Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter. Anjali Sinha1 reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling the room lights as well us counting number of persons/ visitors in the . ARM7 Datasheet caite.info Page Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor. Counter Desgined using Microcontroller. Rajat shah1, Deepak Rasaily. 2, Tashi Rapden Wangchuk3. The project titled - “Automatic Room Light Control Using Bidirectional Visitor . Counter with Automatic Room Light Controller and Arduino as the master.
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AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by SARATH M.R. SARATH PRADEEP. AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER MINI PROJECT REPORT Carried out in the partial fulfillment of the. Controller With Bidirectional Visitor Counter “on having completed this project. Very first would like to This Project ―Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter using Microcontroller is a .. INCLUDE reg_pdf. RB0 EQU H.
For example, to display the letter "T" on the screen you would set RS high. Related Papers. This problem is overcome by inserting known delays into our program. This project has 2 modules. The microcontroller does the above job. Related Papers. This is a small and easy to use 1 channel relay board.
IR sensor is nothing but a diode, which is sensitive for infrared radiation. The current flowing in one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit. Highly sophisticated relays are utilized to protect electric power systems against trouble and power blackouts as well as to regulate and control the generation and distribution of power. In the home, relays are used in different appliances like refrigerators, washing machines and dishwashers, and heating and air-conditioning controls.
Every relay contains a sensing unit, the electric coil, which is powered by AC or DC current. When the applied current or voltage exceeds a threshold value, the coil activates the armature, which operates either to close the open contacts or to open the closed contacts.
When a power is supplied to the coil, it generates a magnetic force that actuates the switch mechanism. The magnetic force is, in effect, relaying the action from one circuit to another. The first circuit is called the control circuit while the second is called the load circuit. There are three important functions of a relay: Motor Speed Control, used to disconnect a motor if it runs slower or faster than the desired speed Logic Operation: Test Equipment, used to connect the instrument to a number of testing points on the device under test There are two basic types of relays: Electromechanical and Solid State.
Electromechanical relays have moving parts, whereas solid state relays have no moving parts. Relay Board: It contains a power supply circuit, regulatory circuitry and of course the relays that we need to turn parts or all of our device or devices on and off — or to switch them between states.
Solid state relays are reliable over a longer term than electro mechanical relays thanks to the simple fact that they have no moving parts hence the name solid state , which means of course that nothing can seize up or break off and prevent successful operation.
The SSR on our relay board contain a transistor or a number of transistors, through which the switch of state is made. The basic function of the relays on our relay board is to flick between one or several poles.
Most of the terminology describing the state of the contacts in our relay board is compressed into acronymic form: A Normally Open contact is one that is usually disconnected — so in its resting or inactive state the contact is open. A Normally Closed contact has the opposite characteristic: The switch on our relay board throws the pole between the Normally Open and the Normally Closed circuit when the switch is activated.
The functions of the switches on our relay board depend naturally on our application. In general terms they are commonly used to increase power where there is a weak power source amplification, usually of a signal ; to isolate a controlled and controlling circuit from each other; to switch to a standby power state; to implement a time delay; or to control logic within our electronic circuitry.
Here we use a single channel relay board. This is a small and easy to use 1 channel relay board. Use it to control one V power appliances directly from microcontrollers or low voltage circuits.
Perfect for DEPT. Each relay has three connections-Common, normally Open, Normally Closed brought out in 3 pin screw terminals which makes it easy to make and remove connections. The board has a power indication and a relay status LED, to ease debugging. The board can accept inputs within a wide range of voltage from 4V to 12V. Figure 4. Ever since the basic ideas of power were thought up by Nikola Tesla and others, then implemented in today's power system, people have been craving power.
People need power to run their homes, cars, computers, etc. To be able to manipulate power is vital to today's society.
Every circuit designed today needs power to be applied for the circuit to function. DC is the basis for most circuit designs that goes into everyday products.
If a circuit has no power a circuit would not be able to perform its desired function. A variable DC power supply, seen in every electronics lab, on the market today very costly.
These lab power supplies are very good for testing a circuit in the lab but not useful to be used in a product application. These power supplies can be very bulky and not very mobile. There is a need for a power supply that is cheap, reliable, efficient, and small. Thus we use power supply module with voltage regulators for desired dc voltage supply.
Voltage regulators To regulate the voltage of IC and to give positive output a regulator is used. The regulators used in this project are LM and LM Figure 5. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.
The AC mains voltage will be stepped down by the transformer , rectified by bridge and filtered by capacitor to obtain a steady DC level.
The regulates this voltage to obtain a steady 12V DC. The output of the will be regulated by the to obtain a steady 5V DC at its output. In this way both 12V and 5V DC are obtained. Such a circuit is very useful in cases when we need two DC voltages for the operation of a circuit. A power supply board consisting two voltage regulators LM and LM provides regulated power supply for all units in the circuit.
The sensing unit consists of two IR pairs for the detection of people entering and leaving the room. Its output is given as the microcontroller input. It displays the count and is controlled by PIC16F The switching unit consists of a single channel relay board which is controlled by the microcontroller output and when turned on drives the device in this case a light bulb connected to it.
The PIC16F is constantly checking the sensing unit output for detection of people entering and leaving the room. The sensing unit consists of 2 pairs of transmitter and receiver placed on the door frame, in-front of each other. Also the controller turns on the relay thus turning on the light of the room connected to the relay.
The microcontroller decrements the count and display the count via LCD display. When the count becomes zero ie, when last person leaves the room, microcontroller turns the relay off thus switching off the light of the room connected to the relay.
All of this is done automatically; all we have to do is switch on the circuitry. This will prevent unwanted wastage of electricity and will give us count of person in the room. Omniscient Code Generation has been developed to read and process all C source modules in one step and can deliver denser code, improve RAM utilization and reduce interrupt latency.
It supports all devices; however OCG optimizations are not available. Rather than relying completely on the linker to uncover errors in independently compiled modules, an OCG compiler completes the initial stages of compilation for each module separately, but defers object code generation until the point at which a view of the whole program is available. Information gathered from a global view of the program can be used to provide better detection of potential errors in the user's code and to better optimize the output.
The performance of an electronic circuit depends on the layout and the design of PCB. A PCB mechanically supports and connects components by conductive pathways, etched from copper sheets laminated on to insulated substrate. PCB ape used to rotate electrical currents and signals through copper tracts which are firmly bonded to an insulating base.
In this project we used separate module and connected them together to work as a system. This project can be used in various rooms like seminar hall, where the capacity of room is limited and should not be exceeded. Project will display the actual number of persons inside the room. Can be used in class rooms, conference room, and study rooms in colleges. This project can also be used in our home because many times we come out of our bedroom and forgot to turn off the room light.
When there is nobody inside the room then lights are turned off, thus this project helps in energy conservation. Low cost and easily implemented on single doors.
Very easy to use. We can send this data to a remote location using mobile or internet. We can implement RFID reader. Thus we can not only get the total number of people inside the room but also we will be able to get their identity using RFID cards. This device can be implemented in homes, seminar halls, class rooms, conference room, and study rooms in colleges.
This device has been introduced keeping in mind the energy conservation and thus reducing cost of living. The device displays the number of people inside the room and automatically switches off lights when last person leaves the room.
It occupies less space on the door frame. More improvement can be done to the project, one being using a DTMF or Bluetooth module to send data to remote location.
So the driver transistor is added. The relay is used to operate the external solenoid forming part of a locking device or for operating any other electrical devices.
Normally the relay remains off. As soon as pin of the microcontroller goes high, the relay operates and releases. Diode D2 is the standard diode on a mechanical relay to prevent back EMF from damaging Q3 when the relay releases.
For more details refer seven segment multiplexing. The performance of an electronic circuit depends on the layout and the design of PCB. A PCB mechanically supports and connects components by conductive pathways, etched from copper sheets laminated on to insulated substrate.
PCB ape used to rotate electrical currents and signals through copper tracts which are firmly bonded to an insulating base. PCB Fabrication involves the following steps: Drawing the layout of the PCB in the paper.
The track layout of the Electronic circuit should be made in such manner that the paths are in easy routes. It is then transferred to a Mylar sheet. The sheet is then touched with black ink. The solder side of the Mylar sheet is placed on the shiny side of the five- Star sheet and is placed in a frame.
Then it is exposed to sunlight with Mylar sheet facing the sunlight. The exposed five- star sheet is put in Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Then it is put in hot water and shook till unexposed region becomes transparent. This is put in cold water and then the rough side is stuck on to the silk screen. This is then pressed and dried well. The plastic sheet of the five-star sheet is removed leaving the pattern on the screen. A copper clad sheet is cut to the size and cleaned.
This is placed under screen. As it resistant ink if spread on the screen so that a pattern of tracks and a pad is obtained on a copper clad sheet. It is then dried. The dried sheet is then etched using Ferric chloride solution 32Baume till all the unwanted Copper is etched away.
Swish the board to keep each fluid moving. Lift up the PCB and check whether all the unwanted Copper is removed. Etching is done by immersing the marked copper clad in Ferric Chloride solution after that the etched sheet is dried. The unwanted resist ink is removed using Sodium Hydroxide solution Holes are them dried.
The popularly used solders are alloys of tin Sn and lead Pb that melts below the melting point of tin. Rosin core: These solders are available in various diameters and are most appropriate for small electronics work 0. Lead free: Acid —core: They are intended for plumbing or non-electronics assembly work. The acid-core flux will cause corrosion of circuitry and can damage components.
Other special solders: These special solders are typically used for non-electronic assembly of difficult to construct mechanical items that must be assembled in a particular sequence. These solders are used in the field application or in specialized manufacturing application.
FLUX In order to make the surface accept the solder readily, the components terminals should be free oxides and other obstructing films. The lead should be cleaned chemically or by abrasion using blades or knives.
Small amount of lead coating can be done on the portion of the leads using soldering iron. This process is called thinning. Zinc chloride or ammonium chloride separately or in combination is mostly used as fluxes. These are available in petroleum jelly as paste flux. The desirable properties of flux are: The most common flux used in hand soldering of electronic components is rosin, a combination of mild organic acids extracted from pine tree. It operates in V supply.
The iron at the tip gets heated while few minutes. The 50W and 25W soldering irons are commonly used for soldering of electronics circuit. Make the layout of the component in the circuit. Plug in the chord of the soldering iron the mains to get heated. Straighten and clean the component leads using a blade or a knife. Mount the components on the PCB by bending the leads of the components.
Use nose pliers. Apply flux on the joints and solder the joints.
Soldering must be in minimum time to avoid dry soldering and heating up of the components. Wash the residue using water and brush.
Solder joins should be inspected when completed to determine if they have been properly made.
Shiny surface. Good, smooth fillet. Dull or crystallized surface: This is an indicator of a cold solder joint. Cold solder joint result from moving the component after soldering has been removed, but before the solder has hardened. Cold solder joints may work at first, but will eventually fail.
Air pocket: Air pocket voids result from incomplete wetting of surface, allowing air to be in contact with the connecting metals. This will cause oxidation of the joints and eventual failure. Blow holes can occur due to vaporization of the moisture on the surface of the board and existing through the molten solder.
Boards should be clean and dry. Prior to soldering. Dimples in the surface do not always indicate a serious problem, but they should be avoided since they are precursors to voids. These black spots usually result from overheated burnt Rosin or other contaminants such as burnt wire insulation.
Maintaining a clean tip will help to avoid these problems. A solder balls, instead of a fillet can occur if the trace was heated but the leads was not vice versa. This prevents proper wetting of both surfaces and result in solder being attached to only one surface component or trace 6. Excess solder: Excess solder usage can cover up other potential problems and should be avoided. It can lead to solder bridges. In addition, spherical solder joints can result from the application of too much solder.
Related Papers. By Sanjay Sangwan. By Engr Rana M Shakeel. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up.