PDF | On Jan 1, , Anil. Vishnu. Moharir and others published Wings of Fire- Autobiography, APJ Abdul Kalam with Arun Tiwari Reviewed. The inspiring quotes of Dr. Kalam were collected and displayed here. was a big name, 'Dr Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam Azad'. In the 's Kalam joined the Vik. Kerala. He played a major role in th research in India, helping to develop vehicle. During , he served t rejoined.
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Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was an Indian politician and aerospace scientist who served as the 11th President of India from to He was. 1 Rs. 5 01 ht2 ig fL Int er nati on alY ea r o APJ Abdul Kalam: The People's President Editorial: Some grassroots 35 level engagement with students on. PDF | Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: The People's President. Dream , October , 18 (1), This article narrates life and works of Dr. APJ.
Those of you who are young now can have an exciting career researching the many yet-unknown aspects of life on Earth. Add to that the designing of a satellite. Doctor of Engineering Honoris Causa. Harper Collins India Publication. Above the troposphere there are several layers of atmosphere discovered through researches.
India became a member of Actions The top five books, based on the Conferred the Padma Bhushan. India Millennium; Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power within India; Wings of Fire: Innovative DRDO and served till In addition to the above-mentioned books, Kalam wrote a few more visionary and inspirational books for the Indian youth, of Chhotu in the film, received the National namely, Reignited: A Sequel to India jointly make India a self-reliant nation.
Unleashing the and Mission India: Moreover, the heart- Dr. Delhi, India. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer.
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? When it returns. That is what makes missile technology much more difficult than what is needed to develop satellite launch vehicles. The missile has to map the terrain accurately and hit the right target.
Sophisticated missiles like BrahMos have a lot of manoeuvring capability at the terminal phases. It has to deal with the resultant friction without burning out like the spent or jettisoned parts of a satellite launch vehicle or a meteorite. The final targeting phase is the most crucial part of a missile mission. It has to remain intact and keep its payload—which is a warhead.
It then needs to reach its designated target on the ground accurately. On the other hand. If we rub our hands together for a sufficiently long time. This is called a nosecone. You can imagine the kind of heat that is generated by the atmosphere when a speedy object penetrates it. What is done to overcome the heat of friction on re-entry for a missile? If you look at a rocket or a missile.
It has two roles: The amount of heat generated by friction is enormous. If metals or fibreglass are used in a missile as in sounding rockets and satellite launching missions. During re-entry. In a satellite mission such as Chandrayaan In a missile the payload warhead has to be protected both times. In a scientific rocket.
Therefore the heat is absorbed. Through the technology of composite materials several small threads of carbon are interwoven in an extremely compressed form carbon-carbon composites and the tip that bears the brunt of penetration is made of a carbon-carbon block.
The inside remains cool! There is sufficient material on the nose-tip and the rest of the nosecone that atmospheric. Such materials do not conduct heat. The surface of the nosecone and the tip are made of carbon—an element that burns easily with heat! The trick is not to use carbon in the pure form. On 10 January Dr Kalam spoke about re-entry technology in an address during the Technology Day awards function at New Delhi on 11 May The capsule made its re-entry at On 22 January.
The flotation system. During its re-entry. The successful launch. During its stay in orbit for twelve days.
Recovery operations were supported and carried out by the Indian Coast Guard and Indian Navy using ships. Remote sensing military applications come under the rubric of surveillance. Such information is of tactical importance. Near-infrared images can even identify the spots from which aircraft have taken off. Surveillance equipment requires extremely high resolution capabilities. With the aid of remote sensing satellites. Surveillance We have discussed the benefits of remote sensing devices earlier.
Infrared wavelengths are also used to identify objects at night. The orbit coverage is adjusted to have frequent sighting of the desired geographical locations. You may think that a geostationary satellite may be well suited for this purpose.
The problem is solved by having several low-Earth satellites covering the desired areas. A camera that is so far away from its subject is sure to have lower resolution. But remember. High frequency repetivity and high resolution are in fact contradictory requirements. Often such data is recorded on board and accessed at a safe location for further processing. In addition to high resolution. Surveillance and communications are two key functions for defence preparedness.
When it comes to using space to send precision guided warheads. Knowing about and understanding the preparations and movements of the enemy and passing the information speedily to various levels of the armed forces and to decision-makers are both crucial in military strategy.
These technologies have made it possible for modern nations to carry out precision guided. Those who have found newer technologies and techniques have emerged victorious. Missile interception If you look at military history.
In our country Tipu Sultan used innovation to his advantage when he used rockets fixed with swords. But these had some problems of stabilization and therefore the targets could not be hit accurately. The British studied and improved on these rockets by adding fins to them for stabilization.
When the Europeans started using guns and cannons. This is done with the help of sophisticated radars. This was the aim of the missile defence system planned by the USA during the mids. The USA. Europe and Russia have extensive global level missile tracking capabilities using ground-based and space-based instruments and radars. Elements of this ambitious programme have been tested by other. Can the missile be destroyed in its early path.
The first thing to do of course is to track the missile. But it is not enough simply to track the missile. These can alert the defence forces about any incoming missile. The core element of such proactive defence against a missile is to hit it with another missile. Dr Kalam elucidated the principles of missile interception in his Technology Day Talk. I was in a place called Chandipur-at-Sea off the coast of Orissa.
What was this test? It was to intercept an incoming missile. A few months back. This is called missile interception. We make use of radars. Having detected a fast-moving target. These radars are very powerful. Based on these calculations. We must then decide. There are telemetry systems continuously radiating performance information about the missile. Having launched our own missile we must guide it towards the enemy missile.
Having done this. Are our jobs over? This is done by guiding our own missile through a radio link to track where the enemy. You can very well imagine the minimum time available for the required operations. What are these steps? These steps are to find out where the missile is launched from. This has been made possible because of the continuous development by DRDO of various missile systems in close collaboration. As our missile approaches the target. All these steps were carried out successfully by our defence scientists during November on Wheeler Island.
This is a major achievement for our country as the test involved the development and integration of many technologies. With this test. India joined an elite club of. I would suggest that industries should consolidate the cumulative development of technologies taking place in various science and technology institutions in the country and develop products using stateof-the-art technology for ensuring availability of competitive products for both national and international markets.
A more elaborate successful demonstration of the missile defence system by DRDO scientists took place on 6 March Russia and Israel which possess this capability. It is planned to have an operational BMD system in India by — This system is expected to provide a shield against the possible launch of nuclear-tipped missiles from our neighbourhood. The BMD is a very complex system involving many difficult and high precision technologies.
It required many creative minds to work together towards a common goal to overcome the intellectual challenges and bring about its realization. Big ships were built as aircraft carriers.
Space security Till the beginning of the twentieth century. In the post-War years. In every military situation.
The invention of aircraft by the Wright brothers at the beginning of the twentieth century led to initial uses of these in World War I.
But by World War II rapid advances in aircraft technologies had led to large-scale use of aircraft in the war for bombing and reconnaissance purposes.
The emergence of the air force took less than four decades from the first invention of the aircraft. Europe and China—started with the military objectives of developing intermediate and long-range missiles. The use of satellite communication and remote sensing had strong roots of military applications as well.
In fact except for India and Japan. They are vulnerable to attacks through electronic means—for example. Another technique of disabling satellites is through physical attack.
They move freely in outer space without any care for the geographical boundaries drawn through the geopolitics of peoples and nations.
In desperation. It is the equivalent of attacking another country. Parallel to technical safeguards. Thus space security. But war or aggression is a phenomenon that typically takes place when one or both parties does not respect the other or when they suspect each other. Even civilian space assets need to be secured. But everything cannot be fixed by technology alone. Dr Kalam has shown his concern for the security of space assets. For many years. China and India.
It will be a sad day if such beautiful gains of human knowledge which are available universally are obstructed through insecurity regarding space assets. These benefits are availed not only by spacefaring nations like the USA. They enjoy many civilian benefits of space for faster communication. France on 5 June We must recognize the necessity for the world space community to avoid terrestrial geo-political conflict to be drawn into outer space.
International Space Force ISF When enormous societal and economic commitments have been made by nations with space infrastructure. Allowing space to become a battlefield. Any unilateral action which upsets the stability of space is against the interest of the entire mankind.
I suggest the creation of an International Space Force ISF made up of all nations wishing to participate and contribute to the protection of world space assets in a manner that will enable the peaceful exploitation of space on. There exist strong international norms and deep-seated public opinion around the world against space weaponization. Multilateral approaches are required to ensure that the use of outer space is in conformity with international law and in the interest of maintaining peace and security and promoting international cooperation.
The ISF will safeguard the global space assets. But we need to remind the reader that though space is always exciting. They may not be flashed in the.
As both of us Kalam and Rajan had our initial careers in space research. There is. Their uses and benefits cover many vital aspects of human life. We will shift to some of these other areas of science in the next two sections of this book. In cities we cover the soil with asphalt and concrete. But though we may not think about it too often. One that is too far away from the Sun such as Jupiter. Saturn and even Mars is too cold. Within the solar system. Our Earth appears to be unique. A planet that is too near the Sun such as Mercury and Venus is too hot and full of hot gases.
Even if it were not the only one of its kind. On an expanding sphere. As we move away. If something is uniformly spread in all directions you can imagine that at any distance from the source it is like being on the surface of a sphere.
This is the reason that we do not feel the intensity of starlight on Earth.
Very simple. The light of the Sun spreads uniformly in all directions. The intensity of light rays is inversely proportional to the square of the distance they have to travel. It is because of the same principle that if we want to use more light from a light bulb we do not allow it to spread in all directions. As a matter of fact. So where does the extra heat come from? The more the value of R is. But the Sun does not have a reflector to focus its rays if it did.
But it cuts out. It allows solar rays—almost the full optical spectrum of VIBGYOR and other rays in that range—to penetrate it and reach the surface of the Earth where we live. The molecules are heated up as a result. They interact with various molecules in the atmosphere. But not all of these are let out. Remember the Earth is a great factory of life. All the heat generated in this factory goes up from the surface towards outer space. In the colder parts of India or in the hilly regions.
Many molecules in the atmosphere carbon dioxide molecules for example trap the heat and keep it circulating between the earth. But the heat is not allowed to escape easily. Dead animals and vegetative wastes generate methane which can burn. Water helps retain a lot of solar heat. Let us look briefly at exactly how the greenhouse effect works. Even curd does not form from milk. Cold air from the outside cannot flow into these tents easily.
The heat generated inside the tent does not go outside as the plastic is. Inside the plastic. All these processes require warmth. There is a small greenhouse effect that takes place between the covering shawl and the vessel. To make curd in winter the milk is kept warm before it curdles—the vessel is covered with a shawl or thick blanket and kept in a closed space where air does not circulate.
But the dynamic balance of the greenhouse effect is also delicate. But then there are car thieves to worry about! The greenhouse effect in the atmosphere has given us a lot of benefits.
The inside of the car gets so hot that you will sweat when you go in. If we generate too much heat in the Earth through our activities and also overgenerate. We sometimes keep a small gap in the window to allow convection.
An extreme example of the greenhouse effect. It sustains the whole biosphere as well as the hydrosphere. Coastal zones would be submerged due to the excessive flow of water released from the ice.
The delicate balance of life forms in the sea would be affected as a result. To reduce such human-induced changes. We now know that not even our galaxy has that role. The origins of the Earth There was a time when some of our ancestors believed the Earth was the centre of the universe.
It is estimated that the initial mass of this spinning cloud was about 10 to 20 per cent more than the combined mass of the solar system now.
As more scientific researches have been undertaken with increasingly advanced observational technologies. But there is still much that is unknown. The universe is huge. Currently accepted theories infer that the solar system began as a spinning cloud of gas and dust of matter. Over a period of about million years. The Earth would have been spun off from the Sun about 4.
These in turn accumulated more matter. The middle bulge of the Sun started appearing as a result. It was not at all like what we see today. The atoms came closer to each other and solar density increased through this process of contraction. The spun-off matter. The first life forms. The forces of gravity of the huge mass and the centrifugal forces arising from the spinning and orbital motions acted and adjusted against each other.
Australia—were not separated from each other. The continents—the Americas. These violent adjustments and readjustments in the interior parts of the Earth gave rise to many of the valuable natural resources we use today coal. The land masses on Earth floated around for hundreds of millions of years. The appearance of the first human being Homo sapiens is not even a million years old—it was around Then came more complex organisms. Blue algae were the first organisms that started the process of photosynthesis.
What is a cubic kilometre km3? Imagine a big cube that is 1 km long. Water We all know that water is vital to life. If you look at the Earth on a globe or in a flat map. Why is this? According to estimates from UN agencies. The water contained there can be measured as one cubic kilometre. Still we are worried nowadays about water shortage. Now imagine it completely filled with water.
You can do your own calculations about how many litres or how heavy that is.
If we imagine a cube 1 metre long. You know how much a litre of water is—it is what a bottle of mineral water contains. But make sure you have a calculator that goes up to many digits!
The Earth contains about 1. This is why water is so precious. Thus about Water evaporates into the. Only a small part.
Fresh water forms only a small part. Of this tiny portion of 2. This tiny fraction of fresh water is renewed and refreshed every year by the factory of the Sun as part of the natural water cycle. If we pollute the atmosphere with harmful chemicals.
This refreshed and renewed water is available in lakes and rivers. This is why it is so important to keep the extremely limited fresh water resources on Earth very carefully protected from pollution. All living beings depend on water for survival.
It is also important to understand the close interconnections between the soil. Those of you who are young now can have an exciting career researching the many yet-unknown aspects of life on Earth.
We have learnt a lot more about the Earth since We can only cover a small part of the many exciting aspects of the Earth and oceans here. One of the most interesting things about the research being done now is the use of space platforms to observe and understand the Earth.
Most people in earlier generations residing in villages were familiar with the positions of stars. One constant companion which helped them in finding direction was the magnetic compass. The Sun during the daytime and the Moon and stars during the night were a great help. But even when they did not have instruments. Mars and Jupiter which are visible to the naked eye.
From the positions of the stars and visible planets. Cartography Those who explored the Earth and the oceans in earlier centuries used several instruments to give them a sense of direction. Within countries. Even now. Over a period of time. This is a skill that is sadly lost to most people today.
Water bodies. As far as measurements are concerned. This useful information is a product of cartography coupled with other disciplines like computers. If you look at your mobile phone while travelling. The discipline of making maps. The position at which you are on Earth need not be calculated any longer through the positions of the Sun.
Dr Kalam has spoken often on the subject of Earth resources. Through applications such as Google Earth. GPS systems can determine exactly where you are when you are talking on your mobile. Here is an excerpt from that speech.
The use of navigation satellites coupled with a network of ground receivers does the job. There are a number of missions which need inputs from cartography technologies that will certainly accelerate the process of development. The mission of INCA should be to assist the. A combination of ground survey.
As a part of physical connectivity. Survey of India. Indian Remote Sensing industries. State Remote Sensing centres. It is very important for cartographers to provide cartographic data for each of the sixtythree cities and towns.
They should first establish the existing road network with contours. Availing temporal information obtained through satellite remote sensing will enable better planning and regular monitoring. Based on this study. It should be made mandatory for the city administration to use such data and information for decision making. Disaster management Earthquakes: Though India is rich in natural resources. It may not be possible to avert the natural disasters. First the mapping of earthquake-prone areas with suitable details enables the detailed precautions in construction and emergency actions.
Secondary disasters such as landslides may have taken place in some areas. A powerful enough earthquake just a few seconds in duration can make current maps suddenly out of date. Satellite images can provide updated views of how the landscape has been affected. So we have to find innovative flood management techniques.
I have observed certain unique features in the river system of Bihar. Though the Ganga. Because of the flow from both directions no water is saved and everything goes into the sea. Cartographers should provide high-resolution maps in partnership with agencies involved in satellite imagery and aerial photography for planning water harvesting and water management systems leading to flood control.
I have recommended the construction of layered wells at the entry points of the Kosi river. The water thus stored will be useful during shortage periods. In the Gangetic region. Similar solutions can be found for the northeastern region. Flood control through layered wells: There is an urgent need to find long-term solutions to control floods.
The complex problem today is to find the location of multi-. The layered wells will assist gradual reduction in dynamic flow velocity after filling each storage well. Normally the floodwater has certain dynamic flow conditions. Dr Kalam goes on to talk about satellite technology enabled cartography. Innovation lies in finding a suitable place in finding a solution even though the Indianside entry-point contours are very steep.
This is due to the fact that human beings. One thing that gives a special capability to human beings over other animals and birds is the fact that human beings can see in three dimensions with a large amount of detail. A cow. Animals and birds need to have good coverage of their sides and know what is going on behind their backs to locate their prey or to detect predators.
The reason we have this three-dimensional view is because of stereo imaging—our eyes which are very close to each other provide overlapping images to the.
Such a wide coverage is obtained by a large separation of the eyes. They have an image closer to the two-dimensional portrait a photograph provides. At best we can see a movement away from our shoulders. We cannot see what is behind us. Animals and birds have a good back vision. The stereo picture will show all the details of heights. Such images would be immensely useful for both civilian and military purposes. These are called contours.
If these are stored in digitized form. Even small ripples and whirls in water can be identified. On a 3-D image of the terrain. In this context. I understand that more than 90 per cent of the. The first in the series. India has planned for a series of satellites specifically for cartographic applications. As of today. The DEM could also provide scene simulation and fly-through visualization of the terrain. This elevation model is useful in GIS environment. These images could also be used for better urban planning.
I am sure that the country will have satellites for acquiring details at. Such an input should be made use of effectively by the cartographers of the country for generating quality input data for PURA planning. It is expected that by the middle of Archived from the original on 7 September Abdul HarperCollins India. Archived from the original on 17 August Archived from the original on 20 March People's president, extraordinary Indian".
Retrieved 28 June His ties with the island - The Times of India". Archived from the original on 23 August Greatly beloved, but he maybe missed being truly great - Firstpost". Archived from the original on 14 October Archived from the original on 24 August Archived from the original on 10 September Archived from the original on 28 February Abdul; Tiwari, Arun Noida, India: Arun Tiwari suspects". Abdul 1 October Archived from the original PDF on 14 March Retrieved 1 January Outlook magazine.
Retrieved 25 March Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 17 July Kalam's Page". Archived from the original on April 24, Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 13 March Archived from the original on 17 July Economic Times.
Archived from the original PDF on 14 October Retrieved 16 October Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 28 August Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 21 September Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 27 February Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 3 March University of Beijing.
University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 27 May Simon Fraser University. Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original PDF on 29 June Archived from the original on 7 January J Abdul Kalam — Honorary Degree, ". Oakland University. New York. Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 30 March Nanyang Technological University.
The Economics Times. Carnegie Mellon University. Archived from the original on 6 May Royal Society. Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 14 November Abdul Kalam's Diverse Interests: Indian Institute of Technology Madras.
Ministry of Home Affairs , Government of India. Archived from the original PDF on 31 January National Academy of Medical Sciences. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Retrieved 19 March Institute of Directors.
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Rajpal and Sons. Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future. Penguin India. Harper Collins India Publication. Advantage India: From Challenge to Opportunity. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November President Apj Abdul Kalam. Archived from the original on 3 June APH Publishing. Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 27 March The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President. Archived from the original on 26 April My Days with Mahatma Abdul Kalam.
Novel Corp. Archived from the original on 13 May Presidents of India. Venkataraman Shankar Dayal Sharma K. Narayanan A. Giri Mohammad Hidayatullah B. Bharat Ratna laureates. Rajagopalachari , Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , and C.
Giri K. Kamaraj Mother Teresa Ramachandran B. Abdul Kalam M. Padma Vibhushan award recipients. Balamuralikrishna T. Pattammal K. Shantaram Shivkumar Sharma Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman M. Subbulakshmi K. Dhar Jyotindra Nath Dixit M. Gill Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim H.
Krishnamurthy P. Rajeswar C. Krishnaswamy Rao Pattadakal Venkanna R. Rao V. Narayan P. Parameswaran Amrita Pritam K. Raj C. Jasbir Singh Bajaj B. Goyal Purshotam Lal A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar S. Sunderlal Bahuguna B.
Banerji Mirza Hameedullah Beg P. Ranga Ravi Narayana Reddy Y. Sangma M. Patel Venkatraman Ramakrishnan K. Ramanathan Raja Ramanna C. Rao C. Sreedharan M. Srinivasan George Sudarshan M. Narayana Murthy M. Reddy J. Tata Ratan Tata. Portal Category WikiProject. Padma Bhushan award recipients — Sunil Gavaskar. Vainu Bappu Prafulla Desai A. Richard Attenborough Doraiswamy Iyengar V. Jog K.
Durga Das Basu Shiba P. Sreekantan Satya Pal Wahi. Posthumous conferral — — — — — — — Tejas Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft. Samyukta Tarang. Shaurya Prahaar. K K-4 K Akash Trishul Maitri missile Barak 8.
Helina BrahMos Air launched Variant. Sudarshan Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon. Abdul Kalam A. Sivathanu Pillai W Selvamurthy V.
Saraswat V. Aatre Raja Ramanna V. Mahalingam Keshav Dattatreya Nayak. Indian space programme.