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes (BALEAP) were most helpful: June O'Brien. Longman Academic Writing Series. Academic Writing from Paragraph to caite.info Writing Academic English 3rd Edition by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue.
There are at least 30 categories of birthday cards alone: However, para- graphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences. SlideShare Explore Search You. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently. In one study, athletes needing short bursts of energy were exposed to red light.
The most recent use of gold is in astronauts suits. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs. However, para- graphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences. The Topic Sentence Every good paragraph has a topic sentence, which clearly states the topic and the controlling idea of the paragraph. A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph.
It bliefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss. For this reason, the topic sentence is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer can see what information to include and what information to exclude. The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is therefore better prepared to understand it. For example, in the model paragraph on gold, the topic sentence alerts the reader to look for two characteristics. Here are three important points to remember about a topic sentence.
A topic sentence is a complete sentence; that is, it contains at least one subject and one verb. The following are not complete sentences because they do not have verbs: Driving on freeways. How to register for college classes. The rise of indie films.! A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea. It names the topic and then limits the topic to a specific area to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph.
Cbapter 1 I Paragraph Structure 5 3.
A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph because it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details.
A topic sentence is like the name of a particular course on a restaurant menu. When you order food in a restaurant, you want to know more about a particular course than just "meat" or "soup" or "salad. Potato salad? Mixed green salad?
Fruit salad? However, you do not necessarily want to know all the ingredients. Similarly, a reader wants to know generally what to expect in a paragraph, but he or she does not want to learn all the details in the first sentence. Following is a general statement that could serve as a topic sentence. The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious. The following sentence, on the other hand, is too specific. It could serve as a sup- porting sentence but not as a topic sentence.
This sentence is too general. English has been influenced by other languages. Position The topic sentence is usually but not always the first sentence in a paragraph. Readers who are used to the English way of writing want to know what they will read about as soon as they begin reading. Synonyms Synonyms.
For example, the words stingy and frugal both mean "careful with money. Similarly, a person wants to be slender but not skinny, aggressive but not pushy. Therefore, you should be careful in choosing words because many so-called synonyms are not really synonymous at all. Sometimes a topic sentence comes at the end. In this case, the paragraph often begins with a series of examples.
Other paragraphs may begin with a series of facts, and the topic sentence at the end is the conclusion from these facts. By the same year, the first human will have been successfully cloned. Genetic therapy will be able to manipulate genes for abilities, intelligence, and hair, eye, and skin color. By , most diseases will be able to be diagnosed and treated at home, and by , cancer and heart disease will have been wiped out.
These are just a few examples of the medical miracles that are expected in the next few decades. Remember that a topic sentence is a complete sentence and is neither too general nor too specific. Write best TS for "best topic sentence" on the line next to it. Step 2 Decide what is wrong with the other sentences.
They may be too general, or they may be too specific, or they may be incomplete sentences. Write too general, too specific, or incomplete on the lines next to them. The first one has been done for you as an example. A lunar eclipse is an omen of a coming disaster. Superstitions have been around forever. People hold many superstitious beliefs about the moon. Is made of green cheese. The 11istory of astronomy is interesting. Ice age people recorded the appearance of new moons by making scratches in animal bones.
For example, Stonehenge in Britain, built years ago to track the movement of the sun. Ancient people observed and recorded lunar and solar events in different ways. It is hard to know which foods are safe to eat nowadays. In some large ocean fish, there are high levels of mercury. Undercooked chicken and hamburger may carry E. Not to mention mad cow disease. Food safety is an important issue. Hybrid automobiles more economical to operate than gasoline-powered cars. The new hybrid automobiles are very popular.
Hybrid cars have good fuel economy because a computer under the hood decides to run the electric motor, the small gasoline engine, or the two together. The new hybrid automobiles are popular because of their fuel economy. The North American Catawba Indians of the Southeast and the Tlingit of the Northwest both see the rainbow as a kind of bridge between heaven and earth. A rainbow seen from an airplane is a complete circle. Many cultures interpret rainbows in positive ways.
Rainbows are beautiful. The belief that you can find a pot of gold at a rainbows end.
Remember that the topic sentence is the most genyral statement in a paragraph. Read the following scrambled paragraphs and decide which sentence is the topic sentence. Write TS on the line next to that sentence. Other capabilities include word processing, spreadsheets, and e-mail. A voice recorder that uses a built-in microphone and speaker works like a tape recorder.
Basic tools include a calendar to keep track of your appointments, an address and phone number book, to-do lists, and a calculator. MP3 playback lets you listen to digital music files, and a picture viewer lets you look at digital photos. Most personal digital assistants PDAs have tools for basic tasks as well as for multimedia functions.
A few models also include a built-in digital camera and keyboard. Twelve years after Sputnik, the United States caught up by becoming the first nation to land a man on the moon. The Europeans have joined the competition, vowing to land European astronauts on the moon by and on Mars by The number of nations competing in the "space race" has grown since the early days of space exploration.
China joined the competition in when it launched Shenzhou 5. Initially, the former Soviet Union took the lead when it sent the first man into Earth orbit in the spaceship Sputnik in For almost 50 years, the United States and Russia were the only competitors in the contest to explore space using manned spacecraft.
Another important change was that people had the freedom to live and work wherever they wanted. The earliest significant change was for farming families, who were no longer isolated. The final major change brought by the automobile was the building of superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centers, and theme parks such as Disney World in Florida.
The automobile revolutionized the way of life in the United States. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently. In fact, people could work in a busy metropolitan city and dlive home to the quiet suburbs. In time, this melted part rises as magma. The formation of a volcanic emption is a dramatic selies of events. As the plate" sinks, friction and Earths heat cause part of it to melt.
The magma produces heat, steam, and pressure.
First of all, most volcanoes are fGlIDed where two plates collide. Then one of the plates is forced under the other and sinks. When the heat, steam, and pressure from the magma finally reach the surface of Earth, a volcanic emption occurs. The topic names the subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea limitsSentence or controls the topic to a specific area that you can discuss in the space of a single paragraph.
The reader immediately lmows that this paragraph will discuss how easy it is to prepare convenience foods and perhaps give some examples canned soup, frozen dinners, and so on. A topic sentence should not have controlling ideas that are unrelated. The three parts of the following controlling idea are too unrelated for a single paragraph.
They require three separate paragraphs and perhaps more to explain fully. GOOD Independent films are characterized by experimental techniques. ClICE 2. Circle the topic and underline the controlling idea in each of the following sentences. Identifying theParts of a TopicSentence 1.
Wanyreligious rules arose from the healthneeds-oLancienLtimes. Juxlrrytp own an automobile in a large city-: CT1CE 3 A. Write good topic sentences for the following paragraphs. Remember to include both a topic and a controlling idea.
Writing Topic Sentences Paragraph 1 English speakers relaxing at home, for example, may put on kimonos, which is a Japanese word. English speakers who live in a warm climate may take an afternoon siesta on an outdoor patio without realizing that these are Spanish words. In their gardens, they may enjoy the fragrance of jasmine flowers, a word that came into English from Persian. They may even relax on a chaise while snacking on yogurt, words of French and Turkish origin, respectively.
At night, they may shampoo their hair and put on pajamas, words from the Hindi language of India. Paragraph 2 In European universities, students are not required to attend classes. In fact, professors in Germany generally do not know the names of the students enrolled in their courses.
In the United States, however, students are required to attend all classes and may be penalized if they do not. Furthermore, in the European system, students usually take just one comprehensive examination at the end of their entire four or five years of study.
In the North American system, on the other hand, students usually have numerous quizzes, tests, and homework assignments, and they almost always have to take a final examination in each course at the end of each semester.
Cbapter I I Paragraph Structure n Paragraph 3 For example, the Eskimos, living in a treeless region of snow and ice, sometimes build temporary homes out of thick blocks of ice. People who live in deserts, on the other hand, use the most available materials, mud or clay, which provide good insulation from the heat. In Northern Europe, Russia, and other areas of the world where forests are plentiful, people usually construct their homes out of wood. In the islands of the South Pacific, where there is an abundant supply of bamboo and palm, people use these tough, fibrous plants to build their homes.
On a piece of paper, write two or three topic sentences for each of the following topics. In other words, give two or three controlling ideas for the same topic.
Example Topic: Using a cell phone while driving can be dangerous. There are certain rules of cell phone manners that everyone should know. Cell phones have changed the way we communicate.
Topics Movies Your home town Word processors Advertising c. With your classmates, choose three topics that interest you as a group. Write a topic sentence for each topic. Be sure to include a controlling idea. Supporting Sentences Supporting sentences explain or prove the topic sentence. One of the biggest problems in student writing is that student writers often fail to support their ideas adequately.
They need to use specific details to be thorough and convincing. There are several kinds of specific supporting details: Step 1 Read Paragraphs A and B about red-light running.
Notice the different specific supporting details that have been added to Paragraph B. Supporting Step 2 Locate the topic sentence in Paragraph B. Circle the topic andSentences underline the controlling idea. Step 3 Which supporting sentences in Paragraph B contain the kinds of details listed below?
Give the sentence numbers of each kind. An example: Paragraph without Support Red-Light Running Although some people think that red-light running is a minor traffic violation that is no worse than jaywalking, I it can, in fact, become a deadly crime. Red-light runners cause accidents all the time. Sometimes people are seriously injured and even killed.
It is especially a problem in rush hour traffic. Everyone is in a hurry to get home, so drivers run red lights everywhere. The police do not do much about it because they are too busy. The only time they pay attention is when there is an accident, and then it is too late.
In conclusion, running a red light is a serious offense. Paragraph B: Paragraph with Support Red-Light Running "! Although some people think red-light running is a minor traffic violation that is no worse than jaywalking, it can, in fact, become a deadly crime. ERed-light runners are seldom caught.
Other types of support-facts, statistics, and quotations-are explained in Chapter 3. Examples Examples are perhaps the easiest kind of supporting detail to use because you can often take examples from your own knowledge and experience. You dont have to search the library or the Internet for supporting material. Furthermore, examples make your writing lively and interesting, and your reader is more likely to remem- ber your point if you support it with a memorable example.
Words and phrases that introduce examples include for example,for instance, and such as. See Transition Signals on pages in Chapter 2 for more information. Red Light Running. Cbapter 11 I Paragraph Structure 13MODEE Language and PerceptionParagraph II possess the same physical organs for sensing the wSupported with earing,noses for smelling, skin for feeling, andExampes n of the world depends to a great extent on the rding to a famous hypothesis3 proposed by lingu.
Edward enjamin Lee Whorf. They hypothesized that language is like a pair of eyeglasses through which we "see" the world in a particular way. A classic example of the relationship between language and perception is the word snow. Eskimo languages have as many as 32 different words for snow. For instance, the Eskimos have different words for falling snow, snow on the ground, snow packed as hard as ice, slushy snow, wind-driven snow, and what we might call "cornmeal" snow.
The ancient Aztec languages of Mexico, in contrast, used only one word to mean snow, cold, and ice. Thus, if the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is correct and we can perceive only things that we have words for, the Aztecs perceived snow, cold, and ice as one and the same phenomenon.
What is the main idea of this paragraph? Underline the part of the topic sentence that expresses the main idea. What examples does the writer use to support this idea? Put brackets [ around them. What words and phrases introduce the examples? Circle them. The Concluding Sentence A concluding sentence serves two purposes: It signals the end of the paragraph.
It leaves the reader with the most important ideas to remember. It can do this in two ways: For single paragraphs, especially long ones, a concluding sentence is helpful to the reader because it is a reminder of the important points. However, a concluding sentence is not needed for every paragraph in a multiparagraph essay.
You may want to begin your concluding sentence with one of the signals in the list on page You may also end a paragraph without a formal signal or perhaps by using an expression like those in the column on the right. In brief, Therefore, There can be no doubt that. In conclusion, Thus, These examples show that. Indeed, To sum up, We can see that In short, Notes 1. Many writing teachers think In conclusion and In summary are overused and so will not want you to use them.
Do not use the phrase At last as an end-of-paragraph signal. At last means "at the end of a long period of time," as in this sentence: At last, youve come home. The models that follow demonstrate the two ways of writing a concluding sen- tence. As you read them, determine which concluding sentence summarizes the main points and which concluding sentence repeats the topic sentence in different words.
In the old days, the local drugstore had one rack display maybe five or six basic kinds of cards. You could walk into the store and choose an appropriate card in five minutes or less. Nowadays, however, t e display space for greeting cards is as big as a soccer field, and it may take an hour or two to hunt down exactly the right card with exactly the right message.
There are at least 30 categories of birthday cards alone: There are cards for getting ajob, for retiring from a job, for acquiring a pet, for losing a pet, for becoming engaged, for breaking up. There are also greeting cards to send for no reason-"Thinking of you" or "Just because" cards.
The newest type of card is the "encouragement card. In short, there is now a greeting card for every possible life event and for a few nonevents as well. A end from the Hawaiian island uai explains how the naupaka flower, lower tha s on beaches ; got its unusual shape. The flower looks like alf a small. The legend says that the marriage of two young lovers on the island was opposed by both sets of parents. The parents found the couple together on a beach one day, and to prevent them from being together, one of the families moved to the mountains, separating the young couple forever.
As a result, the naupaka flower separated into two halves; one half moved to the mountains, and the other half stayed near the beach.
This story is a good example of a legend invented by native people to interpret the world around them. Writing Technique Questions 1. In which paragraph does the concluding sentence summarize the main points of the paragraph, which are not specifically stated in the topic sentence?
In which paragraph does the concluding sentence paraphrase repeat in different words the topic sentence? Circle the conclusion signals in each paragraph. Never introduce a new idea in the concluding sentence. Menu scientific magazines Java Network Programming Search for: Facebook 0. Twitter 0. Pinterest 0. LinkedIn 0. Related Posts: A Text and Reader College Writing: A Handbook for International Students. British English from A to Zed: Comments carro com isencao de imposto says: February 3, at 8: Jimmy says: February 5, at 7: Leave A Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
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