In J. Fridl (Eds.) et al., Geografski atlas Slovenije: država v prostoru in casu, Ljubljana: caite.info Accessed August 12, Rural Development Programme of. In Geografski Atlas Slovenije, Fridl J, Kladnik D, Orozˇen Adamicˇ M, Perko D ( eds). DZS, Ljubljana URL:caite.info[11July ]. PDF | On Jun 26, , Gojko Nikolic and others published The Development of Milović, J. Istorijsko-geografski atlas Crne Gore (XVI-XX vijek), (Historical and.
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Geografski obzornik 45, 1. Slovenski pravnik. With some success they developed the coal, iron, paper, leather, brick-making, construction and beer-brewing industries, but the extent of domestic capital was relatively weak. The Institute has also published numerous other publications about Slovene landscapes. There are 22, different names, and are listed two or more times. Atlant was proof that even a suppressed nation was capable of creating important cultural works and that Slovene as a language made this possible. The Matica slovenska, how- ever, saw Atlant as a means of placing Slovenes and the Slovene language in a larger context, on the world map, to place the Slovene language side by side with languages of larger nations and tell Slovenes that they were an equal part of the planet.
The Slovene reality was a little bit different. In Slovenia it was about the rise of a national movement, since the entire Central European space was from the standpoint of the formation of national states something of a historical latecomer. States began to come into being only after the collapse of the four transnation- al empires — Habsburg, German, Russian, and Turkish — in the First World War. Despite considerable differences, we can nevertheless draw some parallels and, with a few caveats, apply Harley's findings.
A map is the result of two groups of actors: The first group is composed of the conceptual leaders, or the publisher and maker of the map. With respect to map-using, cultural, social, and political conditions and the desires and expectations of the public are at the forefront Craig In map-making, the guiding principles of the publisher and map-maker is important. The map-maker usually just carries out the desires and demands of the person or organization that has commissioned the map.
For precisely this reason maps have a high communicative value. His work is based on the conviction that a thorough investigation of the cartographic subconscious and its social foundations can reveal a hidden plan in maps.
This is what gives maps their power, political as well as cultural, though it is at first glance invisible. Harley thus conceptualizes maps as objects of power and knowledge, and interprets their creation as a reflection of the political system. Harley's view of the ideological power of maps can also be useful for our purposes, i. A further aspect is iconology, which reveals the deep, sym- bolic meaning as well as the supernatural, literary meaning.
Last but not least, cartography can be understood as a form of knowledge. Harley built his understanding of maps on the assertion that the map-creator always manipulates users with his product. In his view, maps are evidence of the political and cultural aspira- tions of the map-creator Harley In the case of Atlant, the most powerful tool of the map-author are the geographical names, since it is through them that he creates the language policy, and by so doing places Slovene on the same level as other European languages in countries with developed cartography.
The linguistic side of maps is shown on the one hand by the state or the developmental level of the language, and on the other by the view of their makers and the society of the time and space in which the maps arise.
Geographical names are a favorite topic of geography as well as linguistics, and especially his- torical geography, since the names are real as well as metaphorical, actual as well as symbolic, and most of all they serve as a window on the current issue of power, culture, location and identity Nash There are a range of definitions and views of them Sauer ; Jett ; Claval For this article what is important is their role as a medium through which people develop their relationship to the envi- ronment they live in, and along with this their identity Gams ; Yeoh ; Jett , Berk ; Nash ; Urbanc and Gabrovec Often a psychological battle for the ownership of space is waged through toponyms Cohen and Kliot ; Myers ; Harley ; Baskar , whether this is colo- nial and physical appropriation, or occurs at a mental or spiritual level.
In the case of small nations located within multinational states, the claiming of space is conceptual- ized at the mental level, since it is about the re claiming of their own space and its formation into a national space. Anderson calls this process the formation of imagined communities, and points to print- ing as a basic landmark of this process.
Here again we need to go back to the history of colonialism and draw parallels with national movements in Central Europe. Thus, for example, in colonized countries the local intelligentsia imagined its own national community when people began to read newspapers in their native languages Anderson The majority of definitions of nationalism emphasize the political aspect Gellner ; Anderson , but this process of formation was different in those national communi- ties which did not have their own ruling class, did not live in an independent state entity that coincided with the territory settled by this community, did not have a continuous tradition of intellectual creativ- ity in their national language, or their national language was rooted out or in serious decline Hroch According to Hroch, this process is relatively long in duration, since the transition to the political phase is not possible due to various circumstances.
Even when the political demands are realized, these usually materialize first in the form of autonomy, not directly in independence Hroch Here Hroch's analysis needs to be extended: It has an inherent political character since it was made possible only by a certain political situation.
In the case of Slovenes it is true that it was possible to recognize the political demands in undertones Vodopivec Facts which impede the cultural emancipation of small nations can be divided into two types: The first arise from the nation itself. In the case of Slovenes the most important of these was the incomplete social structure, since there was no domestic ruling class, or rather, it was poorly rep- resented, and other classes and social groups were also atypically represented Hroch External facts are those which originate from the state in which the nation lives.
In the case of Slovenia, this was the Habsburg Monarchy. The set of factors which had a crucial influence on the life of small nations could be called the hegemony of the ruling class, which was accompanied by a certain degree of assimilation.
In such circumstances the cultural identity was what constructed the national identity, which was most important for the development of a modern nation. Identity is a broad concept which reveals the col- lective images which establish the consciousness of a national community. If we consider the humanistic dimension of identity, it is a dialectical system combining two aspects: Here it is important to note that this is essentially a relationship of power or mental boundaries.
In setting actual and mental boundaries, cartography and national consciousness are closely inter- twined. Thus cartography is a means of examining what comprises our external world and what comprises our inter- nal world. In this light cartography is what sets the boundaries and at the same time helps to break them down or go around them, since it transmits the intellectual view and worldview of the map-creators to the wider community. It is a question of conveying an image which has been conceived of by the map-commissioner and the map-maker to the wider world, and in this way it is the achievement of a deeper communicative value.
They began to be aware of their existence during the Protestant period, when the first Slovene book was produced, and this was intensified during the time of national re-birth in the second half of the 18th century and time of the Illyrian provinces at the beginning of the 19th century. Aspirations for a national independent existence of their own were expressed even more strongly during the revolutionary year Prior to that the Slovene national movement was of an exclusively cultural nature.
The ethnonym Slovene came into increasingly wider use, especially in the s and s, andreplaced the terms for members of the Slovene nation that had been in use up until then Wenden, Kranjci denominating inhabitants of the Habsburg crownland Carniola. Although the name Slovenia to refer to the whole of the territory set- tled by Slovenes existed before , it was a term which was unknown in geography and history and the existing administrative organization, and modern national consciousness came only gradually to the eco- nomic, cultural, and politically poorly integrated society Ilustrirana zgodovina Slovencev In Slovenes in Vienna formulated the program called United Slovenia.
It contained demands for an administratively or politically united national territory which would emerge with the anticipated transformation of the Austrian empire into a bourgeois parliamentary monarchy and with the internal administrative reorganization of the state. The program filled Slovenes with the hope that a greater admin- istrative entity of Slovenia, extending across all the territory populated by ethnic Slovenes, would come into being.
The program of United Slovenia joined in the demands for language rights: There was also a demand for a Slovene university. He drew the Slovenian ethnic boundaries and provided justification for them in an accom- panying pamphlet.
The map was printed as early as , but published only eight years later, in , since it was affected by the sanctions of Bach's neo-absolutism, on the grounds that the map showed a non-exis- tent political structure.
The Map of Slovene land and provinces, which was reprinted a number of times, is still considered as one of the sacred objects of Sloveneness, due to its nationally charged nature. However, the group, which proclaimed and backed the United Slovenia program was small in num- ber and weak.
They did not inspire any confidence at all in the peasantry, and received only a lukewarm reception among Slovene townspeople, since it seemed to many people, though well aware of their Slovene roots, too radical.
Of course the United Slovenia program found even less sympathy among the German population in Slovene cities and towns.
Cigale's Atlant, which in some ways was the continuation of Kozler's map, anachronistically and in a perhaps politically motivated gesture named Slovenes' homeland at the time Austria: Kozler's Map of Slovene land and provinces, printed in , is the first map to display the ethnic territory of Slovenes. Due to its politically controversial nature, it was not published until eight years later.
It had just passed through two successive periods of serious internal political crises brought on by the severe defeats in the wars in and , by means of which the Habsburg Court had intended to prevent the union of Italy and Germany. The first military catastrophe at the end of the s caused a tectonic shift in the internal politics of the Habsburg monar- chy.
The bell had tolled for the absolutist regime, and there began a constitutional and state parliamentary and provincial parliamentary political life which was still far from democratic. For the modern Slovene the view of the mosaic of historic provinces in which Slovenes lived back then is meaningful — in this way the fundamental demands of Slovene political life in the period of camps — for a united Slovenia and for Slovene as the official language become more understandable.
The territory settled by Slovenes was divided among the provinces of Carniola in the middle, Carinthia in the north, Styria in the northeast, and the Littoral with Istria in the west. Despite the fact that the Venetian Slovenes and the Val Resia Slovenes remained outside the borders of the main Slovene state, this was still the most favorable border arrangement for the Slovene community with respect to Italy, and it lasted from up until the first world war.
Carniola and the Littoral made up the bulk of the Slovene nation- al territory, while Carinthia and Styria reached far beyond what was then populated by Slovenes into the heart of what is now the Republic of Austria. Slovenes in Prekmurje, the region on the left bank of the Mura River, belonged directly to the Hungarian part of the monarchy. Prekmurje was then, and is still today, Protestant, while the other Slovene lands were Catholic. Due to German pressure the Slovene national border in the north gradually and steadily retreated south.
In the middle of the 19th century there remained just a small isolated island of Sloveneness south of Grossglockner; Slovene predominance in the upper Gailtal was lost, and the ethnic border began to approach the Drava. Slovenes predominated only in the countryside; in the cities they were mixed with Germans, and in the Littoral with the partial exceptions of Trieste and Gorizia with Italians.
Due to their economic power, it was the cities which were the site of the most passionate battles for the dominance of one nation- ality over another; it is thus understandable that the institutions important for national development were based there.
The construction of the Vienna-Trieste railway line, which, beginning in , connected the Slovene lands with the economically more developed heartland of the monarchy, represented a great economic achievement.
The first major joint stock companies in Slovenia were created before the outbreak of the economic crisis in With some success they developed the coal, iron, paper, leather, brick-making, construction and beer-brewing industries, but the extent of domestic capital was relatively weak. This opened the doors to the employment of large numbers of people. Even the Austro-Hungarian civil service, traditionally made up of aristocrats, greatly increased the share of employees from the middle class: At the same time, the role of merchants and the industrial bourgeoisie increased.
For Slovenes this meant that they could also become entrepreneurs and find employment in the civil service. This also had the effect of strengthening Sloveneness. However, Slovene society in the main remained an agrarian one. Since farming was underdeveloped technologically, and hold- ings were small and fragmented, and since there was a chronic shortage of jobs to be found outside agriculture, there were waves of mass migration, especially to America.
As early as , when Franz Joseph I by means of the February Patent reorganized half the monarchy, there were Slovene literary salons established in Trieste, Maribor, and Celje; by these had multi- plied to They were meeting places for nationally conscious intellectuals, Slovene members of the urban and merchant upper classes, notables from the countryside, and the petty bourgeoisie; the peasantry was included only to a limited extent in only a few places, notably the Littoral.
They hosted word games, recita- tions, songs, concert numbers, lectures and speeches, social gatherings, and dances. The center of these all-Slovene cultural and political activities gradually came to be located in Ljubljana, the capital city of the centrally located Duchy of Carniola, the Habsburg inherited property settled by Slovenes.
At the end of the s, Ljubljana's literary salon had about members, and was the central organization of which other reading rooms were affiliates. A year later the Matica slovenska was founded, the first domestic society for the publication of scientific, popular and other books in the Slovene language, and two years after that the Drama Society, which was the forerunner of the Slovene National Theater [umrada Ljubljana during this period was undeniably also the center for the conservative old-school Slovene politics led by Janez Bleiweis — and promoted in his newspapers: The Habsburg military defeat by Prussia in had a favorable influence on the democratization of the political life of Slovenes and accelerated its political and cultural development.
The Viennese ruling circles resolved the military fiasco with a political settlement or treaty with the Hungarian elites and the reorganization of the state into a dualistic monarchy in , carried out at the expense of the Slavic nations.
The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ceased to be a great European power and began increasingly to rely on its German neighbor, becoming ever more dependent. Taylor wrote that some nations, or at least their embryonic beginnings in the Habsburg Monarchy, were in fact created by people of the pen Grdina Slovenes built their cultural struggle based on the views of the German philosopher Herder, who regarded language as the foundation of every nation, and hence placed culture on the altar of their formation Seton-Watson Herder's work was also inspired by the idea of a Slavic association, called pan-Slavism, whose leading figures encouraged substantiation of the differences between Slavic nations and Germans, by means of which they drew distinctions between the two groups.
In his famous work Ideen zur Geschicte der Menschheit from , Herder ascribed to the Slavs — in contrast to the Germans — leanings towards democracy, peace, music, and national poetry. The basic demand was that all the territory inhabited by Slovenes should be united in one whole. It was clear that the fragmentation into different provinces needed to be overcome, and Slovenes joined.
This struggle for the consolidation of Slovene territory began first in the spiritual sphere, especially through cultural activity. The leading role in this cultural battle was taken by the Matica slovenska, an all-Slovene pub- lishing, scientific and cultural society. It first appeared in Slovene territory in , in the weekly Farming and Handicraft News in an article about the efforts to establish such a society.
The main purpose of the Matica was the dis- semination of literature in the Slovene language, thereby counteracting the influence of the German language and Germanization, which was more or less a byproduct of the aspirations for unification in a state and the organization of an efficient state administration.
During this period the process of formation of national consciousness began, and the ideas of the original enthu- siastic visionaries spread to the masses. The use of the language of the people made Slovene literary and scientific works more accessible to the public: Bleiweis saw language and culture, grounded in peas- ant traditions and Slavic harmony, as the most effective means of national liberation Slovenski narod At the very outset the Matica slovenska undertook to make up for the lack of Slovene folklore and local history reading material by publishing historical and geographical descriptions of the Slovene lands, which educated Slovene patriots and members of the board began to prepare at this time.
This was in keeping with the idea that the power and stature of a nation springs from books in the mother tongue, which the nation can be justly proud of.
The need for geographical literature arose from the conviction that a stronger national consciousness required a good knowledge not only of one's own country but also of foreign lands both near and far. It is important to note that the Matica was a supraprovincial organization which strove in its work to transcend provincial borders and satisfy the needs of all its members regardless of which province of Austria they lived in.
The Matica began its publishing activity with geographical works, or more precisely, with cartog- raphy. In addition to the Slovene Calendar for , its members also received Kozler's Map of Slovene land and provinces, which was the author's gift to the Matica.
Besides its undeniable scientific value, since it was created based on state statistics and field observations, its moral value was inestimable, since it showed the united territory of the Slovene nation in a new light.
It is thus understandable that it served for the next hundred years as the underpinning for Slovene national demands Prunk With the publication of a map that clearly expressed the aspirations for a United Slovenia, the Matica early on indicated its primary role. The books which followed reflected similar ideas. Their main purpose was to present the provinces within the Habsburg Monarchy in which there were concentrations of Slovenes, and in this way show that the provinces belonged to Slovenes.
They strove to clearly illustrate the territory settled by Slovenes as an independent entity within the Monarchy Granda The first two geographical publications were The Duchy of Carinthia in geographical, statistical, and historical overview, and The Duchy of Carniola in geographical, statistical, and historical overview. This was followed by a description of Styria, after which the idea of a detailed survey of all the provinces died away.
It was revived again in , but the collection Slovene land was not realized in its entirety. In contrast to the first attempt, the authors in the second were predominantly Slovene. Textbooks in Slovene were also initially only translations of for- eign works. Matej Cigale translated and adapted Schubert's geography textbook with the title First lessons in geography for the first class of lower gymnasia and schools, but the work was never published.
Of special value in the works in which Cigale collaborated were the Slovene geographical names and specialized expres- sions, since all the educated people of that time who dealt with maps or local history felt the lack of Slovene geographical terminology Bohinec The first secondary school textbooks for geography authored by Slovenes came out in the s and s.
They were written by the nationally conscious Slovene Janez Jesenko — , a geographer and historian educated at the University of Vienna, for publication under the auspices of the Matica slovenska. He was born into a peasant family but early on showed great aptitude for learning, which took him to schools in Idrija, Gorizia, Ljubljana, Graz, and finally Vienna.
At the lyceum in Gorizia he learned clas- sical, Romance and Germanic languages. In the course of his studies of theology and later, law, he expanded his knowledge to include the Slavic languages, in particular Croatian, Serbian, Russian and Czech. In the revolutionary year he passed the exam to qualify as a judge in Klagenfurt, but due to a lack of funds was unable to pursue his occupation of choice; judges' clerkships were not paid, and state financial sup- port was temporarily halted due to the revolutionary events.
At the invitation of the printer Blaznik, Cigale took over the editorship of his new newspaper, called Slovenia, in Ljubljana, and became a secretary of the Slovene Society, whose fundamental purpose was to cultivate the mother tongue and literature.
But at the end of fate took him once again to Vienna, where he was appointed the Slovene editor of the state legal code on the state commission for judicial-political terminology for Slavic languages. This appointment led him away from working as a judge once and for all: The fundamental guiding principles which drove his life and work were Slavic mutuality and the devel- opment of the Slovene language: His work in developing geographical sciences was also motivated by patriotism and the good of the Slovene nation, in which he regarded language as the foundation for national consciousness.
Cigale belongs in the cate- gory of nationally conscious Slovenes whose status and position was not achieved in the field of economics or business, but who rose to their positions in public administration, free-lance occupations and other intellectual services by virtue of their education Vodopivec The Matica slovenska, how- ever, saw Atlant as a means of placing Slovenes and the Slovene language in a larger context, on the world map, to place the Slovene language side by side with languages of larger nations and tell Slovenes that they were an equal part of the planet.
Today we might call this a transition from the local to the global. Atlant was published in sheets. Three sheets each came out in the years , , , , in , for a total of 18 maps.
The majority were 40—42 cm long and 30—32 cm wide. Their titles were as follows: The geographical names were prepared by lawyer Matej Cigale — Although some geographical names today sound unusual or even comic, Matej Cigale completed an extra- ordinary opus, since for the first time numerous foreign names were translated into the Slovene language through translation or Slovenized. After Slovenia's independence in , the new state tried to strengthen Slovene identity, similarly to Atlant in the 19th century, and gave special attention to fundamental geographic works.
The publication is composed of 18 folded color map facsimiles with accompanying notes on 96 pages. The maps and the book are packaged in a cardboard case. This is especially pronounced when features which are usually invisible to the human eye are displayed alongside visible forms.
Deeper sociological analysis shows maps in a new light, treating them not merely as a tool for orientation and for locating certain places and occurrences in a given time period, but also recognizing their much broader communicative value. Seen from this standpoint, maps fit the definition of a text, since it is a known fact that cartographic symbols as a code of communication were developed even before codes based on letters.
The development of cartography from the time of Eratosthenes on was directed by the ruling class- es, who had power and authority, and knew that maps, due to their visual power, were an extremely useful medium for the cultural, ideological, and national appropriation of reality [aver Proof of this can be seen, for example, in the efforts of various rulers to use as the prime meridian one that ran through their territory or state.
The decision of the French king Louis XIII in to use Ferro, the westernmost of the Canary Islands, as the prime meridian, influenced the choice of reference meridians for the maps of Atlant. The same point of reference was later taken by Austria-Hungary Fridl The issue of where the prime meridian should be located became especially controversial at the beginning of the 19th cen- tury, when the cartographic superpowers designated as prime meridian whichever one ran through their astronomical observatory.
Thus the French chose the one through Paris, the Russians the one that passed through Pulkovo, near St. This lack of consensus could be seen in Atlant: Greenwich was offi- cially designated the international prime meridian at the International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.
Maps of the world, continents, and provinces began to take on more modern form in the 16th cen- tury, assisted most of all by the aspirations of European rulers to discover and claim new lands as well as by the arrival of technologies from the Far East, especially China, in Europe. All this made it possible for the empty spaces on world maps, which from the 14th century to the beginning of the 19th century were cov- ered with images of mythical figures, to gradually disappear. More accurate calculations of the latitudes and longitudes of various places on the Earth were made possible by the modernization of Ptolemy's car- tographic projections, which along with the reprinting of his works had prevailed up until the first half of the 16th century.
But much time was to pass before the first general geographical map of Europe sim- ilar to today's was made, using the more accurate topographical maps of individual provinces. This occurred at the beginning of the 19th century, during a period when the first aspirations towards placing the Slovene nation on the political map of Europe appeared Fridl The hachures method invented in the 18th century by Prussian military cartographers was used in order to show three-dimensional relief in a two-dimensional plane.
In the method — then called slope hachur- ing — was further improved by the Saxon cartographer Johann Georg Lehmann, who accurately determined the ratios between the gradient of the land and the density of lines Perko Its shortcomings could be seen especially in the display of mountain regions with steep relief.
Two illustrative examples can be seen in the Alps as shown on a map of the German Empire and a map of Switzerland. Due to the larger scale, the lines on the map of Switzerland take up almost half the area, such that the other topographic elements in it literally disappear. It is possible to assert with confidence that a variety of cartographic plans were used for the individ- ual sheets of Atlant.
This is demonstrated, for instance, by the fact that on some maps, for example the sheets of Europe, Asia, and Australia, rivers are shown as excessively meandering.
River bends are distributed evenly along the length of the river course, such that it is obvious at a glance that the river's actual course is not being shown. This method of displaying river networks was typical for maps which came out about years before Atlant. These shortcomings were corrected on later map sheets.
Atlant, with its clearly delineated political and administrative borders, is an important historical doc- ument. Slovene territory is still not perceptible among the major empires, smaller states and numerous colonies. Slovene toponyms, which indirectly show the regional characteristics and the ethnicity of Slovenes to a given territory, are sufficiently important for the understanding of space in a given historical period as to require a chapter of their own. The path to the affirmation of the Slovene language in the broader context of the European cultural space was not easy.
Some already established cartography publishers were not willing to publish an atlas in the Slovene language, using the excuse that it would be too expensive or that they already had too much work. Atlant was printed using what was for those times a revolutionary printing tech- nique — lithography, which had begun to be used in cartography only a few decades earlier. From the standpoint of technical procedures as well as their intertextual role, Atlant's maps were on a par with the world atlases of nations which were linguistically much more established in the 19th century.
In referring to Atlant, we must therefore not only be aware that its system of cartographic symbols operates at the primary communicative level, i. This means that its secondary messages must also be recognized as they were shaped by the historical and social position of European nations in the second half of the 19th century.
A place's features are named not only on the basis of their natural properties, but also accord- ing to important personalities, historical events, literary works, religious tendencies and even humorous circumstances. A given name in different lands can for example along with its local variants explain the dis- semination of a given cultural or historical factor, such as military conquest or colonization Kadmon Foreign geographical names in Slovene first began to appear in textbooks in the first half of the 19th cen- tury.
The first of them were presented systematically and in greater number by Janez Jesenko, whose textbook Jesenko first cited Slovene names of continents and major world oceans and subsequently listed names on individual continents for major peninsulas, capes, and countries, or the better known regions, as well as the names for seas bordering the world oceans, and their major gulfs. Later he labeled major lakes and rivers, mountain ranges, their bet- ter known summits, and major lowlands on the continents.
The names of major European cities and the largest cities on other continents were listed in table form. Jesenko's collection of several hundred geographical names definitely served as an important model for Cigale's later work in the preparation of Atlant, even though he roundly criticized some of Jesenko's choices, in polemical articles published in newspapers.
No doubt some of this was due also to rivalry. Cigale was especially critical of Jesenko's general expressions, whereas the geographical names did not draw major objections Kladnik There are 28, names and general concepts recorded in total on all the maps of Atlant. There are 22, different names, and are listed two or more times. All the major important geographical names have been Slovenized, and we thus can justifiably recognize Cigale, influenced in part by Jesenko, as their source.
Despite its exceptional significance in the development of the Slovene language, Atlant later failed to generate the response it deserved. How mistaken he was! Despite a few shortcomings, all 18 map sheets rank alongside the cartographic achieve- ments of Kocen and others from the second half of the 19th century, and as far as content is concerned Atlant is an invaluable resource for the study and understanding of Slovene geographical nomenclature.
The Slovene language has thus been enriched with a multitude of Slovenized geographical names for nearly years. Cigale had an extraordinary feeling for the balanced Slovenization of names from all parts of the world. Although we wouldn't say that any given language inspired him, it is clear that he relied on the semantic type of geographical names and on the meaning of a given name originating from the size category of a certain feature.
Larger and historically more important regions, mountain ranges, rivers, and other fea- tures were partly translated and partly transcribed, so as to adapt the nomenclature to the Slovene alphabet, and partly adapted to Slovene pronunciation by means of phonetic spelling, in which Slovene endings were added as necessary.
The maps of Australia and Austria have similar proportions of Slovenized names, with The proportion of Slovenized names varied greatly depending on their semantic type. Names of peo- ples, continents, and historical regions are Slovenized in their entirety.
The majority of names are Slovenized in the names of countries The extent of Slovenization of names of settlements is considerably less: Written forms of names, with the exception of those rewritten from Cyrillic, which in many instances led to Slovenization, are relatively divergent from modern transliteration norms for individual languages, but this indicates Cigale's considerable expertise in the characteristics of certain other languages, their stress patterns, and the way they are written in the Latin alphabet.
This is confirmed by guidelines for the pronunciation of clusters of letters in individual languages written in the margins of some maps.
Perhaps even better examples can be found in the territory of what is now Germany. Wherever Lusatian Sorbian names occurred, these were written in Atlant.
Thus, for example, in Mecklenburg and Brandenburg, we find the following names of settlements: This can be seen in the names of major cities in the south of what is now Germany, which are obviously written according to the Czech model, but following the rules for Slovenizing the Czech language: Munich , Rezno Czech: Similarly, the Italian Adriatic port city of Ancona was preferentially written in the now completely unknown variant of Jakin the Czech name.
Otherwise, Atlant uses some German and English names for distant lands which Cigale either did not want or did not know how to Slovenize. A number of geographical names indicate the political, national, and linguistic real- ities of the second half of the 19th century, which considerably differed from the present-day state of affairs.
A similar situation occurs in parts of Oceania. Although some of the geographical names of the time sound unusual and even comical today, Cigale accomplished an extraordinary feat by translating and Slovenizing numerous foreign names and presenting them systematically in the Slovene language for the first time. It is impossible to overlook his critical approach, since Atlant provided some extremely good solutions which were later distorted due to the influence of Serbo-Croatian and Russification.
It was during this period, particularly after the renewal of constitutionality, that the language made great strides of progress. This was very important for Slovenes for their positive self-image and the image they projected to the outside world.
It was during this time that a language which had long been considered as a language of peasants began to enable scientific and cultural creativity of the highest order. Atlant as a literary and scientific work as well as a historical document is a reflection of the time and space in which it arose. Just the course of the organizational activities itself, in the light of spatial relations, shows the position of Slovenes in search of their own space within a multinational monarchy and the relation- ship between Slovenes and the other nations there.
In searching for the appropriate cartographic plans and institutions willing to take on such a challenging project the organizers turned first to two German pub- lishing houses and one Czech one. The choice of German publishing houses shows that just a little over a year after the collapse of the German Alliance and the expulsion of Austria from it, which Slovenes received with great joy, the leading figures at the Matica had already transcended the conflicts between Austria and Germany Melik Due to an incompatibility of interests regarding the printing of Atlant on the part of publishing houses approached, in the end the job was done in Vienna, in the capital where Cigale worked — like many other Slovenes from the educated classes.
Thus Atlant was the fruit of Austrian technology and cartographical science and Slovene linguistic expertise, given that its translator and editor was a Slovene. The significance of Atlant and other scientific literature was that its existence refuted the arguments of government representatives who claimed that a lack of suitable terminology and an insufficient level of development of the language represented insurmountable obstacles to its use as an official language.
This was the counterargument of German and Italian politicians who defended their position as colonial pow- ers Moritsch Atlant was proof that even a suppressed nation was capable of creating important cultural works and that Slovene as a language made this possible. It proved to Slovenes as well as to oth- ers that Slovene was a living language which was actively developing.
It highlighted Slovenes as a national community well along the road to shaping its own identity. The work of the Matica slovenska demon- strated that Slovenes did not intend achieve national emancipation solely through political struggle, but spontaneously, through the strengthening of cultural and linguistic consciousness.
It was by means of Atlant that Slovenes took their rightful place alongside culturally and linguistically more developed nations; not all of whom, even those which were substantially larger nations than Slovenia, could claim to have pro- duced such an extensive cartographic work. The scientific literature is evidence that politically and culturally conscious people were aware of the importance of widespread support of the masses for the strengthening of the Slovene language. It was through books, written in the national language, that science and knowledge reached the ordinary person, who may not have known German but was already literate, since mandatory education had already had a long tradition in Slovenia.
In this way the national consciousness touched a wide public which had prior to this nurtured only a local or regional sense of belonging. The scientific literature reached not only the intel- ligentsia but also the nationally conscious masses. The reach of Atlant can be seen in the number of copies printed.
The first three sets of maps had a print run of copies each, while the second three had a run of copies each. For the sake of meaningful comparison, let us note that a facsimile of Atlant years later had a print run of copies. Thus the print run of the original was enviable for those times, since science books even today usually have fewer copies printed. This gives us a very clear picture of Atlant as not just scientific literature, but much, much more.
It served to awaken national consciousness, and played an important educational role. Members of the Matica slovenska came not just from the Slovene province of Carniola, but also Styria, Carinthia, and the Littoral as well as beyond.
Territorially speaking, then, Atlant and other publications not only remained at the core of the national community, they also reached many more distant places. Atlant brought the world closer to the people, and at the same time brought Slovenes closer to the world.
For small national communities language was the crucial factor which clearly distinguished them from others, and thus bolstered the jus- tification for and the legalization of their existence. Hroch has called such a course of national emancipation the language-cultural program, led and guided by patriotic intellectuals Hroch Publishing activ- ity, organized to a great extent by the Matica slovenska, in just a few decades raised the status of the Slovene language to a language applied at all levels of education.
The complete liberalization of the agricultural market would cause a considerable decrease in the number of farms and the gradual emptying of low-hill and remote regions and thus the loss of the identity of the countryside.
Relative to the natural and historical heritage, the only acceptable model is the sustainability approach that envisages a development toward the restoration of the landscape with respect to biotic diversity, ecological balance, and the cultural heritage.
This concept advocates the preservation of a sufficient number of farms and economic and technological development that would simultaneously respect market laws and the fundamental cultural elements of the landscape. Figure 1. The kozolec or hayrack is an achievement of folk architecture.
Characteristically Slovene, they are used for drying crops and are found most frequently in alpine regions. Oskar Dolenc. Figure 2. The klopotec or wind rattle is a wooden device to drive birds from the vineyards of the Pannonian low hills in Eastern Slovenia before and during the vintage time.
Figure 3. Ostrnice are thinner tree trunks with branches pushed into the ground on which hay is still dried in some Dinaric regions in Southern Slovenia. Matej Gabrovec.
Figure 4. Piran, an old Mediterranean town, situated at the cape of the Piran peninsula, is actually an open air museum with the medieval architecture and rich culture heritage. Marjan Garbajs. Anko B. Bat M. Blaznik P. Zgodovina agrarnih panog, Agrarno gospodarstvo Economic and social history of Slovenes. Cunder T. Drozg V. Ferenc M. Fister P. Fridl J. Gabrovec M.
Gams I. Holz E. Kosi M. Melik A. Meze D. Javornik M. Mlakar A. Ogorelec B. Ogrin D. Perko D. Slovenska matica. Stritar A. Urbanc M. Vojvoda M.
Zgonik M. Landscape research in Europe. Drago Perko et Mimi Urbanc. Plan Disciplines and fields of landscape research. Landscape evaluation and future development. Disciplines and fields of landscape research 3 In Slovenia, geography plays the leading role in landscape research. Table 1. Some basic characteristics of landscape types in Slovenia. Agrandir Original png, k. Figure 5.
Landscape types in Slovenia. Bibliographie Anko B. Table des illustrations Titre Table 1. URL http: Haut de page.
Suivez-nous Flux RSS. Informations Titre: Main features. Rare remains of settlements. Road network, cities.