Get this from a library! Dược điển Việt Nam = Pharmacopoeia Vietnamica.. [ Vietnam. Bộ y tế.;]. Religionsvetenskapliga studier från Gävle 4 Whale Worship in Vietnam .. for 50 years. ƒ year-old Temple Keeper in Ha Quang Đông, Điện Dương District. đã có đen tin về Việt nam trong năm , bài báo được viết bằng tiếng anh. conversion of plastic waste to fuel oil pdf download. [i]rs aggarwal aptitude download duoc dien viet nam 4 pdf. ilana tan summer in seoul pdf.
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It is important to note, how- ever, that the comparisons made between mana and tabu and yin and yang are based upon their relation towards each other as inseparable pairs, and not on an idea that the two pairs share a definition. Why do the festivals have different names? At the same time he is also believed to be a healer of a thousand diseases. Shiva is believed to descend from the Vedic god Rudra. They do not live by the laws of cause and effect but with them in symbiosis.
Sandra Lantz. Wale Worship in Vietnam. This study is based upon observation and non-structured interviews. Respecting the Living World.
Politically the religion is not necessarily threatened, although the Constitution is somewhat ambiguous. Helena Riihiaho Print: Universitetstryckeriet, Uppsala Distribution: Introduction and Disposition Field Research, Interviews and Observations There are several other people I would like to thank from the bottom of my heart for helping me fulfil not only an astonishing assignment but also a magical period of my life that I will forever cherish.
A great many thanks for taking me to the temples, for interpret- ing interviews and last but not least for showing interest in and sharing your own valuable knowledge on this subject. I would also like to thank you for giving me the opportunity to read the manuscript of Heonik Kwon! Thank you for helping me find informants and set up meetings — what would I have done without you!
I would also like to thank you for your great hospitality and kindness towards my children. Thank you for your valuable help of serving as a private driver; any day, at any time. I would also like to thank you for letting my family use your motorbike!
Thank you for your friendship, your wonderful meals and the fresh seafood! Thank you so very much for giving my family a second home!
Without you things would have been so much more difficult. Thank you also for translating my abstract and summary into Vietnamese. You are a true friend! I would also like to thank all my informants who, despite the typhoon, took the time to answer my questions. I hope that I have given your answers justice and acknowledged your beliefs! In Sweden Anders: Thank you for looking after my plants and for making sure the mailbox did not explode!
I owe you one, big time! Thank you so much for looking after our house and checking the bills, among other things. One can always count on you!
Mirjam Haglund: Thank you ever so much for taking the time to proof- read the French abstract and summary prior to publication. Mom and dad: Thank you for all your support and for encouraging me in my studies.
Thank you also for taking care of things while I was away. Mom, thank you for always reading my essays and for showing interest in my assignments.
Olov Dahlin: Thank you for introducing me to the Minor Field Study-scholarship, and for being my supervisor. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to do this Minor Field Study by offering me the scholarship. Ulf Carlin: Thank you for proofreading the French abstract and summary. Thank you for translating the abstract and summary into French. Last, but definitely not least, I would like to thank my husband and my children: Patrik, thank you ever so much for showing me so much pa- tience, for pushing me at troubled times, for supporting me and for al- ways believing in me, even at those times when I do not believe in my- self.
Thank you for being you talkative self when introduced to new people — for you, language is no barrier!
Thank you for proofreading this essay and for taking part in my work — I promise I will not occupy the computer as much in the future and I will, hopefully, not be as mentally absent either! William, Elliot, Malcolm and Isolde: I would like to give the greatest of thanks to you, my four brave globe-trotters!
Thank you also for being such excellent students, even though I know you all longed for the beach, and for doing your homework without fuss hrm… most of the time! I also want to thank you for keeping up your good spirits despite the long distance travel, hot temperatures and many challenges to your taste buds.
I am so proud of you all. I love you! Wherever this happens, the creature is treated with great reverence and worshipped by local people, particularly fishermen. The belief of the little-known cult is centred upon the Whale God, a powerful spirit that can calm the waves and lead seafarers to shelter.
Such a prosaic title is a mark of both fear and reverence, a god so powerful that even to speak its name is courting danger. Living whales are revered as well. Followers of the cult never hunt the large marine animals, which they regard as giant fish.
The carcasses of whales that have died natural deaths are buried with great respect and ritual ceremonies. After three to five years, the bones are exhumed, shrouded and carried to the temple to be worshipped, as if the creature was a beloved community god. Whale funerals always attract large crowds but make the authori- ties uneasy. The material in this study is divided into eight different parts.
Part 1 will deal with the aim and framing of questions as well as former re- search and choice of method. There will also be a presentation of the informants followed by definitions, delimitation and ethical principles as well as a theoretical discussion.
Part 6 and 7 contain the bibliography and the appendix. Part 8 offers a summary in both French and Vietnamese. The two books, however, only consist of one chapter each which deals with whale worship, and are not as thorough as the first one mentioned.
Kwon argues that fishermen worship the whale, while hunters in the 4 Interview with Gian Method I have attempted to conduct qualitative interviews partly supported by observations. During my stay I have used a daily diary to keep track of feelings, weather, happenings and so forth.
Throughout my interviews, I have used a notepad and a digital camera. To avoid misunderstand- ings, some of the informants have been interviewed on several occa- sions. I am aware of the problems of having an interpreter when it comes to direct speech adequately representing. I have tried to do my best to adress this by using two different interpreters on different occa- sions. At times, I have had both of the interpreters assisting me in dis- cussing the outcome of the interviews.
I have also had this paper read through by two of my informants to make certain everything is cor- rectly understood. The method I have used is based upon Grounded theory: You will mostly do this through observation, conversation and interview. The interviews have been more or less semi-structured, as I have developed the questions as my research has proceeded.
Hence, only a few main questions have been prepared in advance. I have also received help from a local guide, who was also working as an English teacher, and who also at times served as my interpreter. Furthermore, I have randomly asked people outside the fishing villages, i. It is of importance, as a reader, to be aware that all of the informants are, in one way or another, a part of the fishing community, i.
All Temple Keepers are fishermen as well. The temple keepers have chosen not to state their names. However, it is important to state that their decisions really do not have anything to do with their wish to remain anonymous; the temple keepers are simply referred to by locals as temple keepers of their particular temple, and hence their given names are not considered significant. He assisted Mr. Heonik Kwon in writing the future Doctoral Thesis: The Phantom of War.
The temple keeper and his family have guarded the temple for 50 years. The whale temple in Ha Quang Dong fell apart 5 years ago, while this is the new temple. The temple keeper has been guarding and taking care of the temple since it was rebuilt.
The temple keeper has looked after the temple from the day it was moved. He comes from a family where fishing has been carried out for generations.
He lives by the river, and his father and generations before him are all fishermen. The words are defined as follows according to the Oxford Dictionary Online, and are used accordingly. Animism as a noun can be defined as the belief that plants and inani- mate objects have souls. There is also an adjective, animistic, originating from the Latin anima. The noun belief derives from Old English and is defined as a feeling that something exists or is true, especially without proof. It may also be defined as a firmly held opinion, a religious faith and finally as a belief in trust or confidence in.
The word cult is defined as a system of religious worship directed towards a particular figure or object. It may also be defined as a small religious group regarded as strange or as imposing excessive control over its members.
Something popular or fashionable among a particular section of society can also be defined as a cult. As an adjective, the word refers to pagans and their beliefs. The word pagan derives from the noun paganism, which originates from the Latin word paganus mean- ing rustic, and also civilian, i. It may also mean a particular system of faith and worship, or a pursuit or interest followed with devotion.
Superstition as a noun is defined as an excessively credulous belief in the supernatural. It can also be defined as a widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influences, especially those which bring good or bad luck. Worship is defined as the feeling or expression of reverence and adoration for a deity, and can also mean religious rites and ceremonies.
As a verb, the word worship, i. The Vietnamese have two words to describe belief: Furthermore, since the Vietnamese language con- sists of a system of tones used in various combinations to tell the differ- ence between the meanings of words, I find it quite essential to spell out the Vietnamese words within this study accurately.
Nevertheless, any misspellings that might occur are mine. My intention to go straight to the central coast had to change, and I also had to cancel my trip to Cu Lao Cham, as foul weather made the Cham Islands an unsafe place for tourists. Hence no boat trips were offered during my entire stay. Even though small differences do occur along the coast due to local divergences, the general belief seems to be the same.
I have therefore made certain that I was allowed to men- tion the names and thus reveal the identity of my informants in this study. I did mention the possibility of anonymity to my informants, but they all turned down my offer.
Given this, I guess I was more con- cerned by the possible consequences than my informants actually were. Theoretical Considerations Sir James Frazer and Edward Burnett Taylor proved earlier interpreta- tions of animism and definitions of religion. Taylor, by some considered the founder of anthropology developed a theory based on the origin of all religious belief systems in his work Primitive Culture.
Furthermore, he also developed the term ethnology used as a tool for fully understanding an organized community or culture as a whole, which Taylor thought was a must. His thesis statement was that all human beings in essence are the same, especially regarding their mental capacity.
In the chapter on the Maoris, the belief of mana and tabu is dealt with in terms of the evolution of human cultures. The mana is manifested by the beliefs of the people and their dedication and responsibility to carry out particular things, while tabu mean they are restricted from doing certain things or have to approach specific situations with care and etiquette.
Moreover, Maori understandings are based on collaborative and associative pairs which intertwine. The pairs are inseparable; hence, without a partner neither member of a pair could exist.
At times, this community of respective and responsible persons also includes persons such as deities, ancestors and faeries. The belief that animals as being people is claimed by animists who base their evidence on the fact that animals are not just alive; they also communicate and relate. Animals do things in an intentional and purposive manner although much of it is done without interest in humans.
Animism is often found among hunters and fishermen and Harvey describes the hunt for food as a sacred occupation where animals are 21 Thrower. The animist belief in this sense is the respectful act of the fish person, sacrificing his flesh to other people.
Death, he says, can serve as a test of strength of those relationships, and death can be conceived of as a transformation rather than a final cessation.
The transformation might be what life is all about, and hence funeral rites are to help aid the dead on their way. Harvey comes to the conclusion that animism is not to be seen as a part of the religious development, but as a definition of a religion.
The country has a tropical monsoon climate with an 84 percent humidity average, but the climate tends to vary considerably from place to place because of the variety of topographi- cal features and differences in latitude. Languages and Culture The Chinese, Indian, Khmer and French cultures have influenced the Vietnamese language, religion, architecture and art. Nom was com- monly used, particularly in literature, until the 19th century. During the French colonial period and until the end of the 20th century, French was used in schools, and Vietnamese was only considered to be a second language.
Not until C. How- ever, on holidays and festivals, the traditional Lunar Calendar is used. The Lunar Calendar, which begins in the year of B. One month is approxi- mately Since the first day of the month is determined by the day during which the moment of the new moon arrives, the Lunar New Year varies every year and occurs somewhere between January 21 and February In total, the Lunar Calendar is chronologically four to six months behind the solar calendar.
Each element exists in a pure form even though the majority of the people refer to themselves as Buddhists, although that is not entirely the case.
Ancestor worship is a religious practice based on the belief that a deceased family member has a continued existence. The ancestor is believed to take interest in the world and also to be able to influence the fortune of the living as they continue to live in another realm.
The Vietnamese believe that existence is a continuum stretching through birth, a life spent on Earth, followed by death and a spirit existence in another realm.
There is a widespread belief that those who die a violent death become malignant spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near the haunted spot. God Tan Vien preventing flooding , God Giong resisting and defeating foreign invaders , God Chu Dong Tu along with his wife moving out of poverty to consistently build his 36 Wilkinson and Charing.
Mother worship is somewhat different, and is linked to Vietnamese animism. The female goddesses are to be found in lakes, seas, rivers, forests and so on, and are believed to have male counterparts.
As paganism is defined as religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions, and often involves different ways of worshipping nature, Mother worship can be seen as a part of paganism, in the same way as pagans may be seen as a part of animism. In Vietnamese religion, animism is a prominent feature which affects the daily life, as everything is believed to be conscious and part of the world, whether dead or alive; that is, everything is believed to have a soul.
Vietnamese tend to worship species of animals which are easy to come by in the riverside regions like water-birds, snakes, and crocodiles. Folk beliefs and animism have endured and become mixed with orthodox religions. Shiva is believed to descend from the Vedic god Rudra. Rudra is portrayed in the Vedas as an archer whose arrows carry illness and death. At the same time he is also believed to be a healer of a thousand diseases. Rudra is also said to be the father of the storm gods, the marutes.
Shiva is worshipped as the destroyer and re-creator, and he is depicted in many forms, often carrying a trident. The eve of each new full moon is a night sacred to Shiva. Ganesha, the son of Shiva, is considered the god of wisdom. Its female counterpart, Yoni, the symbol of the goddess Shakti, is often depicted in lingam temples as Shaktism is closely related to Shivaism.
Those relig- ions that are believed to be a threat to national security, i. Because of this, the Vietnamese government has been criticized for its religion viola- tions. It legalized hundreds of meeting places and allowed for training of hundreds of new clergy members.
The govern- ment has released all prisoners held on the basis of their religious beliefs. The minority group is believed to descend from the Hindu Kingdom of Cham Pa. The dominant religion of the Cham people was Shivaism, and the culture was heavily influenced by India. The Cambodian Kingdom of Angkor is perhaps most famous. Today the population, numbering approximately ,, is mainly concentrated on the central coast and most Chams are Muslims Cham Bani , though still heavily influenced by Hinduism.
There are also significant Hindu Balamon and Mahayana Buddhist minorities. They have dwelled in all the oceans of the Planet for over 3 million years. Even Cambodians and Laotians say that they do not hunt dolphins, and believe that bad luck will result from killing them. However, the fishermen always hold a ceremonial funeral and bury any Cetacean stranded or found dead at sea. The male Sperm Whale reaches The Sperm Whale is in danger of stranding it- self when it moves towards shore, probably because it is so well- adapted to deep water swimming.
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