This pdf guide is a beginners book consisting of 20 Just before we start the course, it is important that you are able to read chord boxes, as we use them to. 5) Basic Open Chords. Open Chords & Chord Exercises Morning Has Broken (CD #2 Tr. 2,3,4). America The Beautiful (CD #2 Tr. 5,6,7). 6) Minor. Learn Acoustic Guitar: The Ultimate Beginner Acoustic Guitar Book PDF Learn Are you in love with music, but aren't able to play any instruments? guitar lessons #guitarlessons Easy Guitar Songs, Music Guitar, Guitar Tips, Acoustic.
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Master Guitar In Days: Step-By-Step Guitar Lessons PDF For Beginners who can barely play air-guitar, and transform you into a Guitar God capable of. Check us out on the web at caite.info Look for more books from JW Productions coming soon .. Guitar Method Beginner Book 1 is a. Free beginner guitar video lessons link to youtube videos and my master the . Acoustic Guitar Lessons For Beginners Pdf Being able to play a guitar in front of.
For another related page go here - Classical Guitar Lessons for beginners This can be useful at times. This can be summed up by using the major scale as a basic reference point and defining the minor scale in terms of the major or simply saying that we get the natural minor scale from a major scale by flatting the third note, flatting the sixth note and flatting the seventh note of the major scale. When playing with other musicians the best choice to make is simply to ask the others what note or position they're using. And connect the 5th position of the Dm chord, the note, A, to the 1st position of the G major chord by playing the note, G. You could sing them, too, as you play, an octave or two higher.
Chord Groups There are three basic groups of chords: Major chords are characterized by having a 3rd; minor chords have a b3rd; dominant chords have a b7th, again, using the major scale positions as basic reference points and defining the minor and dominant 7th scales and chords in terms of the positions of the major.
The dominant 7th group has many more chords. There is a fourth group, the augmented and diminished group augmented means 'added to' or sharped and diminished means 'subtracted from' or flatted b whose chords are characterized by having one or two altered notes. This group has very few chords in it and is less important for that reason. You will, however, run into augmented and diminished forms of chords so please understand them in their group, below.
LISTEN carefully as you play to get your ears attuned to the differences in these successions of notes. By going through these formulations mentally and playing them on your bass you'll slowly become familiar with them, patterns will become more apparent to you and you'll absorb them rather than just memorizing them.
Remind yourself to do this: For example, if you play the notes C, E and G, mix them up a bit. Add a 6th. Add any other position s. Add some fingering techniques in the Appendix. You've learned seven or eight fingering techniques by now haven't you?
It's very important to spend this much time on this!! Five days of this and it'll blow your mind how much you've improved!! Positions Note: If the 7th were not present the chord would be called an 'add 9th.
If the major 7th is in the chord then the chord is called a major 9th.
It's named or labeled by its highest numbered extension. If no 7th is present then it would be called an 'add 9th. The chord is called the 11th if the 7th is present. Minor group: Positions minor 6th b This is a case in which the 6th is not flatted to the natural 6th as is done in the natural minor scale. Dominant 7th group: When the b7th is present it is common to label a chord by the number of its highest extension.
Co or Abo diminished 7th bb5-bb7 A double flatted 7th, - equal to a major 6th. If it has no 3rd it is neither major nor minor. The suspended 4th chord, most often played without the 3rd present, is used a lot in Rock music! Many musicians prefer to use it as a substitute for chords with 3rds in them because it gives the lead singer or instrumental soloist s more flexibility since it is neither major nor minor.
The major 3rd highly defines a structure and many musicians like to do away with committing so heavily to a harmonic structure that's so narrowly defined or restricted as with the use of a major 3rd. As you can see sometimes chords can be notated in more than one way. This may seem confusing but most of the time it really isn't because once you get the hang of all this chord nomenclature, a glitch in the labeling won't matter very much to you at all.
When you're playing alone, sometimes you just have to make an educated guess. When playing with other musicians the best choice to make is simply to ask the others what note or position they're using.
As you can see, there's no end to the chords that people can invent. The only test as to whether a chord or sequence of bass notes is valid or not is whether or not it's useful, that is, whether or not it sounds good in the context of the rest of the music structure around it.
As you can see, too, there are clear patterns to all this. Patterns of what positions using the major scale as a reference point to sharp or flat depending on the names that are given to the chords.
You don't have to actually memorize any of this. With time, it'll all become second nature. Repeat the above exercises for each of the groups I hope that you can see them as little games. It's been very important to have spent so much time on this. One other thing that is useful to know and which might have popped up in your mind as a question when going over the above material is this: Well, no, not necessarily. Take the extended chords for example.
They can be played by your guitar or keyboard player without the tonic note or the band can allow the tonic or root note to be played by another instrument like a saxophone or harmonica. Which is where you come in. You play the 1st position when others are leaving it out or maybe don't play it - at your option. Leaving out the 1st position can be fun and lend an air of the unexpected to the music!
Reggae bass players do this frequently. Slash-chord notation This leads to another idea about notation which you ought to know: Chord Progressions Definition: When a musician plays a number of chords in a sequence that sequence is called a chord progression. Three notes, exactly, sounded together or at about the same time, are triads also, chords ; triads are chords. A series of bass notes following in order. Bass notes that would make up a chord if played at or about the same time but which are played on successive beats.
Chords are built by choosing a starting note and adding notes which are certain intervals apart from the starting note remember intervals, or steps, from earlier days? The note s which are added are usually in intervals of major and minor thirds four half-steps and three half-steps and two notes apart.
For example, to form a C major chord, start with a C note. Then add a note which is two notes four half-steps in this case higher. So we start with C, the tonic note, and add an E, which happens to be the 3rd position in the C major scale. Then we want to add at least a third note because a chord is at the very least a triad or a group of at least three notes, so we add a note which is two notes higher than the new starting note, E.
E to F to G, three half-steps higher. We add a G note to the C and the E. The G note is the 5th position in the C major scale. Now we have a basic chord, the C major, comprised of the C, E and G notes. We've formed the chord by adding notes which are four and three half-steps higher than the preceding note. Major and minor thirds.
This is called Harmony or Harmonizing and is the basis not only of forming chords but of a great deal of composing which revolves around combining melodies counterpoint and chords.
For now I mention this only to illustrate the point that this is how we form basic chords. Let's take the second position of a C major scale, the D note and form a chord.
Starting with the D note we look for a second note which is two notes higher than the starting note. This is the minor third of the D scale which will make the chord we're forming a minor chord. Going two notes higher, F to G to A, four half-steps, we add the third note to the now forming D minor chord, the A note. The A note is the fifth position of the D minor scale. We have created a D minor chord. D, F, A. See if you can do two things: For example, we created a D minor chord, above; now take the 3rd position of the C major scale, the note E, and create a chord from it using the rules above.
Those notes which are an 8th octave , 9th, 11th and 13th higher only form the same chords as the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th positions but an octave higher so we don't have to create them over again. We won't consider the 10th and 12th positions due to the reasons cited earlier in this manual day Doing the second step in the previous paragraph may seem a little tough.
It's a bit abstract. But it's fairly easy because all you have to do is count notes and half-step intervals. You might try doing this for some other scale s besides the C scale s major and minor. Try the A scales minor and major because the notes in the A minor scale are the same notes as in the C major scale but they're in different half-step relationships as far as positions of the scales are concerned.
So why am I showing you this? Because I would like to show you where some very common Rock chord progressions come from and how they are labeled: I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi and vii o in Roman numerals, the capitalized numerals indicating major chords and the small numerals indicating minor chords and the little letter o indicating a diminished chord.
If you created the seven chords, say, using the C note as your note of choice, and the C major scale as your scale of choice you would have created these chords: These chords would be labeled I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi and vii o or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7dim or just 7. What scale positions are in a diminished chord? The 7 chord would be a diminished chord if you started with a major scale and the 7 chord would be a major chord if you started with a minor scale. Another question: The 2 chord, the 3, the 4, the 5, or the 6 chord?
Playing these seven chords in sequence would be a chord progression. But not a very often used one. Why not? Just because.
Just kidding. So, why not? Because when you listen to Rock you'll hear that most songs are based on chord progressions which contain three or four or, sometimes, five chords.
Maybe that won't be true in the future as Rock evolves. That shouldn't prevent you from composing song s with more than three or four or five chords.
There are also some songs with only two chords in the progression. What are often used chord progressions? I, IV, V. And vi, V, IV. I, vi, IV, V very often used.
Also, ii, V, I. And I, iii, vi, ii, V. If you feel like it you could ask the same question referring to the A note, A minor scale, key of A minor. Play the three notes chord-based bass note sequences of each of the chords in the chord progressions above. Play the basic 1st, 3rd and 5th positions of each chord in different orders each time you come back to each particular chord - just for variety. Maybe use a connecting note passing tone or two to get from one chord-based bass note sequence to the next but isolate and understand the three notes which make up the heart of each chord.
As your ears get attuned to the sounds of the groups of the bass notes which are in each chord you'll learn to discern the differences in the sounds of different chords. As you become more and more familiar with discerning differences between chords in the music that you play and listen to you'll soon be able to hear the number of different chords in a song's progression. You'll become an afficionado!
That is, each of the chords has concordant notes in it that are common to some of the other chords in the progression - a non-theoretical explanation if I've ever heard one.
In the near future you can play extended and altered chords chord-based bass note sequences , too. Why stop with three note chords. Go on to four note chords. What are the difference s between these two terms? Although they may be the same notes, the notes in chords are played at or about the same time while the notes in chord-based bass note sequences are played on successive beats.
Arpeggiation Now would be the time to read, understand and begin to introduce the idea of arpeggiating into your repertoire of skills. See the first definition in the 'Fingering Techniques' section in the Appendix.
Go read it now. Read this entire section, Lesson VI, modes. Begin to play some of the modes of the C major scale. Lesson VI - Modes Of course there's a lot of technical music theory about modes most of which you can learn little by little over time.
But, if you have a basic understanding of what modes are and at least the following basic ways of creating them, you'll be a long way towards your most immediate goal: You create and formulate them in the same way that you derived a minor scale from the basic reference point, the major scale. In the same way that you derived the positions of the minor scale from the positions of the major scale you memorize simple rules.
Play all eleven notes, all the positions. You can play the l0th and the 12th as connecting notes if you like.
Major Ionian 1stndrdthththththththth Dorian b3rdb7th Phrygian b2nd-b3rdb6th-b7thb9thb13th Lydian 4th 11th Mixolydian b7th Aeolian b3rdb6th-b7thb13th What scale is this? I start with the key of C because it's a common Rock key but modes exist in all keys. Just as you would sharp or flat certain numbered positions of the major key to derive the minor scale, you would likewise sharp or flat the positional notes of other scales to obtain the various modes of that particular scale.
For example, the key of G. Take the notes of the major scale G: The key of a song can usually but not always be labeled by its basic root note, the 1st note or 1st position in the scale. C in this case. Play the notes, going up or down or using inversions or whatever You've just played notes in the Ionian or first mode. If you move your starting note two half-steps up on your fret board or anywhere else you want to play a familiar D note and start in that position given that it is now a D note , and play the notes, D, E, F, G, A, B, C and D note that the notes haven't changed, they're still the unflatted or unsharped notes of the Cmaj scale , you've just played the Dorian or 2nd mode.
If you move your starting note up four half-steps or two whole-steps to E or anywhere else you want to play a familiar E note and play E, F, G, A, B, C, D and E the unflatted or unsharped notes of the Cmaj scale , you've just played the Phyrigian or third mode. Of the Cmaj key.
Get the idea? Just move the starting note up or down, start the scale with that note but play only the actual notes of the Cmaj scale and you'll have one mode or another of the Cmaj scale. It's really that simple. A little complicated coordinating your mind with your fretting fingers at first. You bet! But, it's another way of understanding modes.
Personally I prefer the first way that I described, above, the way of just memorizing the rules of sharping and flatting notes. It's similar to how you've learned to create the minor scale by flatting certain positions of the major scale. However, with more advanced musical theory, sometimes the second method is more revealing of the music structures involved. I'd spend three days on this topic. It's so close to the ideas on altered and extended chords that if you have that topic down pat after having spent five days on it modes will be fairly easy to understand and play.
Ionian - the major scale, the fundamental mode in western music, much rock, classical, theater and pop. Locrian - jazz, metal - If you want to play Metal, pay particular attention to this mode. Also learn to build bass note sequences based on having created chords from the positions of this mode using the rules of chord creation. This'll open your eyes wide! Better reread this second to last sentence a million times, or more.
All these modes can lead into each other and be used in combinations. Play around. But don't get obsessive! It just means that you can come up with the correct notes from which to make your selections of notes that you're going to play when you hear that such and such mode is being used or that a certain series of chords is about to be played.
Then you fiddle around pun intended with the other musicians until you begin to sound good and this good-sounding-ness becomes the basis on which you all build a more concrete music structure: Or a tune. Or a piece. Or whatever you call it in whatever genre rock, jazz, classical, country, bluegrass, etc. I do not attempt to teach you to 'feel. This is what you learn on your own as well as you can.
May I make a suggestion? Try anything anyone else suggests that you try and don't let other peoples' frustrations affect you. Modes can be created based on just about anything. You can take any scale, use it as a base and derive other modes from it in musical theory and by just following sets of rules, as above.
For example, pick an unusual scale, say, the natural minor scale with the flatted 3rd, flatted 6th and flatted 7th positions in the key of, say F or any other key you like , and write out the notes' names below the scale's positions and then below that write out the notes' names that are in, say, the Lydian mode of the natural minor scale.
You might even want to try to just totally invent a never-heard-of scale with eight or more, or less notes in it, octave to octave or crate a scale that, as in Indian scales, has no octaves! Play the scale. Create some chords. Create its modes!
If you can do this you really have these ideas down pat. Again, don't be obsessive. If you can't do this or just don't want to bother, don't worry about it. It's just a goofball exercise. However, it is helpful to learn to read music.
You might want to familiarize yourself with music notation, at least the basics, because you will run into written music from time to time and it's good to at least be able to follow a lead sheet several pages of basic sheet music written in treble clef for singers and other musicians.
Take your time with this because it can be about as frustrating as learning how to type. Annoying but useful. Bass clef is just notes written a little lower and it's fairly easy to learn. You only read and play one note at a time. Yet one more summary: There's a lot of confusion among musicians about how to use modes.
Most musicians play snippets of modes without knowing exactly what they are doing or how what they're playing relates to the musical structures at hand.
It won't hurt you to be among those musicians, but, on the other hand, if an opportunity comes along to play with some new people whom you might like for one reason or another, it might be a good idea to know as much as you can. You never can tell what's going to be pulled out of the hat at any given moment. Knowledge of modes, the ability to shift from one mode to another just might come in handy.
It can certainly make your playing stand out from the crowd. Reread the entire section, Lesson VI, modes, above, even if rereading it is annoying to you. Play the modes of the A major scale and then the modes of the E major scale. As you play each of the modes of these two scales, contrast each mode with its respective major scale by playing them back to back: Backwards, etc.
Work up a little speed but keep to a rhythm, any rhythm. Play around with several different rhythms. Maybe tap your foot if you like to do that. Try tapping both of your feet in patterns that a drummer would use. Have you been observing drummers at clubs or on videos?
Take some ideas from previous lessons your choices and use some of the techniques in the Appendix that you've learned and combine them with or blend them into your playing. Try exploring the A natural minor scale modes. Play the A natural minor scale. Play the modes using the rules of sharping or flatting notes or the idea of creating the modes by starting on succeeding higher notes but still playing only the notes in the A natural minor scale.
Is the Phrygian mode, the 3rd mode, of A natural minor the same as the Aeolian mode, the 6th mode, of C major? A little musical puzzle. Auditioning So, if you've come this far and can actually understand all this stuff and have developed some playing skills and techniques described in the Appendix as 'Fingering Techniques', you are probably or are just about to be making some money playing.
This makes you a Pro or will make you a Pro as soon as you get into a band. Start one with some friends. Or check local ads for people looking for a bass player. You'll need to audition with several groups. Of course you'll be nervous.
Expect to be nervous. It wouldn't be a bad idea to talk to or interview some people you know who are in bands about their first audition experiences. Maybe there's a book in the local library about it. If you can understand a little about this first time experience in advance it'll help you to put everything into perspective and enable you to cope with your nervousness better.
Once you start or find a group you'll need to rehearse with them of course. It's not a bad idea to rehearse with several different groups to determine everyone's goals make sure that you all have the same goals!! I can't emphasize enough the importance of this and also to loosen up yourself. See how things operate. Build some confidence. It's not hard.
You've got new people to meet, places to go! I've probably left a few things out. Or haven't explained some things enough. After you've finished this booklet why don't you let me know what it is that you might have benefitted more from knowing about or of having had a more detailed explanation?
As part of an experiment I am granting you the right to sell copies of this booklet, for the price you purchased it for you must purchase it to resell it , under the honor system agreement that you send me one third of whatever you sell it for. Drop me a note with payment s and comments about how I might improve this instruction manual. I'm adding one more exercise that might be the most important one in this booklet: I'll call it the Mental Positioning Exercise.
It's an exercise that you doentirely in your head. You don't have to touch your bass to do this. But you can do it on your bass if you want to. What's nice about it is that you can put your obsessive mind to good use doing it instead of letting your mind roam freely through its usual wonderland of repetitive thoughts.
It's a very simple exercise which tells you: For example the note, C, would be in the first position in the C scale or the C chord. In your mind's eye play on your mental fret board the notes in the C scale and the notes in the C chord C, E. Now do it for the C major 5 9 chord. Of course the C note will be in the same 1st position for all of these scales and chords.
Now, take the same note, C, and picture in your mind any other chords and scales, say, to start with, an F chord and F major scale. What position is the C note in within that scale and chord? Imagine playing them - the C note, the F scale and the notes in the F major chord.
Try various inversions of some of the notes. In each case picture the fret board in your mind and the notes that you're considering while at the same time emphasizing the position of the single C note.
You can get quite good at this and fairly fast. After a while you can do it automatically when you have a spare moment or as a meditative exercise or when you're feeling down or confused and don't want to think at all. You can use it to shut your mind off if you want to.
I've speculated that some people listen to music to keep themselves from thinking about themselves. A way of preventing self-confrontation. This can be useful at times. A good habit it's not. Pick any note and any scale, chord or series of scales and chords and figure out in your mind just where that note lies and what its numbered position is. You can make the mental image static, just envisioning all the notes and the single, emphasized note or you can make it more dynamic by imagining the notes or positions changing on the fret board in your mind.
This exercise will review and reinforce all the basic structural knowledge that you've learned in this booklet. If you like this mental, pictorial, imaginative exercise that is, you don't hate it or feel nothing toward it you can extend it to include other elements of bass playing like fingering techniques or syncopation or actually seeing in your mind's eye the playing of chords with the placement of three or even four fingers on three or four separate notes on three or four separate strings much as a guitar player would do.
In each instance single out one note and examine in your imagination its numbered position in the musical structure that you're imagining.
It's an exciting mental exercise! One that reviews and reinforces all your knowledge up to this point and into the future , one which will enable you to continue teaching yourself about the mechanics and theories of the bass with or without further readings of music literature and one which sharpens your mind in various ways and opens your playing up to discovery, taking the lid off the hidden or the unknown, musically speaking.
My mind runneth over. Another good mental exercise but you can play it on your bass, too is re- labeling chords with other names after you've shuffled the notes around. Are there any other chords that can be formed from these four notes? Do we always need a 5th or any single 'position' in a chord? Not always, so, loosely speaking, we could call it that if we had some other instrument play the A note. If you think about it, you see that you can play the same bass notes along with two or more entirely different chords which are probably being used in different keys along with many other different chords in differing harmonic structures.
Boggles the mind. Who says that you always have to play the notes in a chord or the 'positions' in the same order all the time? These ideas lead you to chord substitutions and deeper levels of musical theory - the next steps if you're interested. But you don't have to take any next steps if you don't want to right now. This game, which you can do on paper if it's too difficult to do entirely in your mind, will do it for you! Another, even simpler example of shuffling the notes of a chord around and creating a new chord using the same notes but choosing a different root or tonic is, again, the C major chord and its notes C, E, G.
These notes are the 1st, 3rd and 5th positions as defined way back when we were first talking about chords. Let's take the E note. What chord can be named if we use the E note as the root? Let's say we move the C note above the G - we do an inversion, an upwards inversion. Now we have the notes E, G and C. What chord does this form? Well, one way to approach this puzzle is to examine the number of half-steps between the notes.
E to G is three half-steps so that implies a minor. E to C is eight half-steps. What's this? Well, we know that there are seven half-steps between the 1st position and the 5th position from our half-steps chart so the 5th position would be a B note. So what's a C note? It's the sharped 5th.
What chord has a sharped 5th in it? So the chord made up of the notes E, G and C is an augmented minor chord. Another way to puzzle this out instead of using half-step counting and the 'positions' would be to think about the notes themselves, E, G and C. From your experience playing the E minor scale you know that the G note is the minor 3rd and the B note is the 5th. So the C note which is the sharped B note must be an augmented 5th. Therefore, the chord is an augmented minor chord.
Try to do this exercise as a game and pick any chord s of your own choice s that have three or four notes in them. Then see what other chord s you can come up with after you've shuffled the notes around. Try to think of a few more musical games. Please let me know what you invent and if you'd like, I'll add it to future versions of this publication mentioning your name as its submitter if you want credit.
Note, you must give me written permission to do this. Did you ever notice that the letters in the words 'note' and 'tone' are the same? End of day Review anything you didn't get the first time around. And then go down the list one topic at a time until you feel comfortable with your level of skill with that topic. If this takes an additional day or two, Days 27 and 28, please take the extra time. Wrap up this booklet completely because you might not come back to it again for awhile.
This is your last day. If you understood everything and managed to play everything fairly fluently by the end of Day 27, take a rest. You deserve it. Otherwise take today to mop up. If you made it through all twenty eight days of this instruction manual, you're a most remarkable person.
I am awed by your desire and focus. I offer you my most sincere congratulations! Print out one or two of these and keep them around for reference. If you don't have a computer and printer at home, go to your local main Library and use one of theirs. Musician's Friend - exc. Kevin's Harps - An amazing catalog! Every harmonica in the western world. How-to books, CDs, tapes and accessories.
Videos And Books Music Dispatch - Can get Beginning Bass Videos by mail order. Hal Leonard Publications. Instruction books and CDs of all kinds. Carl Fischer, Inc. In the East Village. Has a huge inventory of sheet music. Miscellaneous http: Fascinating site!! A good booklet which describes all these techniques and their variations and more is: Each lesson builds upon the previous lesson so there is a clear progression through the book.
Examples, practice exercises, and quizzes are given throughout the book to ensure you remember everything and apply it! If so feel free to contact me. Audio is provided as a download when you purchase the book. If you bought it before the audio was downloadable, you can find it here. Thank YOU for trusting me with your email and signing up to become a better guitarist. I am honored and excited to help you accomplish your guitar goals!
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I intend to bring you value every time I send you something. To do that, I need you to let me know how I can improve. You may not know right now, but let me know when you do!
I hope you enjoy my free lessons and materials. It's my thanks to you for being part of the Guitar Lesson World community. Lesson Ticker. As you get more experienced and start to play harder music you'll need to be more "fluid" with both of your hands. Also, you will have also noticed after watching the videos that I count the beats before playing.
This helps you with counting and timing in terms of beat pulse and rhythm note lengths. In fact, it is a good idea when you are a beginner to play the notes, tap your foot to the beat, say and even sing the notes of your piece if it's an easy piece of course. When you're able to do all these things simultaneously, but slowly and successfully, you'll be able to play the piece by itself a whole lot better.
It stands to reason that if you can play whilst multi-tasking, when it comes to just playing a melody it will be much easier. Another benefit of employing this method is that you are analysing the music on a much deeper level than just playing the "black notes" and this leads to a much deeper and quicker understanding of the music.
It's certainly not easy at the beginning, but this is exactly why you practice - to get better! I suppose it's what is known universally as "being there". For a page on this site related to the Beginner Guitar Lesson Page click here For another related page go here - Classical Guitar Lessons for beginners Welcome to LCG!
I'm Trevor Maurice, owner of this site.