George Yule has taught Linguistics at the Universities of Edinburgh, Hawai'i, Language Linguistics The Study of Language Fourth edition GEORGE YULE J. () The Articulate Mammal (chapter 2) (5th edition) Routledge Friend. The Study of Language has proven itself to be the student and instructor choice for first courses in language and linguistics because of its. Cambridge University Press. - The Study of Language: Fifth Edition. George Yule. Frontmatter. More information caite.info
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The Study of Language (5th ed.) by George Yule. Read online, or download in secure PDF or secure EPUB format. The Study of Language - George Yule. 1. The Study of Language .. ed, -s • When free morphemes are used with bound morphemes, the basic word – form. The Study of Language: Fifth Edition George Yule Frontmatter More information “ A genuinely introductory linguistics text. Newly updated with a wealth of.
Once she had learned to use a large number of these plastic shapes, Sarah was capable of getting an apple by selecting the correct plastic shape a blue triangle from a large array. Hence, an editor will edit, a sculptor will sculpt and burglars, peddlers and swindlers will burgle, peddle and swindle. The 6th edition of this book is now out and available on Amazon https: June 5, at 1: Flag for inappropriate content. How did he arrive at that other spelling? We might have more success with a rule stating that we put a preposition before a noun phrase not just a noun.
Tool-making, or the outcome of manip- ulating objects and changing them using both hands, is evidence of a brain at work.
The human brain is not only large relative to human body size, it is also lateralized, that is, it has specialized functions in each of the two hemispheres. More details are presented in Chapter Those functions that control the motor movements involved in complex vocalization speaking and object manipulation making or using tools are very close to each other in the left hemisphere of the brain.
It may be that there was an evolutionary connection between the language-using and tool-using abilities of humans and that both were involved in the development of the speaking brain. Most of the other speculative proposals concerning the origins of speech seem to be based on a picture of humans producing single noises to indicate objects in their environment.
This activity may indeed have been a crucial stage in the development of language, but what it lacks is any structural organization. All languages, including sign language, require the organiz- ing and combining of sounds or signs in specific arrangements. We seem to have developed a part of our brain that specializes in making these arrangements.
In terms of language structure, the human may have first developed a naming ability by producing a specific and consistent noise e. The crucial additional step was to bring another specific noise e. Several thousand years of development later, humans have honed this message-building capacity to a point where, on Saturdays, watching a football game, they can drink a sustaining beverage and proclaim This beer is good.
As far as we know, other primates are not doing this. The genetic source We can think of the human baby in its first few years as a living example of some of these physical changes taking place. In a relatively short period of time, the larynx descends, the brain develops, the child assumes an upright posture and starts walking and talking. Even children who are born deaf and do not develop speech become fluent sign language users, given appropriate circumstances, very early in life.
This seems to indicate that human offspring are born with a special capacity for language.
Is it possible that this language capacity is genetically hard-wired in the newborn human? As a solution to the puzzle of the origins of language, this innateness hypothesis would seem to point to something in human genetics, possibly a crucial mutation, as the source.
This would not have been a gradual change, but something that happened rather quickly. We are not sure when this proposed genetic change might have taken place or how it might relate to the physical adaptations described earlier. However, as we consider this hypothesis, we find our speculations about the origins of language moving away from fossil evidence or the physical source of basic human sounds toward analogies with how computers work e.
If we are indeed the only creatures with this special capacity for language, then will it be completely impossible for any other creature to produce or understand language? The origins of language 7 Study questions 1 Why is it difficult to agree with Psammetichus that Phrygian must have been the original human language? Chewing, licking and sucking are extremely widespread mammalian activities, which, in terms of casual observation, have obvious similarities with speech. MacNeilage, Tasks A What is the connection between the Heimlich maneuver and the development of human speech?
B What exactly happened at Babel and why is it used in explanations of language origins? C What are the arguments for and against a teleological explanation of the origins of human language? Can you find a simpler or less technical way to express this idea? This is substantially earlier than the dates between , and 50, years ago that other scholars have proposed. F What is the connection between the innateness hypothesis, as described in this chapter, and the idea of a Universal Grammar?
What kind of evidence do you think would be needed to resolve this question? For background reading, see chapter 4 of Aitchison, II A connection has been proposed between language, tool-using and right- handedness in the majority of humans. Is it possible that freedom to use the hands, after assuming an upright bipedal posture, resulted in certain skills that led to the development of language?
Why did we assume an upright posture? What kind of changes must have taken place in our hands? For background reading, see chapter 5 of Beaken, Further reading Basic treatments Aitchison, J. Gilland and R. Jespersen, O.
Human Language and Human Evolution W. Norton Gesture Corballis, M. Ingold eds. Get outa there! Hey you! Incredulous, I traced the source of the command to a large seal reclining vertically in the water, with his head extended back and up, his mouth slightly open, rotating slowly.
A seal was talking, not to me, but to the air, and incidentally to anyone within earshot who cared to listen. Deacon There are a lot of stories about creatures that can talk. We usually assume that they are fantasy or fiction or that they involve birds or animals simply imitating something they have heard humans say as Terrence Deacon discovered was the case with the loud seal in Boston Aquarium.
Yet we think that creatures are capable of communicating, certainly with other members of their own species. Is it possible that a creature could learn to communicate with humans using language? Or does human language have properties that make it so unique that it is quite unlike any other communication system and hence unlearnable by any other creature?
To answer these questions, we first look at some special properties of human language, then review a number of experiments in communication involving humans and animals. Animals and human language 11 Communication We should first distinguish between specifically communicative signals and those which may be unintentionally informative signals.
Someone listening to you may become informed about you through a number of signals that you have not intentionally sent. Similarly, the blackbird is not normally taken to be communicating anything by having black feathers, sitting on a branch and looking down at the ground, but is considered to be sending a communicative signal with the loud squawking produced when a cat appears on the scene.
So, when we talk about distinctions between human language and animal communication, we are considering both in terms of their potential as a means of intentional communication. Properties of human language While we tend to think of communication as the primary function of human language, it is not a distinguishing feature. All creatures communicate in some way. However, we suspect that other creatures are not reflecting on the way they create their communi- cative messages or reviewing how they work or not.
Humans are clearly able to reflect on language and its uses e. This is reflexivity. Displacement When your pet cat comes home and stands at your feet calling meow, you are likely to understand this message as relating to that immediate time and place.
Animal communication seems to be designed exclusively for this moment, here and now. It cannot effectively be used to relate events that are far removed in time and place. Humans can refer to past and future time. This property of human language is called displacement.
It allows language users to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment. Indeed, displacement allows us to talk about things and places e.
Animal communication is generally considered to lack this property. We could look at bee communication as a small exception because it seems to have some version of displacement. For example, when a honeybee finds a source of nectar and returns to the beehive, it can perform a complex dance routine to communicate to the other bees the location of this nectar.
Depending on the type of dance round dance for nearby and tail-wagging dance, with variable tempo, for further away and how far , the other bees can work out where this newly discovered feast can be found. Yes, but it is displacement of a very limited type. Certainly, the bee can direct other bees to a food source. However, it must be the most recent food source. It cannot be that delicious rose bush on the other side of town that we visited last weekend, nor can it be, as far as we know, possible future nectar in bee heaven.
The connection is quite arbitrary. This aspect of the relationship between linguistic signs and objects in the world is described as arbitrariness. However, this type of game only emphasizes the arbitrariness of the connection that normally exists between a word and its meaning.
Animals and human language 13 Figure 2. English examples are cuckoo, crash, slurp, squelch or whirr.
However, these onomatopoeic words are relatively rare in human language. For the majority of animal signals, there does appear to be a clear connection between the conveyed message and the signal used to convey it. This impression we have of the non-arbitrariness of animal signaling may be closely connected to the fact that, for any animal, the set of signals used in communication is finite. That is, each variety of animal communication consists of a fixed and limited set of vocal or gestural forms.
Many of these forms are only used in specific situations e. Productivity Humans are continually creating new expressions and novel utterances by manipulat- ing their linguistic resources to describe new objects and situations. The communication systems of other creatures are not like that. Cicadas have four signals to choose from and vervet monkeys have thirty-six vocal calls. Nor does it seem possible for creatures to produce new signals to communicate novel experiences or events.
Ten bees were taken to the top, given a taste of the delicious food, and sent off to tell the rest of the hive about their find. The message was conveyed via a bee dance and the whole gang buzzed off to get the free food.
The problem seems to be that bee communication has a fixed set of signals for communicating location and they all relate to horizontal distance. This limiting feature of animal communication is described in terms of fixed reference. Each signal in the system is fixed as relating to a particular object or occasion. These signals are fixed in terms of their reference and cannot be manipulated. Watch out for that flying snake!
Cultural transmission While we may inherit physical features such as brown eyes and dark hair from our parents, we do not inherit their language.
We acquire a language in a culture with other speakers and not from parental genes. An infant born to Korean parents in Korea, but adopted and brought up from birth by English speakers in the United States, will have physical characteristics inherited from his or her natural parents, but will inevitably speak English. A kitten, given comparable early experiences, will produce meow regardless. This process whereby a language is passed on from one generation to the next is described as cultural transmission.
It is clear that humans are born with some kind of predisposition to acquire language in a general sense. However, we are not born with the ability to produce utterances in a specific language such as English.
We acquire our first language as children in a culture. The general pattern in animal communication is that creatures are born with a set of specific signals that are produced instinctively. There is some evidence from studies of birds as they develop their songs that instinct has to combine with learning or exposure in order for the right song to be produced. If those birds spend their first seven weeks without hearing other birds, they will instinctively produce songs or calls, but those songs will be abnormal in some way.
Cultural transmission of a specific lan- guage is crucial in the human acquisition process. Animals and human language 15 Duality Human language is organized at two levels or layers simultaneously.
In speech production, we have a physical level at which we can produce individual sounds, like n, b and i. As individual sounds, none of these discrete forms has any intrinsic meaning. In a particular combination such as bin, we have another level producing a meaning that is different from the meaning of the combination in nib.
So, at one level, we have distinct sounds, and, at another level, we have distinct meanings. This duality of levels is, in fact, one of the most economical features of human language because, with a limited set of discrete sounds, we are capable of producing a very large number of sound combinations e.
Among other creatures, each communicative signal appears to be a single fixed form that cannot be broken down into separate parts. If the dog was operating with the double level i. Talking to animals If these properties of human language make it such a unique communication system, quite different from the communication systems of other creatures, then it would seem extremely unlikely that other creatures would be able to understand it.
Some humans, however, do not behave as if this is the case. There is, after all, a lot of spoken language directed by humans to animals, apparently under the impression that the animal follows what is being said. Riders can say Whoa to horses and they stop or so it seems , we can say Heel to dogs and they will follow at heel well, sometimes , and a variety of circus animals go Up, Down and Roll over in response to spoken commands.
Should we treat these examples as evidence that non-humans can understand human language? Probably not. If it seems difficult to conceive of animals understanding human language, then it appears to be even less likely that an animal would be capable of producing human language. After all, we do not generally observe animals of one species learning to produce the signals of another species.
And, in some homes, a new baby and a puppy may arrive at the same time. Baby and puppy grow up in the same environment, hearing mostly the same things, but about two years later, the baby is making lots of human speech sounds and the puppy is not.
But perhaps a puppy is a poor example. Chimpanzees and language The idea of raising a chimp and a child together may seem like a nightmare, but this is basically what was done in an early attempt to teach a chimpanzee to use human language.
In the s, two scientists Luella and Winthrop Kellogg reported on their experience of raising an infant chimpanzee together with their baby son. In the s, a chimpanzee named Viki was reared by another scientist couple Catherine and Keith Hayes in their own home, exactly as if she was a human child. Viki eventually managed to produce some words, rather poorly articulated versions of mama, papa and cup.
In retrospect, this was a remarkable achievement since it has become clear that non-human primates do not actually have a physically structured vocal tract which is suitable for articulating the sounds used in speech. Washoe Recognizing that a chimpanzee was a poor candidate for spoken language learning, another scientist couple Beatrix and Allen Gardner set out to teach a female chim- panzee called Washoe to use a version of American Sign Language. As described later in Chapter 15, this sign language has all the essential properties of human language and is learned by many congenitally deaf children as their natural first language.
From the beginning, the Gardners and their research assistants raised Washoe like a human child in a comfortable domestic environment. In a period of three and a half years, Washoe came to use signs for more than a hundred words, ranging from airplane, baby and banana through to window, woman and you.
Some of the forms appear to have been inventions by Washoe, as in her novel sign for bib and in the combination water bird referring to a swan , which would seem to indicate that her communication system had the potential for productivity. Washoe also demonstrated understanding of a much larger number of signs than she produced and was capable of holding rudimentary conversations, mainly in the form of question—answer sequences.
A similar ability with sign language was reported by Francine Patterson working with a gorilla named Koko not long after. Sarah and Lana At the same time as Washoe was learning sign language, another chimpanzee was being taught by Ann and David Premack to use a set of plastic shapes for the purpose of communicating with humans. The basic approach was quite different from that of the Gardners.
Sarah was systematically trained to associate these shapes with objects or actions. She remained an animal in a cage, being trained with food rewards to manipulate a set of symbols. Once she had learned to use a large number of these plastic shapes, Sarah was capable of getting an apple by selecting the correct plastic shape a blue triangle from a large array. Notice that this symbol is arbitrary since it would be hard to argue for any natural connection between an apple and a blue plastic triangle.
Sarah was also capable of producing Figure 2. Sarah got the chocolate. A similar training technique with another artificial language was used by Duane Rumbaugh to train a chimpanzee called Lana. The language she learned was called Yerkish and consisted of a set of symbols on a large keyboard linked to a computer. When Lana wanted some water, she had to press four symbols, in the correct sequence, to produce the message please machine give water.
Figure 2. There is, however, a lot of skepticism regarding these apparent linguistic skills. This is only one of the many arguments that have been presented against the idea that the use of signs and symbols by these chimpan- zees is similar to the use of language. They also emphasize a major difference between the experiences of Washoe and Nim. While Nim was kept in a windowless cell as a research animal and had to deal with a lot of different research assistants who were often not fluent in American Sign Language, Washoe lived in a domestic environment with a lot of opportunity for imaginative play and interaction with fluent signers who were also using sign language with each other.
They also report that another group of younger chimpanzees not only learned sign language, but also occasionally used signs with each other and with Washoe, even when there were no humans present. Kanzi In a more recent set of studies, an interesting development relevant to this controversy came about almost by accident. Although Matata did not do very well, her son Kanzi spontaneously started using the symbol system with great ease. He had learned not by being taught, but by being exposed to, and observing, a kind of language in use at a very early age.
Kanzi eventually developed a large symbol vocabulary over forms. By the age of eight, he was reported to be able, through the association of symbols with spoken words, to demonstrate understanding of spoken English at a level comparable to a two-and-a-half-year-old human child. He had also become capable of using his symbol system to ask to watch his favorite movies, Quest for Fire about primitive humans and Greystoke about the Tarzan legend.
Using language Important lessons have been learned from attempts to teach chimpanzees how to use forms of language. We have answered some questions. Were Washoe and Kanzi capable of taking part in interaction with humans by using a symbol system chosen by humans and not chimpanzees?
In a very broad sense, language does serve as a type of communication system that can be observed in a variety of different situations. In another situation, we observe very similar behavior from chimpanzees and bonobos when they are interacting with humans they know. It is in this more fundamental or abstract sense that we say that language is uniquely human.
In the following chapters, we will begin to look in detail at the many elements that make up this uniquely human phenomenon. Animals and human language 21 Study questions 1 Why is reflexivity considered to be a special property of human language? B We recognized a distinction early in the chapter between communicative and informative signals. D What was the significance of the name given to the chimpanzee in the research conducted by the psychologist Herbert Terrace?
E We reviewed studies involving chimpanzees and bonobos learning to communicate with humans. Can only African apes accomplish this task?
Are there any studies involving the Asian great ape, the orangutan, learning how to use a human communication system? F Consider these statements about the symbol-using abilities of chimpanzees in animal language studies and decide if they are correct or not.
What evidence can be used to argue for or against the accuracy of these statements? II The most persistent criticism of the chimpanzee language-learning projects is that the chimpanzees are simply making responses like trained animals for rewards and are consequently not using language to express anything.
Read over the following reports and try to decide how the different behaviors of these chimpanzees Dar, Washoe and Moja should be characterized. Signs are represented by words in capital letters.
I was hoping for Washoe to potty herself and did not comply. Greg was hooting and making other sounds, to prevent Dar from falling asleep. This went on. Finally I woofed and Moja leapt on me and hugged me. Moja stares longingly at Dairy Queen as we drive by. For background reading, see Rimpau et al.
Gardner and T. Wang ed. The Emergence of Language 16—27 W. Freeman Lana Rumbaugh, D. Lewin Kanzi: Archibald, M. Aronoff and J. Gardner and B. Gardner, B. Others may stumble but not you On hiccough, thorough, lough and through.
Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard, a dreadful word, That looks like beard and sounds like bird. And dead: Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.
You see the sign and you decide to ask what kind of new thing this is. When you hear the pronunciation, you recognize the word usually written as chef.
How did he arrive at that other spelling? Take the first sound of the word sure, the middle sound of the word dead, and the final sound of the word laugh. If we cannot use the letters of the alphabet in a consistent way to represent the sounds we make, how do we go about describing the sounds of a language like English? One solution is to produce a separate alphabet with symbols that represent sounds. Such a set of symbols does exist and is called the phonetic alphabet.
In this chapter, we will look at how these symbols are used to represent both the consonant and vowel sounds of English words and what physical aspects of the human vocal tract are involved in the produc- tion of those sounds.
Phonetics The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds is called phonetics. Our main interest will be in articulatory phonetics, which is the study of how speech sounds are made, or articulated.
Other areas of study are acoustic phonetics, which deals with the physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air, and auditory phonetics or perceptual phonetics which deals with the perception, via the ear, of speech sounds. Voiced and voiceless sounds In articulatory phonetics, we investigate how speech sounds are produced using the fairly complex oral equipment we have.
We start with the air pushed out by the lungs up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx. Inside the larynx are your vocal folds or vocal cords , which take two basic positions. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiceless. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiced. Because these are voiced sounds, you should be able to feel some vibration.
Because these are voiceless sounds, there should be no vibration. Z-Z-Z-Z to hear and feel some vibration, whereas no vibration will be heard or felt if you make voiceless sounds e. S-S-S-S in the same way. Most consonant sounds are produced by using the tongue and other parts of the mouth to constrict, in some way, the shape of the oral cavity through which the air is passing.
The terms used to describe many sounds are those which denote the place of articulation of the sound: What we need is a slice of head. If you crack a head right down the middle, you will be able to see which parts of the oral cavity are crucially involved in speech production. To describe the place of articulation of most consonant sounds, we can start at the front of the mouth and work back. We can also keep the voiced—voiceless distinction in mind and begin using the symbols of the phonetic alphabet for specific sounds.
These symbols will be enclosed within square brackets [ ]. The initial sounds in the words pat, bat and mat are all bilabials. They are represented by the symbols [p], which is voiceless, and [b] and [m], which are voiced. We can also describe the [w] sound found at the beginning of way, walk and world as a bilabial. Labiodentals These are sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip. The initial sounds of the words fat and vat and the final sounds in the words safe and save are labiodentals.
They are represented by the symbols [f], which is voiceless, and [v], which is voiced. Notice that the final sound in the word cough, and the initial sound in photo, despite the spelling differences, are both pronounced as [f]. Dentals These sounds are formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth. The initial sound of thin and the final sound of bath are both voiceless dentals. It is also the middle consonant sound in feather and the final sound of bathe.
Alveolars These are sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge, which is the rough, bony ridge immediately behind and above the upper teeth. The initial sounds in top, dip, sit, zoo and nut are all alveolars.
The symbols for these sounds are easy to remember — [t], [d], [s], [z], [n]. Of these, [t] and [s] are voiceless whereas [d], [z] and [n] are voiced. It may be clear that the final sounds of the words bus and buzz have to be [s] and [z] respectively, but what about the final sound of the word raise?
Notice also that despite the different spelling of knot and not, both of these words are pronounced with [n] as the initial sound. Other alveolars are the [l] sound found at the beginning of words such as lap and lit, and the [r] sound at the beginning of right and write.
Palatals If you feel back behind the alveolar ridge, you should find a hard part in the roof of your mouth. This is called the hard palate or just the palate. Sounds produced with the tongue and the palate are called palatals or alveo-palatals. Examples of palatals are the initial sounds in the words shout and child, which are both voiceless. One other voiced palatal is the [j] sound used at the beginning of words like you and yet.
Velars Even further back in the roof of the mouth, beyond the hard palate, you will find a soft area, which is called the soft palate, or the velum. Sounds produced with the back of the tongue against the velum are called velars. There is a voiceless velar sound, represented by the symbol [k], which occurs not only in kid and kill, but is also the initial sound in car and cold.
Despite the variety in spelling, this [k] sound is both the initial and final sound in the words cook, kick and coke. This is also the final sound in words like bag, mug and, despite the spelling, plague. It occurs twice in the form ringing.
It is the sound [h] which occurs at the beginning of have and house and, for most speakers, as the first sound in who and whose. This sound is usually described as a voiceless glottal. When the glottis is open, as in the production of other voiceless sounds, and there is no manipu- lation of the air passing out of the mouth, the sound produced is that represented by [h].
Charting consonant sounds Having described in some detail the place of articulation of English consonant sounds, we can summarize the basic information in the accompanying chart. Also included in this chart, on the left-hand side, is a set of terms used to describe manner of articulation which we will discuss in the following section. It contains the majority of consonant sounds used in the basic description of English pronunciation.
There are, however, several differences between this basic set of symbols and the much more comprehensive chart produced by the International Phonetic Association IPA. The most obvious difference is in the range of sounds covered.
We would go to an IPA chart for a description of the sounds of all languages. Uvular sounds also occur in many native languages of North and South America. Other non- English sounds such as pharyngeals produced in the pharynx occur in languages such as Arabic. There are many other consonant sounds in the languages of the world. There can be a lot of variation among speakers in the pronunciation of the initial sound in raw and red, the medial sound in very, and the final sound in hour and air.
Different symbols e. Finally, in some phonetic descriptions, there are different symbols for a few of the sounds represented here. For a fuller discussion of the use of these symbols, see Ladefoged Manner of articulation So far, we have concentrated on describing consonant sounds in terms of where they are articulated.
We can also describe the same sounds in terms of how they are articulated. Such a description is necessary if we want to be able to differentiate between some sounds which, in the preceding discussion, we have placed in the same category. For example, we can say that [t] and [s] are both voiceless alveolar sounds.
How do they differ? They differ in their manner of articulation, that is, in the way they are pronounced. The [t] sound is one of a set of sounds called stops and the [s] sound is one of a set called fricatives. A full description of the [t] sound at the beginning of a word like ten is as a voiceless alveolar stop. In some discussions, only the manner of articulation is mentioned, as when it is said that the word bed, for example, begins and ends with voiced stops.
As the air is pushed through, a type of friction is produced and the resulting sounds are called fricatives. If you put your open hand in front of your mouth when making these sounds, [f] and [s] in particular, you should be able to feel the stream of air being pushed out.
The sound [h], as in Hi or Hello, is voiceless and also usually included in the set of fricatives. These are called affricates and occur at the beginning of the words cheap and jeep. Nasals Most sounds are produced orally, with the velum raised, preventing airflow from entering the nasal cavity. These three sounds are all voiced. The words morning, knitting and name begin and end with nasals.
Liquids The initial sounds in led and red are described as liquids. They are both voiced. The [l] sound is called a lateral liquid and is formed by letting the air stream flow around the sides of the tongue as the tip of the tongue makes contact with the middle of the alveolar ridge. The [r] sound at the beginning of red is formed with the tongue tip raised and curled back near the alveolar ridge. Glides The sounds [w] and [j] are described as glides.
They are both voiced and occur at the beginning of we, wet, you and yes. Try saying the expression Oh oh!. Between the first Oh and the second oh, we typically produce a glottal stop.
This sound is considered to be characteristic of Cockney London speech. This sound is produced by the tongue tip tapping the alveolar ridge briefly. Nor do writer and rider, metal and medal. They all have flaps. The student who was told about the importance of Plato in class and wrote it in his notes as play- dough was clearly a victim of a misinterpreted flap. This rather lengthy list of the phonetic features of English consonant sounds is not presented as a challenge to your ability to memorize a lot of terminology and symbols.
Every effort has been made to secure necessary permissions to reproduce copyright material in this work. Cambridge CB2 8BS. Language and languages.
Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements. If any omissions are brought to our notice. Fifth Edition George Yule Frontmatter More information Contents vii l9 Semantics l 11 Discourse analysis Meaning Discourse Semantic features Interpreting discourse Words as containers of Cohesion meaning Coherence Semantic roles Speech events Agent and theme Conversation analysis Instrument and Turn-taking experiencer The co-operative principle Location.
Additional topics explored in the study of the English language include adjective order. New examples from languages as diverse as German.
Spanish and Tamasheq provide an opportunity to explore further aspects of languages other than English. To the student In The Study of Language. I have made a number of revisions in the internal organization of all the chapters. The majority of these are data-based and designed to foster problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. I hope these revisions will make the book more informative. Fifth Edition George Yule Frontmatter More information Preface In this new edition For all their advice and suggestions for improvements to the fifth edition of this book.
Additional section headings have been included to make the material more accessible and a number of extra examples from everyday language use are offered to make some of the points clearer. In addition. American and British differences.
There are also more substantial revisions in Chapters 3 Phonetics. I have tried to present a comprehensive survey of what is known about language and also of the methods used by linguists in arriving at that knowledge. By the end of the book. There have been many interesting developments in the study of language over the past two decades. Fifth Edition George Yule Frontmatter More information xii Preface about both the internal structure of language its form and the varied uses of language in human life its function.
Anthony Fox University of Leeds. This section contains: I am particularly indebted to Professor Hugh Buckingham. Royal Skousen Brigham Young University.
Terrie Mathis California State University. Louisiana State University. For feedback and advice in the preparation of recent editions of the book. An early version of the written material was developed for Independent Study students at the University of Minnesota. For my own introductory course. Daniel Hieber Rosetta Stone. Joanne Scheibman Old Dominion University.
I would like to thank Jean Aitchison University of Oxford. South Bend. The 5th edition including downloadable ebook should be available in November. Hi Vicky, Thanks for your message. The 6th edition of this book is now out and available on Amazon https: Name required. Mail will not be published required. You can use these HTML tags. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Discuss on our WP Forum.
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