Kadiyali traffic engineering pdf

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Description. TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING Dr. L. R. Kadiyali B.E. (Hons.), ( Bombay), P.G. Diploma in Highway and Traffic Engineering. This is likewise one of the factors by obtaining the soft documents of this kadiyali l r traffic engineering and transport planning by online. You might not require. free download kadiyali l r traffic engineering and transport planning pdf mothers who cant love by susan forward life in ancient greece coloring.

Table of Contents: The advantage of road transport is that any number of buses and trucks can be mobilised to cater to the demand. France , 5. In a semi-developed area, every village should be brought within 13 Km of any road. The highest forward gear will be usually 1:

Highway capacity Scope, definitions and basis diagram of traffic flow Lighthill and Withams theory Car following theory The queuing theory and its application to traffic engineering problems Vehicle arrivals, headways and gaps Delay to traffic at uncontrolled intersections Simulation of traffic Transport planning process Transportation survey Trip generation Trip distribution Traffic assignment Modal split Evaluation Land-use transport models Transport planning for small and medium sized cities Economic evaluation of transportation plans Vehicle operating costs Value of travel time savings Accidents costs Traffic congestion, traffic restraints and road pricing Nature of traffic problems in cities Public transport in cities Intermediate public transport in Indian cities Traffic and the environment Fuel crisis and transportation Transport modes, technology and selection Application of information technology in transportation Public-Private partnership in transport projects Automobile Engineering.

Automobile Systems And Body Engineering. Matrix Methods Of Structural Analysis. Surveying Vol. Provision or Non-Provision of Sub-Base Properties of Concrete External Conditions Temperature Variation Friction Between Slab and Sub-Base Dowel Bars Tie Bars Analysis of Stresses in a Concrete Pavement Pavement Materials Materials Us ed For Various Specifications Soil Stabilisation Granular Bases and Sub-bases Brick, Stone and Concrete Blocks Bituminous Materials Bituminous Courses in Highway Pavements Materials for Concrete Pavements Construction of Pavements Construction of Soil-Stabilised Roads Gravel Courses Water Bound Macadam Wet Mix Macadam Surface Dressing Premix Chipping Carpet Dry Lean Concrete Sub Base Concrete Pavement Maintenance of Highways Importance of Maintenance Maintenance of Earth Roads Maintenance of Gravel Roads Maintenance of Bituminous Surfaces Use of Geosynthetics in Highway Engineering Terms Related to Geosynthetics Geotextile as Separation Layer Geotextile for Filtration Geosynthetics for Erosion Control and Slope Urban Roads Functional Classification and Design Speeds Pedestrian Facilities and Cycle Tracks Bus Facilities Hill Roads Hilly Terrain Minimum Radii of Horizontal Curves Hairpin Bends Protection Structures Snow Removal Road in Desert Areas Desert Area in India Principles of Road Location in Sand Dunes Pavement and Cross-drainage Structures Toll Roads International Experience on Toll Roads Advantages of Toll Roads PPP Financing Pattern Quality Assurance Quality Assurance Manual Quality Control Frequency of Tests Highway Administration and Finance Classification of Roads Administration of National Highways Administration of Rural Roads Administration of Roads in the Military Areas Road Research Highway Financing and Taxation in India Traffic Engineering Scope of Traffic Engineering Traffic Control Street Lighting Environmental Effect of Traffic Road Safety Introduction to Railway Engineering Importance of Rail Transport Railway Engineering Railway Technology Role of Railways Various Roles of Railways Railways as Facilitators of Industrialisation Railways as Bulk Carriers Railways are ideally suited for long haul traffic Railways are suitable for high density traffic Railways as a cheap mode for long distance passenger travel Railways help administer large areas Railways Support Large Military Movements Railways as Public Utility Providers Advantages of Rail Transport Disadvantages of Rail Transport History of Growth of Railways in India Introduction of Railways In India The Guarantee System Subsidy Scheme Direct State Construction The Gauge Decision Direct State Management Railway Development Since Independence Growth of Railways In India Railway Administration Road vs Rail Transport in India Surveys and Project Preparation Stages in Preparing a Railway Project Selection of Alignment Study of Maps Traffic Survey Reconnaissance Survey Preliminary Survey Preliminary Project Report Final Location Survey Geometric Design of Railway Track Geometric Design Elements Cross-Sectional Elements Horizontal Curvature and its Associated Elements Gradients in Railway Track Vertical Curves The Permanent Way Points and Crossings Signalling and Traffic Control Traffic Control System Traction and Traction Resistance Types of Locomotives In India Traction Resistance Hauling Capacity of a Locomotive Stations, Yards and Station Equipment Station Yards Station Equipment Construction of a Railway Line Stages Involved Railway Bridges Track Laying Maintenance of a Railway Line Need for Maintenance Maintenance Operations Track Renewal Need for Track Renewal Types of Track Renewal Methods of Track Renewal Programme of Track Renewal Bridges and Tunnels Rail Accidents Causes Leading to Accidents Steps To Reduce Rail Accidents Modern Technological Advances Types of Technological Advances Planned in India High Speed Bullet Trains Dedicated Freight Corridor Ballast Less Track Role of Air Transportation History of Growth of Air Transportation Advantages and Disadvantages of Air Transportation Air Transport in India Aircraft Characteristics Airport Planning Airport Pavement Terminal Building Air Traffic Control Radio Equipment Pipe Line Transportation Role of Pipelines in Transportation Pipeline Transport in Selected Countries Storage Facilities Types of Flow of Fluids Types of pipes used and construction Aerial Ropeway Use of Aerial Ropeways Considerations in Selection Layouts Capacity of Car Design of Cable Rope Design of Trestles Belt Conveyors Components of the System Water Transport: An Overview Historical Perspective Advantages and Disadvantages of Water Transport Types of Water Transport Water Transport in India Today Planning for Water Transportation Facilities Types of Facilities Types of Cargo Handling in Ports Considerations in Planning of Ports Traffic Forecast Survey and Investigations Data on Ship Dimensions and Weight Definition of Term Factors Affecting Design of Harbours Harbour Layout Entrance Channel Turning Circle Lock Entrance Need for Locks Functioning of Locks Design of Lock Entrance Types of Docks Wet Docks Design of Dock Walls Dry Dock Transit Sheds Typical Layout Cargo Handling Facilities Inland Water Transport Land Facilities Multi-Modal Transport Forms of Multi-Modal Transport Infrastructure Facilities Common Terms and their Meaning Transport deals with the movement of people and materials from one place to another.

Movement of people is called passenger transport and movement of materials is called goods transport or freight transport. Urban transport deals with transport in towns and cities and rural transport deals with transport in the rural area.

Public transport deals with movement of people in vehicles other than their own, and includes nonpersonalised modes like buses, trains, trams and other intermediate modes of transport. Intermediate Public Transport IPT means non-personalised passenger transport in hired modes such as taxis, vans, mini-buses, autorickshaws, rickshaws three-wheeler cycles.

Rapid Transport means mass movement of passengers by road or rail in cities. Historical Evolution The history of transport dates back to the period before the advent of recorded history. With the desire to hunt for animals for food, the early human began to form pathways and tracks. As civilisation advanced, the growth of agriculture took place and human settlements began to be formed. From one settlement to another, tracks were formed.

These tracks might be the skeletal framework of modern highways. Man soon began to domesticate animals and use them as beasts of burden horses, oxen, camels, mules, ponies and elephants. It is interesting to note that even in the present century, these beasts of burden are still in use, particularly in less developed countries and remote areas. The invention of the wheel approximately — BC revolutionised transport, and even now wheels are the mainstay of many forms of transport.

The advantages of an axle joining two wheels was realised, and two-wheeled and four-wheeled carts, chariots and carriages were developed. Many civilizations have been known for their excellence and attainments in road building. The Roman civilization, Persian civilization, Chinese civilization and the Indus Valley civilization may be mentioned here.

Transportation Engineering - L.R.kadiyali

As settlements began to be developed along the banks of rivers and on the sea coast, boats propelled by oars and sails began to be used. The introduction of iron and steel as ship-building materials and the invention of the steam engine gave an impetus to oceanic shipping. The early attempts in flying by man centred around balloons filled with hot air or hydrogen.

Gliders which are engineless planes were successfully built and tried in the last decade of the nineteenth century. The airplane contributed significantly to the outcome of World War I. Charles Lindbergh'sflight from New York to Paris in was a historic event. The World War II saw a dramatic shift to the use of aircraft for transport of troops and bombing, ending with the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since then, aviation has grown steeply, contributing to the shrinking of world.

In India, J. The path over which the vehicles travel roads, airport runway, and railway track is built and maintained by civil engineers. The terminals bus stands, truck depots, railway stations, air terminals, docks and harbours where the passengers and cargo are serviced, are planned, constructed and maintained by civil engineers. Role of the Government in Transportation Historically, the government had a major role in the promotion of transport.

It constructed roads, railway lines, docks and harbours and airports, which facilitated the movement of goods and passengers. Even today, the government in most countries retains the power to plan, fund, construct and maintain the transport infrastructure.

Funds are raised through various taxes. Of late, increasing involvement of the private sector is being sought in constructing and maintaining roads toll roads , airports and sea terminals. But, the government in most countries retains the power to regulate certain aspects of transport in public interest. For examples, the government enforces rules of registration of motor vehicles and aircraft, for licensing of drivers and aircraft pilots and for observance of safety and environmental standards.

In India, the government, through the Planning Commission, decides on the allocations of government funds in the various Five Year Plans for the different modes of transport, with a view to ensure a coordinated development. A Vital Infrastructure Transport, along with power and telecommunications, is a vital infrastructure for the overall development of an economy.

The great industrial revolution happened because it was possible to transport raw materials to the factories and the finished goods to the markets. In India, this contribution was 7 per cent in Ref 1. Transport and Economy Transportation shapes, sustains and enhances the economy of a country. Transport and economy are closely inter-related, the one depending on the other vide Fig. Interdependence of Transport and Economy It is often said that America did not build its roads, rather the roads built America.

Generally, the rate of growth of transport is higher than the rate of growth of economy. The ratio between the rate of growth transport and the rate of growth of the economy known as the elasticity can be marginally above 1. The trend is seen in Fig. The relationship between transport and economy can be seen from Fig.

Rate of Growth of Transport and Economy Fig. Rate of Growth of Transport and Economy 1. China 14 2. India 15 3. Pakistan 3. Pakistan 12 4. Indonesia 13 5. Egypt 11 6. Thailand 6. Thailand 7. Brazil 8. Malaysia 9. Hungry Greece 9 10 UK 8 New Zealand 7 Japan Germany Germany 3 4 6 5 Transport and Poverty Alleviation Provision of a good road connectivity to villages can increase the agricultural yield, employment potential, general health of the rural population and per capita income.

In India nearly 46 per cent of the villages were not connected by an all weather road in Ref 2. Some states in India have good connectivity, and in these states the percentage of rural poverty is small. Transport and Urbanisation In the low income countries, the bulk of the population lives in the villages depending solely on subsistence farming. For example, in Ethiopia, a typical African low income country, the urban population is only 16 per cent Ref 2.

As the transport infrastructure is expanded, the rural population will slowly migrate to towns and cities, and the shifted population will gain employment in manufacturing and services in the towns and cities. In a fully developed country, the urban population is very high: In India, the urban population now is 29 per cent, whereas in China it is 43 per cent Ref 2. Exploitation of Natural Resources Most of the low-income and middle income economies depend upon exploitation of natural resources and their export to sustain their economy.

India, for example, is able to export its iron ore deposits because of its transport infrastructure railways, roads and ports. Saudi Arabia, rich in oil, is able to export oil because of a good system of pipe lines and shipping. Transport and Place Utility Raw materials needed for the production of goods are spread over the world and country rather unevenly. These have to be processed and transformed into consumer goods, either at the place of their occurrence or at a distantly located industry, and the goods produced have to be transported to consumer centres.

Time Utility of Transport Transport shortens the time needed to travel from place to place. Thus, whereas it may take 10 hours to travel a distance of Km by road on a two-lane congested road, the time may be reduced to 5 hours if an expressway is constructed. The time thus saved has a value attached to it, for the passengers, for the commodity in transit and for the vehicles involved in transport.

Thus transport gives time utility. It is consumed all over the country. Transport makes it possible to bridge the separation between the producer and the consumer. Transport helps preserve the quality of perishable goods Perishable goods like milk, fruits, vegetables, fish, poultry products, meat and flowers can be transported quickly from the places of production to the consumer over long distances by means of refrigerated containers travelling by road, rail and air. Transport Reduces the Cost of Goods A good system of transport for example: This helps in bringing the goods to the consumer at a reduced cost.

Transport Accelerates Agricultural Development Modern agriculture requires inputs like better seeds, pesticides and fertilisers. The inputs can reach the farmer at a low cost if there is a good transport system. Similarly, the farmer is encouraged to produce more only if the price of his produce at the market centre is attractive. A good road system reduces his cost of transportation, and the farmer is induced to produce more to earn a surplus. Transport and Tourism Promotion Tourism can be promoted only if the tourists can reach the destination in a short time and at affordable travel costs.

Thus, the key to tourism development is a good transport system. Transport Promotes Industrial Development The Industrial Revolution which took place in Europe owes a lot to the break-through in transport such as in Railways steam engines and shipping.

Newcastle in U. Cotton from India could be shipped overseas to run the Manchester textile mills in U. Jute mills got established in Calcutta as raw jute could be transported cheaply by rail and river transport. Textile mills got established in Bombay and Ahmedabad as the hinterland produced cotton which was transported by the newly laid railway lines. It is thus amply clear that primary industries get located where they enjoy the advantages of a good transportation system. Transport is Vital for Defence and Strategic Needs The US Interstate Highway system was conceived to provide a high level of service to interstate travel and to meet defence needs.

The Autobahn system in Germany helped the Germans to move their tanks and supplies to the war front. Air Transport is also essential to move troops and supplies to the war front.

Transport Facilitates International Trade Singapore port, which handles several millions of containers, has developed as an international hub of trade.

London, New York and Hamburg are other examples of ports that handle large quantity of international trade, backed up by good port facilities and railways and roads in the hinterland. Transport Facilitates Administration of Vast Areas The Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia is a classic example of how a major transport link has helped in administering the remote area of Siberia. The Qinghai Lhasa railway line recently completed in has given quick access to Tibet from China.

Transport Facilitates the Specialisation and Economies of Scale Taking the case of lap-top computers, several countries are associated with the production of components like key board, display screen, mother board, cables, mouse, each country specialising in a particular part and producing it on a mass scale.

This results in economies of scale. In India, the automobile industry has thrived on specialisation and mass production of ancillaries such as clutch assembly, gear box, speedometer, headlight, piston, valves, ignition system, tyres, and so on.

A good system of transport enables the ancillaries to be moved to the central assembly plant. Transport Influences Growth of Cities As motor vehicles became popular in USA, the people found it more convenient to move out from the crowded central part of towns to the suburbs. Good roads made it possible for people to commute to the work place in a reasonable time.

The underground tube railway of London has made it possible for people to reside on the outskirts and travel to work comfortably. The construction of a new bridge across the Thane creek separating the island of Bombay and the mainland has given birth to a new flourishing township on the mainland New Bombay. Cities have grown historically on the banks of great rivers which facilitated the movement of people and goods.

Examples are: Transport Facilitates, Evacuation and Relief Operations during Natural Disasters The importance of a good system of transport to reach out to people affected by natural disasters is enormous. Book of the year , Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, Rural Road Development Plan: Multiple Modes To meet any given demand for transport of people and goods within a country and between countries, multiple modes are available, each mode having its own advantages and disadvantages.

The changes in technology taking place often renders the choice of a mode a difficult task and the transport planner has to reckon future possibilities. Considerations of sustainability, environmental effects and economy are important. The various modes available, their characteristics and criteria for choice are discussed in this Chapter. Important Modes currently available The important modes of transport currently available are: Roads and Road Transport 2.

Air Transport 4. Pipelines 6. Aerial Ropeways 7. Combination of various modes such as container movement 8. Conveyor Belts 3.

Criteria for Choice The choice of a particular mode is governed by various criteria such as: Speed 2. Adequacy 3. Frequency 4. Regularity 5. Safety 6. Environmental Impact 7. Responsibility 8. Cost 9. Fuel Efficiency Employment Generation Comfort 3. Speed Speed is of prime importance in the movement of people and goods. Table 3. High speeds are possible on Expressways Two-wheelers 25—60 Autorickshaws 15—30 Cycles 8—15 3. Ropeways 3.

The capacity of a railway system is governed by the number of trains that can be handled per day. Capacity Of Railway System 1. Single Track trains per day 2. Double track with manual track control trains per day 3.

Double track with centralised track control trains per day In India, super-fast trains consist of over 20 coaches and carry over passengers.

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Metros Mass Rapid System can cater to trains with a headway of 2 minutes, and can carry 60, persons per hour per direction. Goods trains in India can haul wagons, each wagon having payload of tonnes. As regards roads, traffic is heterogeneous consisting of fast moving vehicles of various types and slow vehicles like cycles, cycle rickshaws and animal-drawn vehicles.

A single unit three truck can carry 15 tonnes of pay load, though overloading upto 30 tonnes is quite common. Truck-trailer combinations can carry pay loads of tonnes. The advantage of road transport is that any number of buses and trucks can be mobilised to cater to the demand. Hence it has great flexibility. The capacity of barges and ships is given in Table 3. Dry Bulk ,—1,, T 3. Containers ,—, TEUs 4. Petroleum 1. Liquid Bulk other than Petroleum 80, T The seating capacity of modern air-craft is given in Table 3.

Douglas DC-4 86 2. Caravelle 3.

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Boeing 90 4. Boeing 5. Boeing 6. Airbus A The handling capacity of a single runway with modern facilities is in the range of , to , landings and take-offs per year.

Pipelines can handle gases, liquids and solids in a slurry form. A 50 cm dia pipeline can handle about tonnes of solids per day. Capacity of conveyor belts depends upon the length and height to be negotiated, and the speed.

Frequency and Regularity Almost all modes of transport offer frequent and regular schedules, which are very important for customers. Safety Road transport is known for its poor record of safety in India. Engineering, Enforcement and Education are the three Es of safety, and in all of these, India has a lot to improve. Rail transport is comparatively safe since trains move on a dedicated track and crossing and overtaking take place only in stations under controlled conditions. Unmanned level crossings present a safety hazard.

But when accidents do take place, the death toll is very high. Air Transport has an excellent record of safety because of strict measures of recruitment of pilots, maintenance of aircrafts, control of movement of aircrafts, modern instruments for landing and strict vigilance against terrorists. Accidents are caused by bird hits, lightning, storms and fog. Whenever an accident does take place, the death toll is very high. Oceanic water transport is very safe.

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However, Inland Water Transport lacks modern instrumented aids and hence barges are liable to be affected by cyclones and storms. Pipelines are very safe. Aerial Ropeways also have a good safety record. Environmental Impact Roads and Road Transport use liquid fuels which emit considerable amount of pollutants causing health hazards and smog which is dangerous to driving.

Noise pollution and visual intrusion are other serious effects. Road construction consumes considerable quantity of stone aggregates and thus raises serious doubts about its sustainability. Rail transport does not create environmental hazards. In India, the toilets in the trains discharge into the track and this needs to be stopped by adopting modern methods such as those used in aircraft.

Water transport also does not create adverse environmental impact. So also pipelines and ropeways. Aircrafts produce noise which is of a high order causing discomfort to residents near airports. Responsibility Responsibility is the extent to which the facility operator meets liabilities or compensation for damages, loss or theft.

A government owned operator like railways and reputed airlines are better than private truck operators. Cost Air transport is the costliest for passengers and goods movement. For urban travel, passenger fares are almost similar for buses, suburban trains and Metros. For long distance passenger travel, bus fares and rail fares by ordinary second class sleeper are almost same. But air-conditioned fares by rail are higher than bus fares.

As regards freight movement, road transport is cheaper for short hauls upto Km, but beyond this the advantage lies with railways.

High value commodities like tea, cotton textiles, TV sets, electronic goods, vegetables and fruits etc. As regards long hauls, the cost advantages lies with railways. Bulk goods like iron ore, coal, fertilisers prefer railways for long hauls, though road transport may be choice for short hauls upto Km.

Fuel Efficiency The energy intensity of air transport is obviously very high, followed by rail, road, water transport and pipe-line. Passenger Litres Per Passenger-Km 1. Modern Aircraft like 0.

Car 4 seats 0. Bus 52 seats 0. Modern Aircraft like Boeing 0. AC Railway Berth 0. Freight Litres Per Tonne-Km 1.

Pdf kadiyali traffic engineering

Rail 0. Heavy Commercial Truck 0. Light Commercial Vehicle 0. Employment Generation For a labour-surplus country like India, employment generation is an important consideration. Inland Water Transport 2. Development of navigational channels 3. Road construction and maintenance 4. Coastal Shipping Sailing vessels Railways 7.

Air Transport 3. Comfort 2. Rail travel, particularly in AC coaches is also comfortable. Bus travel by AC sleeper coaches is not uncomfortable for journeys upto Km. Travel by car can be comfortable for medium distance upto Km.

In fact, transport and economy are interrelated as shown below: Economy Transport Fig 4. Transport planning is a science that seeks to study the need and manner in which transport facilities have to be provided in the urban, regional or national setting. Inter-relationship between Land Use and Traffic In , Mitchell and Rapkin propounded a theory that traffic was a function of land use Ref 1. Though the statement is not spectacular, it sums up the ground reality. To give an example, Connaught place in New Delhi is the centre of commercial activity, and thus attracts considerable traffic.

Another example is the head quarters of Infosys in Bangalore where a large number of software engineers work, thus attracting high volume of traffic. If a dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai comes up, many satellite townships will develop along the corridor, manufacturing goods which can be easily transported. Hierarchy of Transport Plans Transport plans can be prepared and implemented at various levels such as: National Level 2.

Regional Level, such as State or Region 3. The Rural Road Network plan prepared for each district by the National Rural Road Development Agency and the transport plans for major cities like Delhi are examples of local level plans. Systems Approach to Transport Planning The processes forming part of the systems approach to transport planning consist of various interconnected steps shown in Fig 4.

Fig 4. Systems Approach to Transport Planning 4. Goals and Objectives To start the transport planning process, the goals and objectives must be clearly understood. Some of these could be: For example, in India the Five Year Plans give broad guidelines on development of the transport infrastructure and these should be respected.

The transport plan should be a harmonious mix of various alternatives and modes so as to give the maximum benefits such as economy in cost of operation, conveniences, comfort, safety and speed. Environmental considerations and sustainability should be given importance.

A balanced development of urban settlements and rural habitations should be aimed at. Conservation of energy should be given high priority in the plans. Public transport should be given priority over use of personalised vehicles. Pedestrians and cyclists should get adequate attention.

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Time Horizon for Planning Short-term plans having a time horizon of 5 years or less are intended to give quick relief and remove bottlenecks. Medium term plans have a period of about 10 years and involve substantial outlays on engineering improvements. Examples are provision of pedestrian and cattle subways, construction of grade separators, provision of off-street parking facilities and construction of bypasses. Long-term transport plans have a time horizon of about 20 years. Inventory, survey and analysis of existing conditions 2.

Forecast, analysis of future conditions 3. Formulation of feasible alternatives 4. Evaluation of the alternatives 5. Adoption of the preferred alternative and implementation 6. Continuing study 4. Inventory, Survey and Analysis of existing Conditions The above consists of three different tasks: Transportation Survey 4.

This activity is crucial to the transport planning process, as the data forms the basis for formulating plans. Since the survey costs are high, proper organisation of the work and following guidelines evolved by various organisations are very important.

The study begins with the definition of the study area, which can be at the national, regional or local level. For planning at the city level, it is necessary that the area not only covers the existing city limits but should include areas of possible future growth.

The zones are later used for associating the origins and destinations of travel. Guidance may be taken from the zoning adopted by other bodies, such as Population Census.

The boundaries of zones should match with natural barriers such as canals, rivers etc. The movements that are possible between zones are represented in the figure below: Movements possible in a transportation survey 4.

The types of surveys that are usually carried out are: Home Interview Survey The home-interview survey is the most reliable survey for collecting the data needed for transport planning.

The information collected includes: Since the number of residents in an area is too large, it is practical to select a few sample households. Table 4. Bpr Standards For Sampling Size For Home Interview Survey Population of Study Area Sample Size Under 50, 1 in 5 households 50,—, 1 in 8 households ,—, 1 in 10 households ,—, 1 in 15 households ,—1,, 1 in 20 households Over 1,, 1 in 25 households Standard forms should be evolved and the data collected should be capable of being coded in a computer for quick analysis.

Commercial Vehicle Survey Under this survey, the owners of commercial vehicles in the study area are contacted and the drivers of the vehicles in operation are requested to record all the trips they made, giving origin, destination and travel time. Taxi Survey In cities taxis are a convenient mode of travel. Under this survey, taxi owners in the study area are contacted and the drivers of the taxis are requested to record all the trips they made, giving origin, destination, taxi charges and travel time.

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Roadside Interview Survey Roadside Interview Surveys are conducted on the cordon or any other screen line. The vehicles are stopped with the help of police on a sampling basis and information is collected on the type of vehicle, origin, destination, trip purpose and travel time.

Post-card Questionnaire At the survey point on the cordon line, a reply paid questionnaire is handed over to the drivers with a request to complete the information and send it by return post. The data includes type of vehicle, origin, destination, trip purpose and travel time. Registration Number Plate Survey This survey is conducted at roads intersecting the cordon line.

The registration number plates of vehicles entering or leaving are noted. By matching the number plates later in the office, it is possible to find out at which point the vehicle entered and at which point the vehicle exited. The time interval gives the travel time taken. Tags on Vehicles Under this survey, the vehicles entering the study area at the cordon line are stopped and a tag is affixed to the windscreen.

The tags have different colour and shape for different survey stations. At the exit points, the vehicles are stopped and the tags are removed. Thus it is possible to identify at which survey point the vehicle entered and at which survey point it exited. If the time at entry and exit are marked on the tags, the travel time can be determined. Public Transport Survey This survey is conducted at roads intersecting a cordon line.

The buses are stopped and the passengers are interviewed and information on their journey and socio-economic characteristics is collected.

Alternatively, a prepared questionnaire is handed out with a request to complete the form and send it by post. Similar surveys can also be conducted on passengers travelling in a train. Inventory of Transport Facilities The inventory of existing transport facilities should cover: Inventory of streets: Inventory of bus transport: