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0 Degree - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free . zero degree, Charu nivedita. PDF | In this paper, we propose a novel interconnection technique for a A Nov el Interconnection Technique Using Zero-Degree Phase. PDF | On Nov 21, , Rebecca Lawson and others published Zero degrees of empathy.
Gilbert on April 7, Four days after the initial request for information, the administrative secre- tary, Mr. The scandal, I argue, is not that what we hold to be objective and neutral is ac- tually not: In this trial, 45 patients were each asked to give their opinions on 3 different sets of complete dentures, processed as far as possible to be identical in all except posterior tooth form. C-loaded Microstrip line with stacked capacitors strips plates , a 3D view and b side view. Two years later Carnegie Institution rented the hacienda at Chichen Itza as headquarters for ist archeological and other investigations.
Morris Steggerda, a Carnegie anthropologist, who studied quantitative issues in Piste 3, contributes to this discourse of depreciation with his own statement: During my observations in the village, I have never seen any evidence of hobbies among the men. No one carves stone or wood; no one is interested in learning to play a musical intrument well; no one has made a collection of archeological ma- terial No one seems to feel the need of such diversion.
It is true that the women care for flowers under all the adverse conditions of Yucatan, and they do em- broider tablecloths and dresses purely for enjoyment. But there is an apparent lack of interest, as far as the men are concerned, in most forms of recreation.
There is no tendency among them to form clubs or organizations. Piste has no band, al- though it might well have one considering its size. There are no outstanding leaders, priests, ministers, or doctors. In there were two yerbateros, but accu- sations of withchcraft forced them to leave the town. The town is not particularly religious, being indifferent to Catholic and Protestant and, apparently, to the remnants of its own Indian beliefs.
Steggerda, This is a description, not of a community, but of a town, a geographic space in which the social life of the inhabitants is so apathetic and minimal that there is hardly a trace of that magical attraction and cohesion that makes human groups a society and that distinguishes such hordes from the world of nature.
Mi title, then, is evidence for ray argument as I enact that which is being analyzed here, which is how the community of Piste is imagined as ze- ro-degree Maya culture. He offers postmodern, modern, exprimitive as the new conti- nuum of socio-cultural types. I suggest tha Piste is a outside, beyond and against this typology as it is anomalous and contradictory to Redfield's Continuum; thus, if forced to make a cube fit a circu- lar slot, Piste would be ami- or posf-exprimitive.
Te discussion below elaborates this comment. One might think this is an urban center, yet this Town of ! Indifferent and Apathetic inhabitants lacks those well known diagnostic traits of Urban Mod- ernity alienation, anomie, fragmentation, individualism, conflict, enlighten- ment as much as it lacks the Culture of Maya Folk.
Nonetheless, Steggerda, in his notes and ethnography, describes local dances, sports, bull-fights, and other ritual of sacred and social life wich characterizes village as distinct from urban life: Here, then, is a non-folk folk characterized by non-alienated alienation and non-anarchic anarchy in a context of non-urban urbanism. Can we not call this town, if only tentatively and with irony, postmodern?
Considering just one sense of that vehemently debated term that of and- or beyond modern and the emotional fervor it provokes danger , the epithet fits. Piste is and names a social ratify that the anthropological imagination cannot locate nor categorize. Rather, it does so, but between Nature and Culture and betwixt the ideal types of Culture as theorized in modernist typologies of social forms: This is an anti-community, community of zero-degree culture 5.
As such, Piste, as understood and represented by Carnegie anthropology, embodies anomaly, danger, pollution and even scandal. In another place 6,1 elaborate on the danger it poses not only to the categories of Redfield's model but his theorization of Culture. Instead, I focus here on the scandal that Piste represents for the Carnegie Institution. The C. While An- drew Carnegie built libraries for U.
Although muy statement implies the contrary, I do not consider this post-structura- list framework to be postmodern or postmodernist theory.
I concur with Huyssen on thin- king of the relationship of poststructuralism and postmodernism. The contributions in Helm offer a general departure on this theme as well, if wrote the test inscribed in both stone and volumes of books that are stored there in that theatre of memory Yates, In the darkness of the Yucatec jungle, the Carnegie brought enlightenment and Chan Kom cultivated this Pro- gress 8.
In contrast, Piste registered no improvement, no progress, no impact: Only zero-degree culture can be measured in Piste. Washington, D. Dear Mr. Relative to our conversation of a few days ago, dealing whit the money spent in Piste, may I quote a paragraph from [the draft of] my [forthcoming] manuscript: Naturally, this had its effect on the Piste population I quote this paragraph in order that you may know the effect that I think the In- stitution has had upon the inhabitants of Piste.
If you can supply me with a figure for the space I left blank, I would be glad to have it If you think this is not ex- pedient, I, of course, will change the text relative to this point9. Harrison, the Carnegie Editor, with the requested: The total sum paid in local wages by Sylvanus G. Morley, Director of the C. Hinsley traces the history of the Smithsonian in relation to the poli- tics of incorporating North American Indigenous groups; in a later essay , he offers only a brief comparison to the Mesoamerican situation.
Lagemann has made a study of the politi- cal economy of the Carnegie Corporation which has aided mi thinking on the issues discussed here. Four days after the initial request for information, the administrative secre- tary, Mr.
Gilbert answered Steggerda: The data now in hand concerning cost of labor at Chichen between and indicates great variation in amounts and in number of men employed in various years.
It seems to me that a better way of stating your case might be the following, or something like it: In addition the Mexican Government employed many of Piste's men in work of restoration at Chichen Itza.
If we were to try to arrive at an average for annual expenditure it would proba- bly be between seven and eight thousand dollars. In some years, however, it did not amount to more than two or three thousand. Of course, this is entirely your party. I have taken the liberty of expressing a possible form of statement only in order to put my thoughts on the subject concisely.
Sincerely yours. Gilbert on April 7, First, no figures were requested, tabulated, presented or relayed concerning the num- ber of workers under Morley. Estimated of Workers: See discussion below. The letter see Edwards, is addressed from Mrs. Walter M. Edwards, although Larry W. Edwards is the signer above the former name. For a rea- son unknown to me, it is addressed to Mrs. William H. It is also worth noting the explanatory or qualifying text that follows the data: Yet, Gilbert suggests that Steggerda mention on more than 50 as the usual number of workers, that is, from half to a third the actual figure.
Second, the Secretary of the C. The Mexicans were also there! Gilbert sidesteps the question with obfuscation. He tells Steggerda that in essence the accounts are so confusing! Certainly, Steggerda assumed and so should we that the Carnegie kept and keeps precise financial records of their monies —how could they not?
How then could the message not be other than that this is a delicate and dangerous issue. Imprecision is the recommended paht: There is powerful assumption and moral framework operating here: Piste should have progressed.
Or so asserts one Carnegie scien- tist. Here is the scandalous, if revised, paragraph, published in by the Car- negie, that attests to the anti-progressive indifference of the town: What are Chinese doing in a Maya village?! Similar exclamations —which correlate to the surprise that the Native owns a T.
This informa- tion is comes primarily from the , , reports for which this breakdown is documen- ted. Later years eliminated the detailing of this and all other expenses; a flat, uncalculated sum was merely reported. Two years later Carnegie Institution rented the hacienda at Chichen Itza as headquarters for ist archeological and other investigations.
During the eight-year period between and , when excavation and repair work were at their height, the Institution employed per season as many as 50 In- dian and Yucatecan laborers, mostly from Piste. The Mexican government also en- gaged many Piste men in its restoration at Cichen Itza.
The large amounts of money paid in wages, most of which was probably spent in Piste, did not materially change the mores of the community. People continued to cultivate their cornfields and to eat the same kind of food as they had before. A few effects, however, were noticeable. The number of horses probably increased in that period, or rather, they conspicuous- ly decreased after the Institution activity ceased. It is possible also that more Maya women wore gold chains, although no actual count was made.
No auto- mobiles or house luxuries were purchased, nor was extra food for the table ob- served, and I believe that by the temporary effects of the money influx were com- pletely obliterated, Steggerda, Piste, in a secret opposition to Chan Kom, is truly, then, the topos and trope of antiprogress.
Even the construction of a road —which is the Euro-Yucatec sym- bol par excellance of the intrusion of Modernity and the diffusion of its Light into the Primitive Darkness of Other Folk— does not here cultivate Enlighten- ment in Piste. There should have been Culture here. But, can we buy this assessment as easily as did the Carnegie Directorship?
First, it must be made very clear that Steggerda never conducted any syste- matic research on the topic of impact, whether in material or ideational terms. In other words, there is ample grounds on which to protest the validity of Steggerda's opinion and to rethink the Car- negie impact, which I do in my conclusion.
Second, Steggerda's opinion is based on a very widely shared assumption about the causal relations that constitute society. It is an assumption that under- girds not only the paradigm of acculturation as stated by Gillan at the beginning of this paper, but the spirit of capitalism, the ethic of Protestantism, the ideology of missionary work, the legitimation of imperialism, the logic of philanthropy: Con- tact with Money or: Ironically, while decades of Marxists or materialists have not been able to prove this equation, it remanins a popular truism held by non-Marxists when debating acculturation or culture change in the relationship between Western Society and its Third and Fourth World Others.
Thus, Piste takes the form of a danger given my analysis because it does not enter into the debate either way; it does not substantiate the terms of the debate. But, is not this thesis also the dominant idea that most people in the world have of tourism? Tourism as a subject of conversation immediately provokes the question: What is the impact of tourism on the Culture-Community?
The scan- dal Steggerda reveals, the scandal of Piste for the Carnegie, is the ineffectualness of the Carnegie reason for being, if not the error of the premise of matter deter- mining mind. For us, here, it should reveal the inadequacy of explanations based on this assuption of causality.
And, it leaves us, in the final section of this paper, with the problem of how to think impact and how to formulate the question: Afterall the dramatic tourist impact on Piste is so readily available to the casual view of tourist, anthropologist, and government agent. But, before addressing these issues, I add another comment on zero-degree impact. The real scandal here is not at all the white lie told to Steggerda by the directors of the Carnegie, but the dissimulation of an ethic of knowledge that is necessarily a politics of science.
It is that same ethic of scientific intervention that Paul Sullivan has already brought to light in his account of the con- versations between Cruzob Maya and S. The scandal, I argue, is not that what we hold to be objective and neutral is ac- tually not: There is a politics to all knowledge.
There is a complex and complicitous politics to all knowledge. The scandal, as I see it, is that we continue to conceal the intricacies of this politic. This scandal is also an error, for that politics is not extraneous to either the object of study or social scientific method, but it is part of the object, it is that which constitutes the phenomena as an object and thus must be a part of the method that makes the study of that object science.
Allow me to translate these rather bold statements into an operational agenda for research. All of us who are now working in the world of the Maya must recognize and bring to light the various ways in which our own research ar- ticulates the politics of knowledge that goes by the name MUNDO MAYA.
We are inventors of Maya Cultures, traditions, Civilization: Instead of ignoring, forgetting, con- cealing, avoiding the myriad ways in which these agents intervene or that we soli- cit their intervention, we need to document the social and political web of prac- tices through which the Maya are invented as communities, Cultures, anti-cultures, oppressed classes, true spiritualists that can heal the world, kinky, kings, rourist sights, archeological objects, ethnographic manikins, folkloric dis- plays, and so on We need to reveal our own complicity in the production of the mystery of the Maya, especially now in the context of the Mundo Maya.
I do not suggest that an archeologist, instead of getting on with the excavation, ana- lyze the politics of their archeological research. But, it is important to document it as much as possible in field notes and other records.
In this way, our individual blindnesses can be illucidated by those others who are devoted to such analyses. How can it be measured, if it exists? In stark contradiction to the jugement that got the Carnegie goat, is Steg- gerda's own description of a bustling economy in Piste. In his generalized de- scription of material life, he mentions economic transactions, such as the in- creased purchase of horses, iron implements for household use p. It may be hard to imagine, but no automobiles, house- hold luxuries, or extra food were purchased!
He mentions that several cantinas, 12 See Castaneda n. The cover article of Time Magazine, , concerns changing perceptions of the Maya. This is not a fortuitous poli- tics of knowledge, but exemplary of the invention of the Maya according to a field of contesting agents and interests. Why was this entrepeneurial activity perceived as anarchic, zero-degree in- difference of an anti-community and not the cultivating culture of Progress? No scarcity of resources, no cacique or socialist politics and no ideological camoflaging of unequal dis- tribution of surplus value.
I suppose that the economic boom made individuals and the collectivity content and not very concerned with either the politics of the day or the perceptions of American scientists: This economic wellbeing and contentedness with their situation was perceived as indifference and apathy, which in turn was identified with the category of anarchy and thus the absence of culture.
No culture and no impact. But, what then could be the impact of tourism starting in the s? It is al- together too easy to assert that tourism transforms peasants into proletariats and transforms a peasant world view into a capitalist spirit and ethic.
Certainly, the multiply authored invention of a tourist industry in Piste and Chicen did not transform peasants into petty entrepreneurs. Many of these Maya Pistelenos by the s were already predisposed in their individual and group world view to wage labor and commerce as my re-reading of Steggerda suggests. We might even speculate that this predilection can be traced to a historical difference generated in the 19th century when Piste was a booming town linked to a cattle hacienda: Can this predilection be associated with the way these Maya linked their fate to the Yucated mestizo world, which was why this town got targeted again and again by the military campaigns of the Cruzob Maya?
Perhaps not, but what we see once again is that Piste was an anomalous community of zero-degree cul- ture even for the 19th century, but whose alterity is ahistorically attributed, in the present day, to tourism.
But Goldkind , offers an excellent reinterpretation of his data. Also see Strickon for a historical critique of Redfield and Josep a, b on Yucatec caciquismo. Did the economic boom of archeology and then of tourism fifty years later trigger a change in religiuous belief and practices? Whatever changes in this arena must first consider the historical conflict of Protestant and Catholic Churches, the econo- mic bases of agricultural rituals, and the dynamics of the evangelical Protestant sects, such as the Seventh Day Adventist, Pentecostal, Mormon, and Presbyte- rian Churches, all of which are up and running in Piste.
These transmission lines are known as L-C loaded transmission lines. Mohssin Aoutoul aoutoul. Figure 1. Unit cell for Left-Handed Figure 2. In this paper, we present a C-loaded microstrip line where the serial capacitance is a set of stacked stubs fingers or plates separated by a ceramic substance of Then we have implemented this model in microstrip line distributed elements to design the equivalent 3D layout, and this interconnection structure has been simulated by the full wave EM CST MWS simulator.
Results carried out by the two simulators have been discussed and compared in order to validate the feasibility of our proposed C-loaded microstrip interconnection design. The simulated response of this transmission line, as shown in Figure 3 b , is excellent over the S-band frequency: In the literature, many structure designs [2—7] have been proposed, where microstrip interdigital capacitor technique is widely used in RF transmission lines and filters.
This technique requires larger TL sizes few millimetres, up to some centimetres , but in the case of electronic package, where size a b Figure 3.
C-loaded Microstrip line with stacked capacitors strips plates , a 3D view and b side view. Figure 5. Four-plates stacked capacitor of Figure 4 b. Reducing the size of interdigital capacitor component leads to lower capacitance values which is reflected by a high return loss values and very low insertion loss values making the interconnecting structure behaving as a reject band filter and not useful for low band frequencies such as S-band.
The solution idea, proposed in this paper, is to insert a serial capacitor in microstrip transmission line, as stacked plates portions separated by an insulating ceramic substance of Return Loss Parameter In the case of electronic packaging operating at microwave frequencies bands or higher, the return loss and insertion loss are critical parameters which validate the feasibility of any involved interconnection structures.
The gain of the proposed technique is approximately flat and closer to zero at the frequency band of interest. To confirm our computed results, we have simulated a similar wire bonding WB of 2 mm length where the measured return loss result is reported in . Figure 6 c shows that our recent CST simulated results are in good agreement with the measured ones.
Figure 7. Figure 8 a shows the results of a parametric study where the number of capacitor plates has been increased from two to four in order to increase the serial capacitance. Simulated phase shift parameter vs. Throughout the frequency range of interest, the GD is nearly flat while presenting very small positive ripples with values less than 0. The computed output signal versus the input one Figures 9 b and 9 c , in time-domain, is excellent and shows a time delay about 0.
This structure has a simple design and behaves as a composite right left handed transmission line. Aoutoul, M. Healey, J. Kiwan, F. Bourzeix, B. Lakssir, and M. Lai, A.