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5th ed. p. ;cm. — (Board review series). Rev. ed. of: Biochemistry and We hope that the new edition of BRS Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Genetics. 5th ed. c ISBN I. Swanson, Todd A. Biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics. II. Title. III. Series: Board review series. [DNLM: 1. Biochemistry; Reprinted , ; Fifth caite.info Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Seventh edition The second one on drug discovery.
A comprehensive exam at the end of this vol- ume reinforces the concepts of the text. Apoptosis IV. Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids Review Test 9. Biochemical Phenomena—Outlines. Jennifer Kuklinski Designer: Our objective has been to provide the student with clinically relevant questions in a format similar to that encountered on the USMLE Step 1 Boards. Modes of Inheritance IX.
In addition to his role as editorial consultant on every chapter, Dr. Lieberman reviewed the entire manuscript to help ensure the accuracy, consis- tency, and timeliness of its content. His help has been instrumental in paving the way for us to become medical educators. As well, T. Inga Grills, residency program director, and Dr. This tome could not have been accomplished without the thousands of stu- dents taught in classes and mentored over the last 20 years at three of the finest medical schools.
For asking for my participation, I especially thank two of my recent and most bril- liant students … my coauthors. Carbohydrate Structure 4 IV. Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids 9 V. Amino Acids 11 VI. Lipids 14 VII. Membranes 16 VIII. Nucleotides 18 Review Test 19 1.
General Properties of Enzymes 38 II. The Lineweaver-Burk Plot 41 V. Inhibitors 41 VI. Allosteric Enzymes 43 xi VII. Isoenzymes 45 Review Test 46 3. Digestion of Carbohydrates 50 II. General Overview 63 II. Reactions of Glycolysis 64 IV. Regulatory Enzymes of Glycolysis 66 VI. Reactive Oxygen Species 90 Review Test 93 6. Glycogen Structure 97 III. Glycogen Synthesis 97 IV. Glycogen Degradation V. Lysosomal Degradation of Glycogen VI. Overview II. Reactions of Gluconeogenesis III. Fructose and Galactose Metabolism II.
Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids Review Test 9. Fatty Acid Oxidation IV. Blood Lipoproteins Review Test Metabolism of the Eicosanoids IV. Synthesis of the Steroid Hormones Review Test Tetrahydrofolate and S-Adenosylmethionine: Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism II. Heme Metabolism Review Test Fasting IV.
Prolonged Fasting Starvation V.
Biochemical Functions of Tissues Review Test Actions of Specific Hormones Review Test Nucleic Acid Structure II. Chromosomes II.
Cell Cycle III. Control of the Cell Cycle IV. Meiosis V. Gene Dosage VI. Modes of Inheritance IX. Moderators of Inheritance X. Hardy-Weinberg Principle XI.
Genetic Testing Review Test Oncogenes II. Apoptosis IV. Mechanism of Oncogenesis V. Molecular Carcinogenesis VI. Organic Chemistry Review Biomolecules: Identification of carbon atoms Figure I-1 n Carbon atoms are either numbered or given Greek letters. Functional groups in biochemistry n Types of functional groups include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxyl groups, anhydrides, sulfhydryl groups, amines, esters, and amides.
All these are important components of biochem- ical compounds Figure I Biochemical reactions 1. Reactions are classified according to the functional groups that react e. Oxidations of sulfhydryl groups to disulfides, of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, and of alde- hydes to carboxylic acids frequently occur. Many of these oxidations are reversed by reductions.
In oxidation reactions, electrons are lost. In reduction reactions, electrons are gained. Water 1.
Water H2O is the solvent of life. Carbons are numbered starting from the most oxi- dized carbon-containing group, or they are assigned Greek letters, with the carbon next to the most oxidized group desig- nated as the a-carbon. This compound is 3-hydroxybutyrate or b-hydroxybutyrate. It is a ketone body. Because the extent of dissociation is not appreciable, [H2O] remains constant at Acids and bases n Acids are compounds that donate protons, and bases are compounds that accept protons.
Acids dissociate a. Strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid HCl , dissociate completely.
Weak acids, such as acetic acid, dissociate only to a limited extent: The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was derived from the equation for the dissociation con- stant of a weak acid or base: The major acids produced by the body include phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, lactic acid, hy- drochloric acid, and the ketone bodies, acetoacetic acid and b-hydroxybutyric acid. CO2 is also produced, which combines with H2O to form carbonic acid in a reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase: Buffers 1.
Buffers consist of solutions of acid-base conjugate pairs, such as acetic acid and acetate. Near its pK, a buffer maintains the pH of a solution, resisting changes due to addition of acids or bases Figure I For a weak acid, the pK is often designated pKa. The publisher is not responsible as a matter of product liability, negligence, or otherwise for any injury resulting from any material contained herein.
This publication contains information relating to general principles of medical care that should not be construed as specific instructions for individual patients.
Swanson, Sandra I. Kim, Marc J. Glucksman ; with editorial consultation by Michael A. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN hardcopy: Biochemistry—Examinations, questions, etc. Molecular biology—Examinations, questions, etc. Kim, Sandra I. Glucksman, Marc J. Lieberman, Michael, IV. Swanson, Todd A. Biochemistry and molecular biology. Board review series. Biochemical Phenomena—Examination Questions.
Biochemical Phenomena—Outlines. Genetic Processes—Examination Questions. Genetic Processes—Outlines. QU S93 If they have inadvertently overlooked any, they will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. To purchase additional copies of this book, call our customer service department at or fax orders to International customers should call For Olga, Maxwell, Anneliese, and the eagerly awaited new addition to the Swanson clan.
If not for you, all my efforts would be in vain. Our goal is to offer a review book that both lays the foundations of biochemistry and introduces clinically relevant correlates. In doing so, we have de-emphasized some of the rote memorization of structures and formulas that often obscure the big picture of medical biochemistry. Clinical Correlates in each chapter provide additional clinical insight, distilling numerous clinical correlations into a format that offers the highest yield in review.
We hope that these correlations will help answer a commonly asked question: We hope this chapter will augment other review texts on genetics that students may consult in preparation for Step 1.
Many of the questions at the end of each chapter have been revised to maximize their value for the student preparing for the exam. A comprehensive exam at the end of this vol- ume reinforces the concepts of the text.