The first € price and the £ and $ price are net prices, subject to local VAT. Prices indicated with * include VAT for books; the €(D) includes 7% for. Germany, the. Modern Food Microbiology. Authors; (view affiliations). James M. Jay; Martin J. Historical Background. History of Microorganisms in Food. Pages PDF. ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices; Immediate eBook download after.
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Doug Lowe has written a whole bunch of computer books, including more than 35 For Dummies books Networking for Dummies. James M. Jay, Martin J. Loessner, David A. Golden-Modern Food Microbiology, 7th Edition (Food Science Texts Series) (pdf. Puji Rahayu. Preface The 7th. Modern Food Microbiology. Sixth Edition. James M. Jay. Professor Emeritus. Wayne State University. Detroit, Michigan. Adjunct Professor. University of Nevada.
In spite of their simplicity when compared to higher forms, microorganisms are capable of carrying out many complex chemical reactions essential to their perpetuation. From both the udder and the hide, organisms can contaminate the general environment, milk containers, and the hands of handlers. Some species produce mycotoxins see Chapter Chemical, Biological, and Physical Methods Pages Food Protection with Modified Atmospheres Pages PART I Historical Background The material in this part provides a glimpse of some of the early events that ultimately led to the recognition of the significance and role of microorganisms in foods.
Part 5 presents discussions of methods used to protect foods change from preserve foods in previous editions and their effects on microorganisms.
In this section, methods based on low and high temperature, drying, chemical preservatives, irradiation, and using gases to modify atmospheres, plus some new methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, electric fields, and sonication, are presented with explanations of the mechanisms of how they destroy, slow, or prevent microbial growth. This reviewer would have liked to see fermentation of food placed into this part because it is a way to preserve foods.
An omission in this section was the use of microwaves and their effects on microorganisms. In part 6, the indicators of food safety and quality are presented. A fairly good discussion of the use and misuse of coliforms and fecal coliforms is given plus the suggestion of other potential indicators. This part concludes with a brief overview of the hazard analysis critical control point HACCP system, microbiological criteria with examples for some foods, and 2 short paragraphs on food safety objectives FSO.
The final part, 7, includes 10 chapters on foodborne diseases. Each chapter seems to be written in a different format, which makes it difficult to compare information between the foodborne pathogens. The final chapter briefly covers viruses, some potential or opportunistic bacterial pathogens, toxicity from mycotoxins and phytoplanktons, and wasting diseases from prions.
Each part of the book begins with a brief introduction to the chapters that follow and a short list of general references that can be consulted for further information. Each chapter concludes with a list of references that are cited in the text by number. The index has key words with subsections that are easy to use.
This page book has a lot of reference material that make it a good source of ready access to food microbiology information; however, it also can be used as a textbook for undergraduate food microbiology courses if it is supplemented with more information on factors of the food and environment that affect microbial growth, mechanisms of degradation by various groups of microorganisms, and information on spoilage of foods made form more than 1 commodity.
Overall, this is a good reference book that is packed with information. Volume 5 , Issue 4. Peter Durand?
Bryan Donkin? Food Technol 32 4: Brandly, RJ. Migaki, and K. Taylor, Meat Hygiene. Cowell, N.
Food Technol 49 Farrer, K. Who invented the brine bath? Food Technol. Goldblith, S. A condensed history of the science and technology of thermal processing.
Joslyn, and J. Introduction to Thermal Processing of Foods, vol. Westport, CT: Jensen, L. Man's Foods, chaps. Champaign, IL: Garrard Press. Pederson, C S. Microbiology of Food Fermentations.
Schormiiller, J. Die Erhaltung der Lebensmittel. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stewart, G. Introduction to Food Science and Technology, chap. New York: Academic Press.
Tanner, F. The Microbiology of Foods, 2d ed. Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications. PART II Habitats, Taxonomy, and Growth Parameters Many changes in the taxonomy of foodborne organisms have been made during the past decade, and they are reflected in Chapter 2 along with the primary habitats of some organisms of concern in foods.
See the following for more information: Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Detection, enumeration, and identification of foodborne yeasts. Doyle, M. Beuchat, TJ. Montville, eds. Food Microbiology—Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington, D C: Food spoilage as well as foodborne pathogens are covered in this page work along with general growth parameters. Microorganisms in Foods. Gaithersburg, MD: All of the foodborne pathogens are covered in this page work with details on growth parameters.
Well referenced. CHAPTER 2 Taxonomy, Role, and Significance of Microorganisms in Foods Because human food sources are of plant and animal origin, it is important to understand the biological principles of the microbial biota associated with plants and animals in their natural habitats and respective roles.
Although it sometimes appears that microorganisms are trying to ruin our food sources by infecting and destroying plants and animals, including humans, this is by no means their primary role in nature.
In our present view of life on this planet, the primary function of microorganisms in nature is self-perpetuation. During this process, the heterotrophs carry out the following general reaction: All organic matter carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc.
This, of course, is essentially nothing more than the operation of the nitrogen cycle and the cycle of other elements Figure The microbial spoilage of foods may be viewed simply as an attempt by the food biota to carry out what appears to be their primary role in nature. This should not be taken in the teleological sense. In spite of their simplicity when compared to higher forms, microorganisms are capable of carrying out many complex chemical reactions essential to their perpetuation.
To do this, they must ob- tain nutrients from organic matter, some of which constitutes our food supply. If one considers the types of microorganisms associated with plant and animal foods in their natural states, one can then predict the general types of microorganisms to be expected on this particular food product at some later stage in its history. Results from many laboratories show that untreated foods may be expected to contain varying numbers of bacteria, molds, or yeasts, and the question often arises as to the safety of a given food product based on total microbial numbers.
The question should be twofold: What is the total number of microorganisms present per gram or milliliter and what types of organisms are represented in this number? It is necessary to know which organisms are associated with a particular food in its natural state and which of the organisms present are not normal for that particular food.
It is, therefore, of value to know the general distribution of bacteria in nature and the general types of organisms normally present under given conditions where foods are grown and handled.
Many of the new taxa have been created as a result of the employment of molecular genetic Nitrogen Atmospheric Nitrogen fixation Denitrification Atmospheric nitrogen fixed by many microorganisms, e. Ctostridium, Azotobacter etc.
Reduction of nitrates to gaseous nitrogen by bacteria, e. From Microbiology by MJ. Pelczar and R. The methods that are the most powerful as bacterial taxonomic tools are outlined and briefly discussed below. First, the prokaryotic ribosome is a 70S Svedberg unit, which is composed of two separate functional subunits: When the singlestranded DNA is made in the presence of dideoxynucleotides, DNA fragments of various sizes result that can be sequenced by the Sanger method.
It was through studies of 16S rRNA sequences that led Woese and his associates to propose the establishment of three kingdoms of life-forms: Eukaryotes, Archaebacteria, and Prokaryotes. The last include the cyanobacteria and the eubacteria, with the bacteria of importance in foods being eubacteria. Sequence similarities of 16S rRNA are widely employed, and some of the new foodborne taxa were created primarily by its use along with other information. Nucleotide catalogs of 16S rRNA have been prepared for a number of organisms, and exten- sive libraries exist.
Sequences -mers of bases are produced and separated, and similarities SAB Dice-type coefficient between organisms can be compared.
The sequencing of 16S rRNA by reverse transcriptase is preferred to oligonucleotide cataloging, as longer stretches of rRNA can be sequenced. By 16S rRNA analysis, the grampositive eubacteria fall into two groups at the phylum level: The latter group is referred to as the Clostridium branch of the eubacterial tree.
It has been noted that the ideal reference system for bacterial taxonomy would be the complete DNA sequence of an organism. In the meantime, changes in the extant taxa may be expected to continue to occur.
Some of the important genera known to occur in foods are listed below in alphabetical order. Some are desirable in certain foods; others bring about spoilage or cause gastroenteritis. Each genus has its own particular nutritional requirements, and each is affected in predictable ways by the parameters of its environment. Eight environmental sources of organisms to foods are listed below, and these, along with the genera of bacteria and protozoa noted, are presented in Table to reflect their primary food-source environments.
Soil and Water. These two environments are placed together because many of the bacteria and fungi that inhabit both have a lot in common. Soil organisms may enter the atmosphere by the action of wind and later enter water bodies when it rains. They also enter water when rainwater flows over soils into bodies of water. Aquatic organisms can be deposited onto soils through the actions of cloud formation and subsequent rainfall. This common cycling results in soil and aquatic organisms being one and the same to a large degree.
Some aquatic organisms, however, are unable to persist in soils, especially those that are indigenous to marine waters. Alteromonas spp. The bacterial biota of seawater is essentially gram negative, and gram-positive bacteria exist there essentially only as transients. Contaminated water has been implicated in Cyclospora contamination of fresh raspberries.
Plants and Plant Products. It may be assumed that many or most soil and water organisms contaminate plants. However, only a relatively small number find the plant environment suitable to their overall well-being. Those that persist on plant products do so by virtue of a capacity to adhere to plant surfaces so that they are not easily washed away and because they are able to obtain their nutritional requirements.
Notable among these are the lactic acid bacteria and some yeasts. Among others that are commonly asso- ciated with plants are bacterial plant pathogens in the genera Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas, and fungal pathogens among several genera of molds. Food Utensils. When vegetables are harvested in containers and utensils, one would expect to find some or all of the surface organisms on the products to contaminate contact surfaces.
As more and more vegetables are placed in the same containers, a normalization of the microbiota would be expected to occur. In a similar way, the cutting block in a meat market along with cutting knives and grinders are contaminated from initial samples, and this process leads to a buildup of organisms, thus ensuring a fairly constant level of contamination of meatborne organisms.
Gastrointestinal Tract. This biota becomes a water source when polluted water is used to wash raw food products. The intestinal biota consists of many organisms that do not persist as long in waters as do others, and notable among these are pathogens such as salmonellae. Any or all of the Enterobacteriaceae may be expected in fecal wastes, along with intestinal pathogens, including the five protozoal species already listed. Food Handlers.
The microbiota on the hands and outer garments of handlers generally reflect the environment and habits of individuals, and the organisms in question may be those from soils, waters, dust, and other environmental sources. Additional important sources are those that are common in nasal cavities and the mouth and on the skin, and those from the gastrointestinal tract that may enter foods through poor personal hygienic practices.
This is a source of salmonellae to poultry and other farm animals. In the case of some silage, it is a known source of Listeria monocytogenes to dairy and meat animals. The organisms in dry animal feed are spread throughout the animal environment and may be expected to occur on animal hides.
Animal Hides. In the case of milk cows, the types of organisms found in raw milk can be a reflection of the biota of the udder when proper procedures are not followed in milking and of XX indicates a very important source.
From both the udder and the hide, organisms can contaminate the general environment, milk containers, and the hands of handlers.
Air and Dust. Although most of the organisms listed in Table may at times be found in air and dust in a food-processing operation, the ones that can persist include most of the gram-positive organisms listed. Among fungi, a number of molds may be expected to occur in air and dust along with some yeasts. In general, the types of organisms in air and dust would be those that are constantly reseeded to the environment. Air ducts are not unimportant sources. They are not meant to be used for culture identifications.
For the latter, one or more of the cited references should be consulted. Some of the identifying features of these bacteria are presented in Appendixes A and B. These gram-negative rods show some affinity to the family Neisseriaceae, and some that were formerly achromobacters and moraxellae are placed here.
Also, some former acinetobacters are now in the genus Psychrobacter. They differ from the latter and the moraxellae in being oxidase negative. They are strict aerobes that do not reduce nitrates. Although rod-shaped cells are formed in young cultures, old cultures contain many coccoidshaped cells. They are widely distributed in soils and waters and may be found on many foods, especially refrigerated fresh products.
See Chapter 4 for a further discussion relative to meats. It has been proposed, based on DNArRNA hybridization data, that the genera Acinetobacter, Moraxella, and Psychrobacterbe placed in a new family Moracellaceae , but this proposal has not been approved. These are typically aquatic gram-negative rods formerly in the family Vibrionaceae but now in the family Aeromonadaceae. They are normal inhabitants of the intestines of fish, and some are fish pathogens. The species that possesses pathogenic properties is discussed in Chapter Although gram negative, these organisms sometimes stain gram positive.
They are rods that do not, as the generic name suggests, ferment sugars but instead produce alkaline reactions, especially in litmus milk. Nonpigmented, they are widely distributed in nature in decomposing matter of all types. Raw milk, poultry products, and fecal matter are common sources. These are marine and coastal water inhabitants that are found in and on seafoods; all species require seawater salinity for growth.
They are gram-negative motile rods that are strict aerobes. This genus was created during revision of the genera Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella,39 and the three species were once classified as Campylobacter. They are gram-negative curved or S-shaped rods that are quite similar to the campylobacters except they can grow at 15 0 C and are aero tolerant. They are found in poultry, raw milk, shellfish, and water; and in cattle and swine products.
These are gram-positive sporeforming rods that are aerobes in contrast to the clostridia, which are anaerobes. Although most are mesophiles, psychrotrophs and thermophiles exist. The genus contains only two pathogens: Although most strains of the latter are nonpathogens, some cause foodborne gastroenteritis further discussed in Chapter The phylogenetic heterogeneity of this genus employing small-subunit rRNA sequence data allowed five groups to be formed.
The group 3 cluster has been given the generic name Paenibacillus see below ; and B.
The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species, B. The B. These gram-positive non-sporeforming rods are closely related to the genera Lactobacillus and Listeria,33 and some of the common features are discussed in Chapter Although they are not true coryneforms, they bear resemblance to this group.
Typically, exponential-phase cells are rods, and older cells are coccoids, a feature typical of coryneforms. Their separate taxonomic status has been reaffirmed by rRNA data, although only two species are recognized: They share some features with the genus Microbacterium. They are common on processed meats and on fresh and processed meats that are stored in gas-impermeable packages at refrigerator temperatures. In contrast to B.
These gram-negative, spirally curved rods were formerly classified as vibrios. They are microaerophilic to anaerobic. The genus has been restructured since The once C. For more information, see reference 32 and Chapter This genus of grampositive, catalase-negative rods was formed to accommodate some organisms previously classified as lactobacilli.
They are phylogenetically closer to the enterococci and vagococci than the lactobacilli. They differ from the lactobacilli in being unable to grow on acetate medium and in their synthesis of oleic acid. They are found on vacuum-packaged meats and related products, as well as on fish and poultry meats. These enteric bacteria are slow lactose-fermenting, gram-negative rods.
All members can use citrate as the sole carbon source. These anaerobic sporeforming rods are widely distributed in nature, as are their aerobic The genus contains many species, some of which cause disease in humans see Chapter 24 for C.
A reorganization of the genus involves the creation of the following five new genera: Caloramater, Filifactor, Moorella, Oxobacter, and Oxalophagus. The five new genera appear to be unimportant in foods. This is one of the true coryneform genera of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are sometimes involved in the spoilage of vegetable and meat products.
Most are mesotrophs, although psychrotrophs are known, and one, C. The genus has been reduced in species with the transfer of some of the plant pathogens to the genus Clavibacter and others to the genus Curtobacterium.
These enteric gram-negative bacteria are typical of other Enterobacteriaceae relative to growth requirements, although they are not generally adapted to the gastrointestinal tract. They are further characterized and discussed in Chapter This genus was erected to accommodate some of the Lancefield serologic group D cocci. It has since been expanded to more than 16 species of grampositive ovoid cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in short chains.
They were once in the genus Streptococcus. Some species do not react with group D antisera. The genus is characterized more thoroughly in Chapter 20, and its phylogenetic relationship to other lactic acid bacteria can be seen in Figure These gram-negative enteric rods are especially associated with plants, where they cause bacterial soft rot see Chapter 8.
At least three species have been transferred to the genus Pantoea. This is clearly the most widely studied genus of all bacteria. These gram-negative rods are characterized by their production of yellow to red pigments on agar and by their association with plants.
Some are mesotrophs, and others are psychrotrophs, where they participate in the spoilage of refrigerated meats and vegetables. This genus has undergone drastic redefinition, resulting in the creation of several new genera Weeksella, Chryseobacterium, Empedobacter, andBergeyella , none of which appear to be associated with foods. Some of the new genera contain fish pathogens and some are halophiles.
These gram-negative enteric rods are important in the spoilage of refrigerated meat and vegetable products; H. A new genus split off from the genus Micrococcus? Taxonomic techniques that came into wide use during the s have been applied to this genus, resulting in some of those in the ninth edition of Bergey's Manual being transferred to other genera.
Foodborne Listeriosis. Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Salmonella and Shigella. Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Escherichia coli.
Foodborne Animal Parasites. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction With 30 revised and updated chapters, the new edition of this classic text brings benefits to professors and students alike who will find new sections on proteobacteria, bottled water, food sanitizers eletrolyzed oxidating water, ozone, chlorine, activin, chitosans, endolysins, etc.
The book builds on the trusted and established sections on food preservation by modified atmosphere, high pressure and pulsed electric field processing, food-borne pathogens, food regulations, fresh-cut produce, new food products, and risk assessment and analysis.
In-depth references, appendixes, illustrations, index and thorough updating of taxonomies make this an essential for every food scientist. Food Microbiology Food Safety Foodborne pathogens. Golden 3 1. University of Tennessee Knoxville. Bibliographic information DOI https: