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Study of lichens. Some of them are sensitive to cooler temperatures and are called cold receptors, while the others are sensitive to warmer temperatures and are called warm receptors. The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy. Capsule protects the bacteria from W. The nucleus of prokaryotes is also known as incipient nucleus, genophore, nucleiod or fibrillar nucleus. The structure of cell wall in prokaryotes is complicated and this is the primitive characster.
Quick revision before exam is essential to update your memory. So we created Physics Brain Map of Chapter in Download Allen Biology modules in pdf for free in high quality. All are busy scheduling for their upcoming PMT exams, lot of This book is very useful when Your email address will not be published.
My Account. Toggle navigation. Go to the shop. Admin , May 24, July 25, , Downloads , 2. Share this. Related Articles. Physics Brain Map: Shubham 4 years ago. Green plants and bacteria take in solar energy to produce their own chemical energy food.
Energy is often Transferred with Electrons — All atoms possess energy. It takes work to keep the electrons in the orbital of an atom. Virtually, all the energy for living organism comes as radiation in the form of photons from the and is captured by electrons.
During chemical reactions electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The loss of an electron is called oxidation, whereas the gain of an electron is regarded as reduction. Oxidation- reduction redox reactions play a key role in the flow of energy through biological systems.
What is Enthalpy and Free Energy? Activation Energy: Spontaneous Reactions: Exergonic Reactions: Endergonic Reaction: How Energy Flows: First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy keeps changing from to another form. Radiant energy into chemical energy in photosynthesis. Chemical energy of cell is transformed into various forms of energy. Second Law of Thermodynamics or Law of Entropy: Entropy means disorder or randomness.
Energy keeps flowing from higher to lower energy areas, the loss of energy occurs in these energy changing reactions. This loss of energy is always dispersed into unailable heat energy. This loss energy increase entropy in a system.
Free energy from sun minimizes entropy. All living things need a continuous input of energy so as to maintain order. This is taken from sun either directly like green plants or indirectly from food. Energy transfer or energy transformation All matter living or non living contains energy.
Energy is the capacity to do work. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. This is the first law of thermodynamics. Whenever work is done energy is either transformed or transferred. Such change in energy occur continuously in a living cell. When continuous loss of energy takes place then entropy increases i. Therefore in case of high entropy or in conditions of high energy loss, the cell is provided with an extra source of free energy.
And the loss of energy is maintained. The free energy decreases the entropy i. There are many sources of free energy — for e. Organisms are Open systems If energy can never be destroyed First law of Thermodynamics then what prevents the recycling of energy?
Answer to this question can be found in the Second law of Thermodynamics. The rest of the universe remains outside the system and is considered as surroundings. In an open system, such as living cells, matter and energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings.
For instance, a warm liquid is placed in a thermos flask or a bottle and the lids are tightened.
The thermos flask more or less represents a closed system. There is no question of exchange of matter between the internal environment of the thermos flask and its surroundings.
So far as energy is concerned, the liquid remains warm for considerable period of time, dependignupon the efficiency of the thermos flask. During this period, the heat energy of the liquid is not released outside and it moves inside. This keeps the liquid warm. Hence thermos flask represents an example of closed system.
The system which has a continuous inflow of energy direct of indirect is called an open system. A living organium must have constant access to free energy or also its organisation will collapse over time, leading to death. When the rate of input of matter and energy equals to the rate of output of matter and energy it is called steady system.
For e. Without these, the organism can not maintain itself. There must also be an output of CO2, nitrogenous waste and heat which are products of chemical reactions, and which would be harmful to the organism if they are allowed to accumulate.
For this, many organisms have regulatory mechanisms, which co-ordinate their functions, such as providing the cells with nutrients, transporting substances through the body.
Others simply adjust to the environment by adopting the temperature, salinity and other physical aspects of their surroundings. Example of Homeostasis: Within a few seconds you are able to adjust your sight to the dim light and move about. Bu t when we run, the rate of heart beat increases.
This is because of the need for increased and faster blood supply to the tissues which have done extra work. But after sometime the normal rate of heart beat is restored. It leads to increased sweating. As the sweat evaporates the body cools and the body temperature lowers down. Due to this glucose level in blood falls. This is done by ADH Secreted by pituitary gland. This hormone increases the permeability of the wall of DCT and collecting duct. While in case of excess water ADH is not secreted and dilute urine is passed out.
The vast majority of vertebrates fishes, amphibians, reptiles and plants lose most of their thermal energy to their environment. Such animals are called ectothermic.
These organisms often depend on their environment for temperature regulation. Their skin may appear as either cold or warm, depending on the environment from which they have been taken for examination. If any one of them is picked up from a hibernaculum or caught beside a cold body of water, it is likely that the skin will be cold.
This is the reason for calling them as poikilothermous. Alternatively, if an animal is examined during warm afternoon while it was basking in the sun, its skin will appear warm. Actually, these animals save energy for utilizing it in other functions like reproduction.
They have developed insulating devices, such as fat, hair, feathers, etc. They are endothermic. Their body temperature remains relatively constant, which is usually higher then that of the environment.
For this reason they are called homeothermous. To maintain the body temperature, which is 37 0 C This can be compared with the functioning of the thermostat of a room air-conditioner machine. Usually , the temperature of the thermostat is set at 21 0 C F. If the temperature of the room rises sufficiently above the set point, a sensor present within the thermostat detects the change and activates the effector of the machine. The air-conditioner then reverses the deviation from the set point of the thermostat.
Finally, the room temperature is controlled at the set point of the thermostat. They are sensitive to the changes in temperature outside our bodies. They are termed as thermoreceptors. Some of them are sensitive to cooler temperatures and are called cold receptors, while the others are sensitive to warmer temperatures and are called warm receptors. The former set is stimulated by fall in temperature and the rise in temperature.
Conversely, warming inhibits cold receptors and cooling inhibits warm receptors. The warm receptors are located immediately below the epidermis skin , while the cold receptors are located slightly deeper in the dermis. We have thermoreceptors also within the hypothalamus of our brain.
The hypothalamus now responds by activating the effector, that is, the sweat glands and the blood vessels of the skin. As a result, release of sweat and dilation of the blood vessels are initiated, which cause cooling and diffusion of body temperature.
In other words, the set point is defended by the hypothalamus. Since the regulation of temperature is by cooling the body, in this case, it is in the negative side or reverse direction. This type of control system is called negative feedback loop. Biochemical Pathways are Tightly Regulated: Enzyme activity is sensitive to the presence of specific substances that bind to the enzymes.
A substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity is called an inhibitor, if it increases the activity of an enzyme it becomes an activator.
In the metabolic pathways, the product of one reaction may serve as the substarate for the next reaction. When necessary, the final end product of one pathway may become the allosteric inhibitor for the action of the first enzyme of that pathway. This method of regulating mechanism is called feedback mechanism. Thus the regulation of simple biochemical pathways often depends on the feedback mechanism.
Types of Adaptations: Long term Adaptations: Short term adaptations: They are temporary changes that are produced in response to specific conditions and are meant for adjustment to unfavourable conditions.
It helps in protecting the underlying tissue from ultra violet rays of the sun. In favourable conditions dormancy is broken and the seeds germinate. It keeps its metabolic rate very low. It survives on stored fats. This reagent was developed by Schiff. In ancient India which of the following is regarded as God of Medicine?
Who was the first physician in ancient India who developed the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity? Which of the following is regarded as Father of surgery?
Which of the following is honoured as Father of anatomy? A plant classified as dicot but without visible cotyledon is: Science dealing with nose and olfactory organs is 1 Rhinology 2 Radiology 3 Dermatology 4 Kinesiology 7.
The physical sufferings are often caused by bad deeds in the previous birth. It may be called: Herpetology is study of: Lightest wood is: Morgan B. Discovered that genes are made up of D. Avery C. Introduced the term genetics iv Hugo de Vries D.
Match the names of branches of science listed under Column I with the fields of study given under Column II. Choose the correct combination of alphabets: Mycology P. Study of bird B. Ornithology Q. Study of worms C. Herpetology R. Study of fishes D. Ichthyology S. Study of fungi T. Study of nuclcytology is: Chemotherapeutic value of penicillin was given by 1 A. The correct match is: Andreas Vesalius P.
Micrographia B. Leeuwenhoek Q. De Humani Corporis Fabrica C. Harvey R. Species plantarum D. Linnaeus S.
Philosophic Zoologique E. Robert Hooke T. Anatomical Exercise on the motion of the F. Scientist associated with Indian Palaeobotany is: Maheswari 2 Birbal Sahni 3 M. Iyengar 4 Swaminathan Circulation of blood was discovered by: Rearing of bees is: Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is: Mexican dwart varieties of wheat were developed by: Genetic engineering is connected with: Utilisation of living organisms for human welfare is: Metamorphosis is studied under: Study of human population growth comes under [Kerla] 1 Anthropology 2 Sociology 3 Demography 4 Geography Scientific enquiry about life in outer space is: In , a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic.
Scientist and antibiotics are: Choose the correct pair: Match the columns [Karnataka] Column I Column II a Palynology p Silkworms b Oncolohy q Pollen grain c Phycology r Cancer d Sericulture s Algae 1 a — s, b — r, c — q, d — p 2 a — q, b — r, c — s, d — p 3 a —s, b — q, c — r, d — p 4 a — r, b — q, c — s, d — p Prevention of deterioration of human race through reducing birth rate among defective individuals is [TNPCEE] 1 Positive euthenics 2 Negative euthenics 3 Negative euthenics 4 Positive euthenics Which one of the following sequence is correct: Match the columns and pick up the correct combination: Study of ants in: Branch of botany connected with food, fibre and wood yielding plants is: Acarology is study of: For solving a scientific problem which is not correct 1 Suaruta 2 Charaka 3 Dhanvantari 4 Atreya Science of engineering and technology which is applied to life sciences is: Match the column I and II and choose the correct answer: All living beings show: Bending of a shoot towards light is: Physical basis of life is: Fuelgen test is specific for: Which type of organisation is found in only living beings: Organisation formed by individuals of a species is: Number of chemicals found in living cell is: Which one is a micromolecule: Salt concentration of blood is: Glucose concentration of blood for normal body function is: Energy currency of a cell is: This is due to: During nerve conduction, electric energy is produced.
What is the source of this energy: What type of energy is needed to make up the loss of energy in a living system: Use of tail as fifth limb by Kangaroo is an example of- 1 Short term adaptation 2 Homeostasis 3 Long term adaptation 4 Energy transformation Long term adaptation is: Which organ remains functional for a few hours even after clinical death: Sweating is meant for: Ultimate source of energy is: Pox virus contains ………….
ACTH consists ……….. Hemocyanin of snail consists of ……….. An example of short term adaptation is — a Accumulation of melanin in the skin b The use of stored fat in animals undergoing hibernation. The species which grow on exposed rocks is: The largest macromolecule is: Pauling 4 None of these What is the energy required in calories for formation of energy rich bond between phosphorous and ADP molecule in DNA: Homeostasis refers to: Dodo flightless bird recently got extinct from: The simplest amino acid is: Steroid is: Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high: Homeostasis is: Cholesterol is: Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is: Total heat content of a system is: A person exposed to cold environment does not show: Which is correct about energy changes in living cells [A.
Animals not possessing a fixed temperature are called: Which one is incorrect: The study of the energy transfer and relationships between all living organisms is known as: On which day we celebrate malarial day? Hooker 5.
Which of the following is connecting link between reptiles and birds? Which organism was used by Beadle and Tatum to proposed one gene-one enzyme hypothesis? Pangenesis hypothesis was proposed by: This word was produced by A. Morphological characters of Root, Ste, Leaves, Flowers 3 This description is used to know inter relationship among plants or living organisms.
New systematics or Neo systematics or Biosystematics: Anatomical characters Cytological characters 3 It is used to know the inter relationship among living organism. New systematics is mainly based on evolutionary as well as genetic relationship experimental taxonomy as compared to morphological characters. Some Informations: Polynomial system: According to this system name of any plant consists of many words. For eg. Caryophyllum-Caryophyllum sexatilis folis gramineus unbellatis corymbis Binomial system: Linnaeus used this nomenclature system for the first time on large scale and proposed scientific name of all the plants and animals.
It was published on 1 May So this was the initiation of binomial system for plants. So any name proposed for plants before this date is not accepted today. So initiation of binomial system for animals is believed to be started on 1 Aug Principle of Priority: The nomenclature is done by principle of priority. If two names re proposed for any plant after the , the valid name is the earlier name proposed just after 1 May, Naja naja Indian cobra , Rattus rattus Rat 3 Length of generic name or specific name should not be less than 3 letters and not more than 12 letters.
Mangifera indica Exception - Riccia pathankotensis- More than 12 letters. According to ICBN this name is not valid but his name was proposed before , so it is valid. ICBN 4 First letter of generic name should be in capital letter and first letter of specific name should be in small letter. Mangifera indica But if specific name is based on the name of some person, its first letter should be in capital letter.
Isoetes Pntti 5 When written with free hand or typed, then generic name sand specific name should be separately underlined. But during name shold be italized. Mangifera indica Lin. Tsuga candensis Lin.
Salisbury Note: Linnaeus names this plane as Pinus Canadensis 9 Scientific names should be derived from Latin or Greek languages because they are dead languages. Type specimen Herbarium sheet are of different type Holotype - Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based. Lectotype - In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype. Neotype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost, then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant o same species is called neotype.
Syntype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plant of same species is called syntype. Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype. Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype.
It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species — eg.
Brassica oleracea var. The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification. The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group.
For example: It has only one application: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i.
Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance. In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered.
In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group. In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i. Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg.
Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia. He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria. In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc. Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification.
Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i. In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters.
They have many dissimilarities. In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution. Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification.
In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities. In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance. While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters.
Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc. They are not regularly used. They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy.
In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters. Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology.
Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves. Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i.
But these three can not interbreed among themselves. Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. B Static concept of species: The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future. But lamarck rejected this hypothesis. C Dynamic concept of species: Changes always occur in the characters of species from one generation to next generation. D Typological concept: Typological concept is based on single individual of species The species in which a fixed pattern of characters is present are called as monotypic species.
Bacteria, BGA 3 In many species more than one type or pattern of characters are present. Variations found in these members are permanent. These members can not interbreed among them selves. Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol are three biotypes of one species.
Variations are permanent. These members can interbreed among them selves but due to geographical barrier they can not interbreed. Every living being Note: Those taxonomic species whose determination is bases on morphology.
They are called as linneon species. They are also called morpho-species or taxonomic species. Those species in which variations are very less. They reproduce asexually so they have very less variations.
Members of species which are morphologically similar but reproductively isolated are known as sibling species i. Sibling species is one taxonomic species because these members have similar morpholoty but they are different biological species. Brassica oleracea 4 Allopatric species: Those species that are found in different geographical regions and have geographical barriors between them are known as allopratic species. Geographical barriors like hills, oceans, Himalayan mountains 5 Sympatric species: The species found in similar geographical regions.
The species found in different time periods. Man and Dinosaurs 7 Synchronic species: Those species hat are found in same era eg. Dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx 8 Palaeo species: Those species that are extinct now and are found in the form of fossils. Dinosaurs 9 Neontological species: Those species which are living presently. It is based on external morphology, origin and evolution of plants.
B Beta taxonomy or Explorative taxonomy: Besides external morphology, it also includes internal characters like embryological, cytological, anatomical characters etc. C Omega taxonomy or Encyclopaedic taxonomy: Omega taxonomy has widest scope. It is based on all the informations or data available about plants. D Cytotaxonomy: The use of cytological characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called ctotaxonomy.
Cytological characters constitute an important aid to plant taxonomy, especially in determining affinities at the generic and infrageneric levels. E Chemotaxonomy: The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy.
It is based on the chemical constitution of plants. The fragrance and taste vary from species to species. The basis chemical compounds used in chemotaxonomy are alkaloids, carotenoids, tannis, polysaccharide, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, aromatic compounds etc. F Karyotaxonomy: Based on characters of nucleus and chromosomes. Pattern of chromosomal bands dark bands and light bands is most specific characters.
A Time - - B. B He is known as father of ancient plant taxonomy and father of botany. D Theopharastus wrote many books on plants. Few of them are as follows a Historia plantarum B Causes of plants C Enquiry into plants E Theophratus gave names and descriptions of plants in his book Historia plntarum. F Theophrastus proposes the first classification of plant kingdom. He classified plant kingdom in to four groups on the basis of growth habit - a Trees b Shrubs c Under shrubs d Herbs G It is artificial classification.
H He proposed the term Annual, Biennial and Perennials. He was the Swedish scientist C He is known as father of taxonomy, father of plant taxonomy and father of animal taxonomy. D Linnaeus gave the two kingdom system classification. E Linnaeus wrote many books. Some important books are: In this book he gives the detailed description of animals kingdom. De Candolle: On this basis of vascular tissue the classified plants into two groups a Cellular plants Non vascular plants - this group includes Thallophyta and Bryophyta b Vascular plants - This group includes Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms.
B Scientists working in botanical garden are known as curapor. In this boom Bentham and Hooker gave the biggest and natural classification of spermatophyta i. In it, basically the description of plant with seeds is present. Merits of Bentham and Hooker classification. This was very appreciable because floral characters are more stable than vegetative root, stem, leaves characters.
Therefore the arrangement of all plants in the botanical gardens and herbarium of the world is based on it Although it is not the best classification but yet the arrangement of plants in botanical gardens and herbarius is based on it, because it is the simpler one.
The main reason for its simplicity is that this classification is based on actual observation. Demerits of Bentham and Hooker: The sequence of evolution is as follows: Sub-kingdom Cryptogamia Phanerogamia Plant without flower Plant with flower life stru. Male gametes reach the female Two groups are include in this division gametes through pollen tube. A Proposed the biggest phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom.
B This classification is the complete classification of plant kingdom. C This is the most acceptable classification for books and study. Tipoo does not use the word pteridophyta 9 Karl Menz: A he show the importance of secrelogy in taxonomy. B Similarities and dissimilarities in stru.
Living organisms which are phylogenetically close relatives have more similarities in their proteins. Organisms which are distantly related have different proteins. Phylogenetic relationship of plants and animals can be established by animal serum. Serology indicates that chimpanzee is closest relative of man. A Haeckel gave the three kingdom Protista, Planae, Animalia system of classification. B Haeckel established the kingdom Protista.
D Haeckel grouped those living organisms in Protista which did not have tissues. He gave the Four kingdom system of classification. All the prokaryote are grouped in Monera ii Protista or prototista: Copleland grouped those eukaryotes in protista, which are visually different that normal plants and animals.
Brown algaem Red algae, Fungi Protozoa iii Plantae or metaphyta: Remaining all eukaryotic plants are grouped. Remaining all eukaryotic animals re grouped. Whittaker A He gave the Five kingdom system of classification. B This classification was believed to be modern The five kingdom classification of Whittaker was based on 3 main characters a Complexity of cell: Cell is prokaryote or Eukaryote, on this basis, kingdom Monera is formed. And all the proykaryotes are grouped in to it.
Organism in unicellular or multicellular, on this basis kingdom Protista was formed and all the unicellular eukaryotes are grouped into it.
Organism in autotrophic or heterotrophic, on this basis kingdom Myctota. Planatae and Animalaia was formed. Except fungi heterotrophic all the plants are autotrophs. Therefore fungi is separated from plants and placed in kingdom mycota. And remaining all the autotrophic plants are placed in kingdom - Plantae. Since all the animals are heterotrophs, therefore they are placed in fifth kingdom i.
True fungi 4. Van Neil: Divided the living organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Main characteristic of prokaryotes: Cell wall of prokaryotes is made up of peptidoglycan or murein which is a type of mucopeptide. The structure of peptidoglycan has two parts A Polysaccharides: They are made up of glucose, mannose, galacotse and amino sugar units.
Following amino acids are present in the cell wall of prokaryotes: Muramic acid - This acid is found in eubacteria and BGA 3. The structure of cell wall in prokaryotes is complicated and this is the primitive characster. Generally the cell wall of prokaryotes is not made up of cellulose but exceptionally there are some prokaryotes in which cell wall made up cellulose, which are as follows - eg. Acetobacer acetogenum Acetobacter Xylenum Zymosarcina Prokayotes which are intra cellular lack cell wall e.
Mycoplasma 2 Cell membrane: This space, is analogus to lysomome because in this space the digestion of complex substance is done. A The cytoplasm of prokaryotes lacks membrane bound cell organelles. B In Prokaryotic cell, the nucleus is indistinct. The nucleus of prokaryotes is also known as incipient nucleus, genophore, nucleiod or fibrillar nucleus. Nuclear membrane is absent around nucleus. It also lacks nucleolus.
Prokaryotes also lack the true chromosome. Non histone proteins are polyamines. This false chromosome coils and forms the chromosomal region, which is known as nucleoid. C Is prokaryotes ribosomes are of 70s type. There is no particular structure like cilia, flagella for locomotion. Flagella are present in many prokaryotes for swimming. Eubacteria B Non motile prokaryotes - eg. He discovered the antiseptic nature of carbolic acid. Lister first of all cultured bacteria artificially. Pasteurisation technique - it is a process which means heating of drinks.
On the basis of their shape bacteria are of different types. Coccus Pl. These are following types A. Monocossus - These spherical bacteria live alone single sphere e.
Micrococcus, Dialister pneumosintes B. Diplococcus - These are found in pair. Diplococcus pneumniae, Neisseria C. Tetra occurs - These are found in group of four cocci. Micrococcus luteus D. Streptococcus - These are found in form of chain e.
Streptococcus lactis E. Sarcinae - 8 to 64 or ore bacteria are found in cubical mass form e. Sarcina F. Staphylococcus - These bacteria are found in a irregular bunch e. Staphylococcus alvus 2. Bacillus Pl. Bacilli - Sing. Single Bacillus - Only one rod -like structure or bacterium. Diplobacillus - They are found in pairs e. Diplobacillus C. Streptobacillus - They are found in a chain e.
Bacillus anthracis Bacillus subtilis -It is surrounded by mucilagenous sheath that is known as zooglea. It is also known as hay bacteria. Palisade bacillus - These roed shaped bacteria are found in form of stacks e. Corynebacterium diphtheriae 3. Spirillum Pl.
Spirilli - Sing. Spirillum volutans, Spirochete, Helibacter, Treponema 4. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio comma 5. Caulobacter 6. Rhodomicrobium 7. Rhizobium Rhizobium bacterium is found in three forms X,T and Z Bacteria are motile as well as non motile. Movement in bacteria takes place by means of flagella. On the basis of flagella bacteria are of following types 1. Atrichous - When flagella are absent, it is called atrocious form e.
Micrococcus, Pasteurella 2. Monotrichous - When only one flagellum on one end of the bacterium e. Vibrio, Thiobacillu, Pseudomonas 3. Lophotrichous - When a bunch of flagellum is present on one end of bacterium. Salmonella 4. Amphitrichous - When bunch of flagellum or single flagellum are present on both the ends of bacterium. Spirillu, Nitrosomonas 5.
Peritichous - When flagella are found on the whole body of bacterium e. Salmonella typhi A flagellum of bacteria is made up of three parts. Basal body - A. It is the basal part of flagellum and rod shaped in structure.
It lies with in the cell wall and cell membrane C. This proteinaceous rod shaped structure is surrounded by two pairs of rings i Outer pair ii Inner pair D. Outer pair of ring lies with in the cell wall. One ring of this pair is called L and the another called P. Inner pair of ring lies with in the cell membrane. One ring of this pair is called S and the another is M.
Hook - A. In connects the basal body to filament B. It is the middle part of glagellum C. Filament - A. It is cylindrical hollow structure made up of protein monomers. Each omonomers is made up of flagellin protein. Flagellin is a contractile protein like the tubulin of eucaryotes.
All monomers are joined with each other and so that in bacteria flagella in monofibrilla. Pili - 1. Bacterial cell wall is covered by numerous hair like structures called pili.