Instead, wrote Nietzsche, the language of traditional morality is find links to almost all of the philosopher's major works, in Kindle, PDF, HTML. smith () 10/27/04 PM Page 37 Nietzsche's Hinduism, ou Cartas biblicas contra los livros de Luis Jacolliot, translated from Spanish into. Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate . Cinco Prefácios Para Cinco Livros não Escritos - Friedrich caite.info Uploaded by.
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Grasset, , Nietzsche too ignores this; he ignores the Bhagavad Gita entirely,75 he ignores Sanskrit literature, for he makes his own way. Renan, Avenir, 59, twice , I owe to these last weeks a very important lesson: He was, however, writ- ing long after the theophany of the Bhagavad Gita, where Krishna shows Arjuna his true form modeled on Siva , swallowing up the whole universe into his gap- ing mouth. Hackett, , —
It is difficult to remember today how fresh and exciting Sanskrit texts were in nineteenth-century Europe. To take only major figures in contemporary French writing, the following instances may be noted. Renan, like Nietzsche, a philologist by training—though he never abandoned philology—refers to Manu: For those who had eyes to see, who did not refuse to see India, Manu was everywhere.
Jacolliot was even less authentic than she supposed and at the same time was far more prominent. His publications were numerous, including many books of travel writing and several novels. No less than ten of his travel books describe his experiences in India and Sri Lanka and several went into multiple editions.
He was eagerly read by occultists—as the New Age enthusiasts of the day were called—and also by the general public. He might be characterized today as a combination of Dalrymple and Van Daniken, with an added element of sexual titillation. Performances by dancing girls and hints of sexual encounters are a constant backdrop to the travel books.
There must be some truth underlying the accounts of his experiences, but ten books about the very limited period of his stay in the region, with at least some of his time taken up by official duties as magistrate, must mean that a considerable part was played by imagination. The novel is set in —58, after the British had brutally put down what they called the Mutiny.
The Hunter loses self-control for a moment, such is the expenditure of magnetic fluid that he has made to control the other man. It is not rare in India to see fakirs gradually exalt themselves to madness when they struggle against a subject with a fluidic force superior to their own.
Mysterious powers feature in one of the two other books of Jacolliot referred to by Etter, Le Spiritisme dans le Monde. In the first, larger part, he gives an account of life-stages and of various types of yogi and renouncer, with passing references to an earlier technologically advanced civ- ilization.
The second part, often cited by occultists, is the account of his exeriences with a Hindu magician. Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, was very much impressed by this part of the book. Their explanation of these phenomena was that they were done by the Pitris or spirits, and their only difference in pro- cedure from ours seemed to be that they made more use of direct evocation. They claimed that these powers were handed down from time immemorial and traced back to the Chaldees.
But the best medium is in an advanced state of pregnancy. Two doctors will be present. And this Prof.
Not a word more about it! We find an advocate pleading his cause in short high-pitched paragraphs, harangue that in its repetitions becomes a rant—India is the source of all civilization. Jacolliot elaborates his claim with copi- ous extracts from Manu, sometimes with chapter and verse, more usually with- out. Part two is that Christ is a reminiscence of Krishna, on whose life the life of Christ is based; but this rests on gross forgeries, bearing no relation whatsoever to original Indian texts.
However, the book seems to have had considerable success. It would be inter- esting to study its reception in some detail. Rationalists and freethinkers viewed it then as giving the deathblow to Christianity; freemasons thought him a great scholar and a profound thinker— until they actually read the books.
However, for the general reader, says the reviewer, the books continue to be poisonous. In addition to his grandiose attempts to establish himself as a historian of the human race, his brief account of magical feats in India received considerable attention, most notably through his being quoted by Madame Blavatsky, the founder of the Theosophical movement. Presumably because of adverse criticism of The Bible in India, references to Jacolliot are much reduced in her magnum opus—if that expression can be used for her manner of composition—The Secret Doctrine.
He makes passing refer- ence in his writings to somnambulism and hypnotism, and to the activities of Indian fakirs. He was returning to the ques- tion of the Dionysian in a manner which altered many of his earlier ideas on the problem. Here he was presented with a succinct summary of the leading views of ethnologists and historians of religion on this topic.
The writer on Maenadism, who lamented a lack of a Jacolliot in ancient times, may well have had in mind his account in his Voyage au pays des perles of wor- ship of the female principle shakti-puja in the Nallur Kandaswamy Temple, Jaffna, Sri Lanka, where he sees, so he says, the worship of the goddesses degen- erate into an orgy—a more public event than the private parties he usually describes; and where he compares the participants to bacchantes and satyrs.
Jacolliot tells us that he spies on proceedings from a secret hiding place. The three girls representing the goddesses, the temple dancers, and a hundred and fifty beautiful young women from the local town, all adorned with flowers, form an erotic tableau.
Ascetics bring in jars of intoxicating liquors. Everyone was naked. It will be understood that I must stop here in painting these shocking cus- toms which still today soil the religious mysteries of India, mysteries that this country transported by emigration through the entire ancient world. He delights in alluding to his own sexual encounters, and at the same time is hor- rified by an orgy sanctified by religion.
In all his books he praises ancient Hinduism and scorns modern Hinduism. It is difficult to say whether or not the description he gives here is fabricated, though with Jacolliot fabrication is always likely. He almost certainly has in mind literary descriptions and con- temporary paintings of ancient Greece and Rome as parallels, but this would be the case whether or not he made up his description.
This seems to the case as well with other preeminent Hindu texts. But Nietzsche had not read this play until it was shown to him by Meysenbug in And then he did not like it.
This impression is confirmed when we look at other popular Indian texts, pop- ular, that is, in Europe at the time. The oldest Sanskrit texts, and the most ven- erated, are the Vedic hymns. Another major text Nietzsche might have been expected to know was the Ramayana.
While it is true that Nietzsche does not say much about any of his reading in his published works, there is no reason to suppose that Indian poetry was of any interest to him at all, a view confirmed by his antipathy to Sakuntala. All the same, the Ramayana was well known in Europe. Rama ordering the immediate death of a low-caste man who has the temerity to become an ascetic; but at least Michelet took the trouble to read the epic.
One of the several verses he copies from Jacolliot that are not in the received text of Manu is the following: But Nietzsche does not meet such figures as Visvamitra in the context of the Ramayana in their full literary environment. Certainly Nietzsche looked through Das System des Vedanta, much the more accessible of the two, but in fact was not in the least disposed to carry out the careful study that would be necessary to properly understand its rich contents.
Such at least must be the conclusion of anyone familiar with those religions. In essentials the process will remain the same, but the modalities will be unceasingly new. My point here is simply that to use them the way he did shows Nietzsche to have been oblivious of the obvious Indian parallels.
He was, however, writ- ing long after the theophany of the Bhagavad Gita, where Krishna shows Arjuna his true form modeled on Siva , swallowing up the whole universe into his gap- ing mouth. For him, death would be an impotent specter. The present is the only real form of the will. Therefore no endless past or future in which he will not exist can frighten him, for he regards these as an empty mirage and the web of Maya.
Nietzsche too ignores this; he ignores the Bhagavad Gita entirely,75 he ignores Sanskrit literature, for he makes his own way. Schopenhauer makes an intriguing reference to Siva in conjunction with Dionysos in the first volume of Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung: This they present to us not only through such diver- sions and merriments, but even in sensual groups, to the point of showing us the sexual intercourse between satyrs and goats.
Siva, the arche- type of the Indian wandering ascetic, ceaselessly walks across India, Siva whose home is the Himalayas, the snow mountains, Siva the yogi, Siva the ascetic whose magic power creates the world. Schopenhauer makes the link between Siva and bacchanalia quoted above not on the basis of historical claims in Greek texts but on structural grounds, on a paral- lel duality of love and death in the two gods.
Or, my brothers. He shows little awareness that it was under Muslim rule for several centuries. At the same time, it is noteworthy that Nietzsche refers to almost none of the common stereotypes of India, other than the incapacitating nature of the heat. Was it the dance of Carmen that reminded him of India?
But the dance of Carmen is, as he says, Moorish, and he never hints at anything resembling the India of dancing girls beloved of Jacolliot; nor was the Indian origin of the gyp- sies then widely known. It is remarkable that Nietzsche speaks of himself here as Hindu indisch , for the context in which he does so is revelatory of the empti- ness of his understanding of Hinduism, of its self-referentiality.
In reality, going to India never crossed his mind. Far from going to India, even metaphorically, he could not even get to Paris, the cosmopolis of his dreams, the capital of the nineteenth century.
Strange that he could call his writings travel-books; they were written for himself alone—at least that is what he suggests in his preface to the second volume of Human, All Too Human HH II, P6. The most valuable treatment of this topic is still that of Mervyn Sprung.
University of Chicago Press, Manou-Moise-Mahomet Paris: Lacroix, Similar inaccuracies can be found in some of his other book titles.
Oxford University Press, , Encre Marin, , Friedrich Nietzsche, Antichrist, section 20, trans. Viking Press, Kritische Studienausgabe, 15 vols. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, —followed by appropriate volume, notebook, and note numbers.
Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, trans. Walter Kaufmann and R. Hollingdale New York: Random House, The Laws of Manu, with introduction and notes, trans.
Wendy Doniger with Brian K. Smith Harmondsworth: Penguin, , xx. Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak, trans. Hollingdale Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Christopher Middleton, ed. Hackett, , — Payot, Longmans, Green, , 2: Brobjer has shown what a keen reader Nietzsche remained despite the problem with his eyes, making full use of libraries, even checking out the size of the library before he visited a town; frequenting bookshops, and borrowing books from friends.
Ferdinand Schneider, , 1: John Murray, , Arthur Schopenhauer, World as Will and Representation, trans. Payne New York: Dover, , 1: Renan, Avenir, 59, twice , For detailed discussion, see Bruce Lincoln, Theorizing Myth: Open Culture scours the web for the best educational media.
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