Forensic Medicine and Toxicology is an abridged version of the previous books viz. "Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology" and "Essentials of Forensic. Modern Textbook of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology written by Dr. Putul Mananta a renowned Forensic Medicine Expert, a good teacher, researcher and an. Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. SECOND EDITION. Nageshkumar G Rao. BSc MBBS MD FIAMLE FICFMT. Professor of Forensic Medicine.
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PDF | A Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology meant for undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. An Contents Part I ForensIc MedIcIne section 1: General aspects 5 – 1. Introduction and Legal Procedure 5 2. Medical Law and Ethics 26 3. Identiication caite.info The Sixth Extinction: An Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 2nd Edition.
MLI ibrillation iii Hyperkalemia 1 Almost always accidental. Mechanism of Fig. Distinction death 1 Legally speaking a person is dead when somatic death has Practical importance of the distinction between somatic and molecular an individual would be somatically alive, which is an absurd situation. Garry F. A handbook of the practice of forensic medicine, based upon personal experience PDF P This book covers the following topics: Absconding to avoid service of summons mentioned must be referred to.
A subsidiary ridge [syn incipient, nascent wearing of bras.
Ex a gait b signature c voice etc. Physical characteristics is found under and around the nails.
Bone comparisons 4. Nails leathery, bark-like, discolored neck skin, because of constant contact iii Often involve the sacrococcygeal and lumbosacral junctions. The 1 Nails are helpful in: Structure of the ridge system clipped nails of kidnapped persons might be available from the place where during radiologic evaluation.
Even if Extra information is given in small type. May proitably be read to get Extensive cross-references to avoid duplication of text. MLI of algor mortis of death [Table 1]. Sometimes two dead in lobes of ears and in tissues underneath ingernails A B 1. Gross bodies lying side by side may show remarkable diff ii back of chest and abdomen in supine position. Head of the wound 1 Fresh — Hematoma formation 2 12 h — i Edges Tailing in rectal temp. This may be because of individual body Most common iii front of chest and abdomen in prone red, swollen, adherent with blood and lymph ii variations, and also because one died earlier.
On the contrary, antigravity regions of the body Tailing Towards 2. It turned out that the husband had are drained of blood and become pale. Figures are considerably different when infection sets in 3.
Numbering Dermis formed. MLI of incised wounds Fig. Incised wound is deeper at the beginning and less deep D. Sometimes a stitched wound may have to be of death, hypostasis, livor mortis L.
White dotted circle highlights tailing. As putrefaction 1 Direction of weapon 2 Direction of weapon capillaries iii Backward low — of venous blood to the starts, vibices diminish in number and intensity due vertical oblique capillaries from the venular end [adds to the blueness to the breakdown of erythrocyte membranes with of pm staining] 2 Color: Large amounts of reduced Hb produce deep asphyxia or DIC.
Flap is formed 3 become correspondingly pale iv may depend on cause Suresh Selvi Direction of weapon nearly horizontal Jatin Bodwal Fig. Edges of the wound would indicate the direction of weapon. Please see text for details 7.
Hemorrhage 1 Hemorrhage is more as the vessels are cut cleanly. Cut throat wounds 1. Suicidal and homicidal Fig. PM staining. Cause of death Full pm staining has appeared. Note that pressure areas, including those caused by clothes are devoid of pm staining. Causes are 1 dead for 18 h. A peculiar tattoo is also visible on right side of back and right arm. Co-relation of photographs with corresponding line diagrams for better Synonyms of each term are given in brackets.
Numbering at 4 levels helps comprehension of concepts. Every term is followed by all possible synonyms in brackets. Etymologies are explained wherever they help to grasp the subject better. Conceptual information is given in small type and wherever necessary, is followed by appropriate examples. Memory Aids and Mnemonics Index S. Table 3: Racial differences in cephalic index Cephalic S.
No Type of skull Race index 1. Dolichocephalic Caucasoids some, eg. Mesaticephalic Caucasoids some, nasal sill [floor of nasal opening] b Shape of a caucasoid skull with medium headed eg Europeans , a nasal sill and receding maxillary bones c Slope of a Mongoloid Mongoloids some, e.
B rachycephalic Mongoloids some, e. Memory Aid - 2 DuM B h orse ii. Carabelli cusp kephale, head] - Boat shaped skull. Due to early fusion of the sagittal because of their rare occurrence.
Most common craniosynostosis. Early fusion of 1 coronal suture 3 Plagiocephaly Fig. Cusp of Carabelli - a small additional cusp at the posterior: Early closure of 1 lambdoid suture 4 Trigonocephaly [Gk mesiopalatal angle of maxillary first molars trigonon, triangle] - Congenital condition due to premature fusion of the metopic suture leading to a triangular shaped forehead.
Skull i. Cephalic index b. CI as a criterion of race was Length of humerus 2 Crural index [Latin crus, leg] [syn, tibio-femoral that besides race, local environmental conditions also inluence the CI. It is now known Length of tibia Its validity in race determination has been challenged. Long bone Indices in different races Caucasoids S. No Indices Indians Negroids Europeans 1. Brachial Index Crural Index Skulls as seen from the top 1 dolichocephalic long 3.
Intermembral Index Humerofemoral Index Soft tissues Salient features: If not available, at the base of frontal lobes. Brachycephaly can occur in any other B. Base-wing index and corporobasal index please correlate with Table 13 M. For males, igures are in a neat sequence - , 65, Female indices are greater for irst 2 and lesser for 3rd.
The differences are 10, 15 and 5 - another easily remembered sequence. Sex differences in the human sternum Please correlate with Fig 3.
No Criteria Male Female 5 1. Enunciated by M 1 Ashley in ] 2. Breadth more Less 4. Level of Upper margin in level with lower part of in level with lower B body of T2 part of body of T3 S3 8 6.
Sternal [manubrio-corpus] index Major differences in male 8. Sternal foramen Twice as common as in Less common numbers with Table 14; no 6 not females shown Table Sex differences in human ribs S.
No Criteria Male Female 1. Composition Thicker Thinner 2. Curvature Lesser Greater 3. Obliquity [cranio—caudal inclination] Less oblique. Length of ribs in relation of body Less [ribs are relatively shorter] More [ribs are relatively longer — better accommodate height abdominal distension during pregnancy] Table Sex differences in human thoracic bones S.
Shape of thorax Longer and narrower Shorter and wider 2. Coracoid [C] should have united by now. In this case, which is a variation, coracoid is still showing minor non-union.
Scaphoid and trapezium should have appeared by now normally, but this X-ray shows a variation. Tattoo made with a UV reactive ink. Elastic tissue is however present - Aluminum green, violet ; barium white ; cadmium in striae gravidarum. Erasure copper blue, green ; iron brown, red, black ; lead Scars can be erased by 1 Skin grafting and 2 Excision with yellow, green, white ; mercury red ; nickel black ; suturing of edges of excised area.
This results in another titanium white , ultramarine [double silicate of scar, but which is less prominent that the earlier one. Metal oxides used are ferrocyanide and ferricyanide 7. MLI yellow, red, green, blue. Tattoos radiates visible light after having absorbed energy earlier.
Sometimes radioactive materials are also added. These work on the principle name of self, husband, or a of luorescence; the inks are made of lorescent material. Permanency permanently on the skin of 1 Once imprinted, tattoos remain on the body almost the body [Fig 3. Tattooing has been practiced since ancient times. A common tattoo specialized procedures.
Several deity fade depends upon a composition of dye b depth up Egyptian mummies have been found to which the dye is inserted - Dye should be injected to 1 Site - Tattoos can be to have tattoos.
Dye injected supericially gradually fades found on just about any part of the body, though the in some years.
Dye injected too deep is removed by commonest site is front of forearm. Other common sites phagocytes c Site: Even facial tattoos are known. Faded tattoos site. Photography is better.
Faded tattoos may be made visible by 1 UV lamp 1. Technique 2 Infrared photography Can also reveal old tattoos Coloring matter dye is injected deep in the dermis superimposed by new tattoos [please see ch 30, under the with sharp needles, or an electric vibrator, so that heading photography] 3 Removal of epidermis: An inaccurate technique tattoo very clearly visible on dermis ii In decomposed would deposit the pigment in supericial layers of or burnt bodies — can be done easily Fig 3.
Dyes the area. Bistouri 2. Bone nipper 3. Bone rongeur 4 i. Brain knife sharp point 4 ii. Brain knife round point 5. Brunetti chisel 6. Cartilage knife 7. Catlin knife 9. Councilman blade saw Director grooved Disecting knife 8. Chisel Dissecting scissors Dura stripper Enterotome Hammer Langenbeck Metacarpal Saw Large ampulation knife Large needle with twine Large scissors Metacarpal Saw Myelotome PM40 Knife Plastic visor Postmortem stapler Probe Rib knife Richter Dissecting scissors Scalpel 29 i.
Rachiotomy saw 29 ii. Spinal knife Spencer Wells forceps Fig. Usual instruments required for postmortem examination. Please see text for details.
Introduction A. Thanatology Thanatology Gk Thanatos, the God of Death is that branch of science that studies death in all its aspects. Forensic Thanatology 1 2 3 Study of death from a medico-legal angle e. Immediately after 1 hour after brain 2 hours after brain brain stem death stem death stem death II.
Stages of Death Fig. Immediately after somatic death, muscles can be made to Human body consists of about 60 trillion cells, of which the brain contract by electrical stimulation. Here current is applied to a recently contains 20 billion 10 billion nerve cells in the cerebrum and 10 billion dead individual.
Note how muscles can contract on application of in cerebellum. Brain stem contains still fewer cells 2 billion cells. The extent and strength cells may still be alive e. These may take some time to die. Thus death occurs in two stages: This is the time when the individual dies as a whole.
At this time continue metabolism. Except for the rare situation of death occurring several of his body cells may still be alive somatic death ii Second, in a nuclear holocaust, all 60 trillion cells of the body never die at the when all his body cells have died molecular death.
Even fragmentation of a body by a bomb does not kill all the body cells instantaneously. Somatic Death die in bits and pieces! Molecular Death organism as a whole.
Historically the concept of when somatic death Molecular death is the death of all individual cells within occurs has kept changing. All biochemical molecular activity within the criteria - please see below].
The concept was gradually changed to brain cells comes to a stop. It comes hours after somatic death and eventually to brain stem death. With modern technology, death Fig 8. Circulation and respiration of a brain stem 1. Distinction death 1 Legally speaking a person is dead when somatic death has Practical importance of the distinction between somatic and molecular an individual would be somatically alive, which is an absurd situation.
One does not have to occurred. It involves complete and irreversible stoppage of vital wait for molecular death to occur. Life A hours usually B Usual postmortem ii Skeletal muscles continue to respond to electrical and mechanical Supravital period changes cooling, stimuli for up to hours after death Fig 8. A simplified conceptual view of somatic and molecular death. He is physostigmine causes constriction. This is the brain stem movements. This is molecular death.
The period between A and B is known as the supravital period, and is x Anaerobic chemical processes continue - a liver cells continue best for harvesting of organs for transplantation.
Usual postmortem dehydrating ethyl alcohol [if present] to acetic acid b muscle cells changes, e. Hemolysis of RBCs releases Hb, which combines with H2S released by bacteria to form sulfhemoglobin, which stains the walls of veins [esp over neck, shoulders, chest, roots of limbs, sides of abdomen and thighs].
This gives a marbled appearance [linear branching pattern, resembling branches of a tree] to the body ii Time" 48 h.
May give the appearance of gangrene, but can Fig. Demonstration of flammability of putrefactive gases. In this body who had been dead for three days, putrefactive be differentiated easily [Table 5]. A small syringe needle was poisoning"orange [ch 36]. The clear blue flame is due to methane, hydrogen and H2S.
TK Bose — i Form because ch 39]. Fluids and liquid fat may also be pushed in the blisters ii Must be differentiated from antemortem blisters [ch 14]. Summers- Shiv Ratan Kochar Fig.
Table 5: Differences between Putrefaction and gangrene S. Criteria Putrefaction Gangrene 1. Pus Not formed Usually formed 2. Phenomenon Postmortem Antemortem 3. Line of demarcation None. All Present Fig.
PM blister on chest. Area All over Localized vii. Development of foul smelling compounds A Chemical processes in putrefaction are those of reduction. Many of these gases are inlammable, and they can be ignited [Fig 9. This breakdown occurs also in living people under certain circumstances as in bad breath and bacterial Fig.
Several small PM blister on lower trunk can be seen. A large blister has been punctured and spread on the table by the pathologist vaginosis. Cadaver dogs [ch 1] discover hidden bodies by to demonstrate its size. Greenish discoloration may be seen on lower smelling these ptomaines [for more on ptomaines please see trunk. Their concentration. On the skin the less i.
Hard contact noticeable zone with respect to soot this light zone 1 Characteristics: Hard contact wound with will be found more toward the center of the zone. This is thus a special case, where burnt powder from the entrance, impacting distal to the entrance [smoke] also produces tattooing. Loose contact 1 1 Characteristics: Compare with ig This be produced in hard temporary gap cannot More noticeable 1 2 zone w. Seared black iii Soot carried zone more prominent here by the gas is deposited in a Less noticeable zone w.
Angled-contact wound 1 Position of the gun. Incomplete contact 1 Tattooing A few unburnt 1 Characteristics: Note that there is be deposited on weapon is held against some gap through which gases can escape.
Please compare the zone of soot the body surface is not 2 with Fig Area of burning, [Fig Angled contact is a gap between the tattooing merged 1 Characteristics: Incomplete contact muzzle is not in contact with it.
Its salient features are as follows Fig Six types of contusions. Black dotted arrow depicts line of impact. Coup contusion; 2. Counter coup contusion; 3.
Intermediary 5 coup contusion; 4. Fracture contusion fracture occurring away from 4 point of impact ; 5. Gliding contusion [at junction of gray and white Fig. Positive pressure theory of matter]; 6. Herniation contusion temporal lobe herniating through free edge of tentorium. This also produces uncal grooving ; 7. Herniation Lindenberg. See text for details Ashesh Gunwantrao Wankhede i At the beginning of fall, skull is accelerated. Brain lags behind due to inertia stage 1 in Fig This creates a negative pressure at the leading skull surface the surface that is going to hit the surface , and a positive pressure at the trailing skull surface stage 2 in igure.
Mechanism of Fig. Coup contusions very little CSF remains at the trailing skull surface, by the time production of coup contusions of brain. Thus there is no cushioning effect of CSF there. Both factors combine contusions. Also known over the crests of gyri. Russel agrees with the irst three stages Table 3: Coup and Countercoup Contusions described by Lindenberg, but asserts that countercoup lesions do not occur at the time of impact, but a fraction of a second 1 A blow to the head produces coup contusions no or minor after.
His salient features are: In general, coup lesions predominate if head is accelerated after impact. Negative pressure theory of Russel. A Depicts Fig. In general, contrecoup lesions predominate tensile stress. Pl see text for details. ASPHYXIA i Photography — First step is to take photographs [at close range] before removal of ligature ii The ligature 2 should now be cut opposite the knot, and the two cut 1 ends secured with a string Fig A Hanging B Strangulation.
If circumference of the ligature 2 is MORE than the circumference of the neck 3 , the ligature must have been oblique as in hanging. If it is SAME, the ligature must have been horizontal as in strangulation the deepest groove would be at the back with neck tilted backwards.
Method of securing the knot. Ligature round the neck. Portions of his shirt had been caught between the ligature and the neck.
The knot is towards the lower right side. The entire loop was removed via top of the head. Found usually in b. Ligature mark accidental hanging, especially sexual asphyxias [please Ligature mark is a type of pressure abrasion due to continued see below]. Strangulation mark found lying on the ground. In such cases, it becomes is described later. It can initially, but as the skin dries up, becomes hard parchment be done by a examining like and dark brown.
It runs from midpoint of the neck the other end of ligature upwards, outwards and backwards [from either side of which must be found the neck] to reach behind the neck where it is deicient tied to the suspension [Fig Less common chin, below either ear are 3 Granny knot and 4 Reef subaural or any other syn, square knot. In granny knot, the crossings are opposite, while speciic location.
In in reef knot they are same. Classical oblique ligature mark in hanging. Method of securing the may sometimes give away the knot. Limbs A and B form the actual profession, predilection or hobby noose around the neck. If A and B are not secured with a string D, it would be knot etc. Death by ligature at the back of neck.
The ligature has and experience may indicate the Any two of the three limbs would slipped up and has formed a patterned abrasion on the left cheek. Ligature mark at the face is an exception rather than the rule.
Types of hyoid fractures. A Inward compression fractures [seen in throttling] B Outward periosteum outside]; compression fractures [seen in hanging] C One cornu fractured inwards and the other outwards but outward movement [seen in hanging, when one end is caught up against a bony ridge or sides of the vertebrae]. Exactly the opposite happens in b. Outward Anteroposterior compression fractures anteroposterior compression fractures. Examine bone with a was pulled backwards by the assailant standing at the back.
This causes the hyoid to push back against the vertebra causing outward displacement stereomicroscope [ times magniication]. In all cases microinjuries in sexual assaults — ch 25]. A very effective method of mechanism is same - hyoid is pushed backwards against the vertebra. Since hyoid moves backwards and also sideways, one fractures.
If for some reason, could not be done before end may get caught up against a bony ridge or sides of the vertebrae. As the hyoid is pushed further back, this end would fracture inwards, start of autopsy, the thyrohyoid complex should be while the other end would fracture outwards as usual. The of fracture - i Like inward compression fractures, it x-ray or CT plates should be preserved as evidence. Dissection of neck in hanging and at 2 places. Similarly complete detachment of smaller strangulation cases fragment from the hyoid may occur if the compression is severe.
The smaller fragment may seen to be lying Please see ch 5. Suffocation 2. According to Mechanism of fracture Suffocation is exclusion of air from lungs from any means a.
Direct pressure fractures When pressure is exerted directly on the hyoid. These are most commonly other than ligature [Fig Environmental suffocation b. Avulsion fractures Environmental suffocation is deprivation of oxygen due 1 There is no direct pressure on the hyoid. Replacement attached to its upper and anterior surface"If there is associated violent downward or lateral movement of the thyroid cartilage or of O2 by a poisonous gas such as Cl2 or H2S would not pressure between hyoid and thyroid, traction occurs on hyoid through cause death primarily by asphyxia, but by poisonous thyrohyoid ligament"Avulsion fracture of hyoid 4 These are also effects.
But if fractures are present in absence of soft tissue occurs within a few minutes. Causes C. Demonstration of fractures 1 During play - children may get locked in large boxes, 1 Palpatory method: The Stages and Mechanism of Drowning Dogs have been experimentally drowned to study the stages of drowning.
Before drowning, dogs were prepared as follows: Postural asphyxia in a drunk person who collapsed to record the respiratory movements. He had been drinking, waiting for a friend to arrive.
White arrows depict weight of abdominal organs acting upon lungs preventing their expansion. Dog inspired once or twice, but was otherwise inactive drowning was divided into 5 stages: The dog He had an extremely heavy and deformed head, and was exhibited as a human was violently agitated. Struggled against its bonds, and tried to reach curiosity. Because of excessive weight of respiration — Lasted for 1 minute. Dog inspired deeply when unable to surface.
It shut its mouth and did not breathe. White foam formed, which rose to the surface. On 11 General agitation ceased.
Mouth and eyes were open. A few swallowing April , aged 27, he decided to sleep Lasted for 1 minute. Respiration stopped. Thoracic movements stopped movements were observed. Respiration restored again but Sir Frederick Treves, who conducted in the form of terminal gasps. Acute lung injury and hypoxemia an autopsy on him found his neck to be dislocated. Lung dysfunction leads favoring positional asphyxia - to alveolar collapse and acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS.
Victim is incapacitated due to Fibrillary contractions were seen in the lip and jaw muscles. The entire some reason so that he cannot Fig. Classification respire i strong intoxication asphyxia due to excessive 1. Wet Drowning weight of his head. PM Findings 1 Enormous quantities of liquid is inhaled into lungs 1 Same as that in traumatic asphyxia, except fractures 2 The victim suffers from severe chest pain.
MLI ibrillation iii Hyperkalemia 1 Almost always accidental. Dry Drowning position. In dry drowning, there is no signiicant presence of liquid in the lungs. Drowning i Laryngospasm - Just a few drops of liquids enter Drowning is a form of asphyxia caused by aspiration the larynx"elicit a violent laryngospasm"death of luid into air-passages, caused by complete or partial due to asphyxia without entry of water in lungs.
Other sp gr in increasing order are i Fat Natural tendency of the body is thus to sink down. Introduction III. Symptoms and signs Starvation is a severe reduction in nutrient, vitamin and A.
Acute Starvation energy intake that occurs either from withholding of food or Starvation is an acute severe form of primary PEU from administration of unsuitable food. Clinical is gradual. Chronic malnutrition, as occurs in poor, deprived sections a.
Causes b. Circumstantial causes a Cheeks - sunken b Eyes — sunken, glistening. Medical causes g Muscular weakness — progressive, severe h 1 Ankylosis of jaw 2 Alcohol and drug addicts [partial Loss of wt — Marked.
Food is ignored due to overwhelming desire for drug. In towards death. Shows follicular malnutrition] 3 Anorexia nervosa 4 Bulimia nervosa 5 hyperkeratosis and trophic skin changes ii Hair cancer and stricture of esophagus 6 Coma 7 Diabetes and nails — brittle, dry, lusterless, hair loss.
Ashesh Gunwantrao Wankhede 3. Miscellaneous 1 Eccentrics may refuse to eat food for no reason. According to manner 1. Accidental starvation Same as mentioned above [circumstantial causes]. Suicidal starvation i Fasting - a political reasons [fast unto death] b 2 3 purely exhibition. Homicidal starvation Withholding of food from unwanted children, step Fig. PM appearances in starvation.
Please note 1 scaphoid children, illegitimate children, child abuse, elderly abdomen 2 prominent ribs and 3 concavities within intercostal people, feeble minded, jail inmates etc.
Virginity 8 are about 4 cm long; they are two soft, small, thin, pink and sensitive folds just within the labia majora. A poetic likening of the rupture of hymen by sexual intercourse boat; a boat shaped depression].
Such a woman is called a organ located near the anterior junction of the labia delorate woman. It rupture of hymen results not in a delorate woman, is covered with a fold of skin that surrounds and protects it [clitoral but a false virgin.
Normal Female Genital Anatomy surface of clitoris, created by the two medial parts of 1. External the labia minora. Urethral opening is 2. It is a pad of fat lying in front of Memory Aid 1 pubis. They meet in front at anterior commissure 3 F ossa navicularis is in F ront of F ourchette; V estibule is and at the back at posterior commissure 4 in front V entral to V agina.
Vulva completely close the vaginal oriice 6. The labia minora includes mons veneris [which forms its anterior portion], labia major, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, hymen and urethral opening.
The perineum 15 is 10 14 15 a wedge shaped area between the lower end of the 2 posterior wall of vagina and the anterior anal wall. The 3 cervical canal is nearly at right angles to the vagina when bladder and rectum are empty. Unless diseased or infected, they cannot be seen or felt. The 9 15 4 syn female prostate, lesser vestibular glands, paraurethral glands are located on the upper wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the 5 urethra.
They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening They are the source of female ejaculation. Just as in the male, they are the principal source of PSA. Hymen Hymen [Fig Normal female genital anatomy External. Please correlate mucus membrane about 1 mm thick, situated at the vaginal nos. Introduction Act , this period is reduced to 24 weeks. Infanticide does not include the be felt by mother; iii echocardiography showed beating heart], but death of fetus during labor, or when it is destroyed dies during the process of birth [eg by aspiration, strangulation by craniotomy or decapitation.
Filicide III. Dead birth Filicide [syn, prolicide] is killing of a child older than 24 A deadborn child is one, which has died in utero, and shows hours by its own parents. Maceration a lesser offence of manslaughter and not homicide [s1, Infanticide Maceration Latin macerare, to soften by soaking is Act of England ].
This defense is not available to degenerative change occurring in a fetus retained in utero anyone else. II In India - such a law does not exist. The mother after death. The epidermis can be easily separated from ii Paternal ilicide - Unlawful destruction of a child by its own father.
Feticide and epidermis [Skin blebs]. Neonaticide red-stained luid accumulates in the serous cavities. Neonaticide is killing of an infant within 24 hours of birth. The term is paradoxical, This should be distinguished from serous effusions acquired antemortem.
Stillbirth A stillborn child is one which is born after 28th week of pregnancy and which did not breathe or show any other signs of life at any time after being completely born [WHO]. Please note skin slippage. Conversely presence of gland like lining does not indicate lungs during expiration, than what is inhaled during lack of respiration; it only indicates prematurity.
As respiration Causes: Fluid catheter or cannula passed into the trachea or by mouth present in alveoli is partly absorbed back into the to mouth respiration. Lungs are inlated partially.
They may be seen in stillbirth, live birth and gases will make the lungs loat. Distinctive features in bronchopneumonia. Tests for fetal lung maturity seen on lung surface.
II Unequal in size. III Project Presence of creatine, lecithin and fat cells. IV Gas within them 4. Changes in stomach and intestines can be pushed readily from place to place. In , Ungar began to advocate the membranes have ruptured, but may die from natural causes within the birth canal and may not breathe 1A 1B once completely born.
Respiration occurs within vagina, but not when completely born. Both vagitus uterinus and vagitus vaginalis can cause tremendous joy among relatives waiting outside the labor room. Later if they are told that the infant was born dead, they would think that child was indeed born alive, and death was caused by medical negligence.
Hydrostatic test is not necessary in following 2 conditions 1 one is sure fetus was born dead - Fetus is i born before age of viability [28 wks] ii macerated or mummiied b iii monster [eg anencephalic] iv Bruising on lungs a - indicating efforts at artiicial respiration. Radiography of lungs May reveal air within them. Microscopic Examination of the Lungs floats. On removal of roof of middle ear a , bubbles 1 Value - is limited.
Cannot provide clear evidence of of air b would escaped if the child was born alive. However the blood that is [Fig Hb carrying a -ve charge, migrates toward the break down to a powdered form which cannot show clumping. Thus even anode. Use is line forms. Enzymological 3 a long period. Antibodies in stains too are stable but for shorter periods 1 Blood in all animals have than antigens.
Currently most methods aim to detect antigens. Earlier similar enzymes, but in different Cathode — methods [eg Lattes method] aimed to detect antibodies. Principle of crossed- necessary — i About 75 mg of dried blood, or ii mg of blood- For example peroxidase [Px], over electrophoresis.
Lactate dehydrogenase LDH , human antibody 2 Precipitation a. Methods malate dehydrogenase [MDH] line 3 Human blood i. Detection of antigen in stain and esterases [Es] have different a Absorption inhibition molecular structures in all species. Assume that the stain is A. A small travel to different distances during electrophoresis and produce different amount of Anti-A is added to an A stain"A antigen present in the stain electrophoretic patterns.
Also [with known concentrations of human DNA]. If it is similar, unknown sample belongs to humans. Principle of absorption inhibition test.
Principle of absorption elution test. Several fibres can be pulled from here for testing 2 Fig Each sometime, they are taken out. Anti A sticks to the fibre in 4a. Cells in other tubes would clump. Schedule H warning printed on containers of drugs. Pl note natural material or any salt or preparation of such substance or material the conspicuous red vertical line on the left side of the upper pack.
Both these are legally required in Schedule H drug packings.
Serial number of the entry in the register should be entered on the prescription. The register must have following particulars a serial number of the entry b the date of supply c the name and V.
Garry F. Peterson, M. Clark, Ph. This article covers the following topics: Currently this section contains no detailed description for the page, will update this page soon.
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