Oxford Business English for Human Resources . I 4 Applicants shou ld have either a qualification in human resources management or a university degree. 5 English is not important for the job. benefits an employee gets: package 2 the series of jobs or the professions people spend most of their life Download pdf. Downlodad Ebook English for Human Resources. Download english course by Download english for express series by Oxford. Oxfor business english free. Express Series: English for Human Resources by Pat Pledger, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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Book details Author: Pat Pledger Pages: 80 pages Publisher: Oxford University Press ELT Language: English ISBN ISBN Description this book Express Series: English for Human Resources Student s Book and MultiROM An expanding series. Express Series: the fast route to English for work. English for Human Resources is part of the Express Series. It is an ideal Our discounted price list ( PDF). English for Human Resources is part of the Express Series. Our discounted price list (PDF) Practise your business English with Express Series online.
Many people have learnt to overcome these difficulties through list making. Make copies of the Person Specifications and then ask students to work in pairs to make a note of any similarities and differences between the example s from the Internet and the template in Exercise 4a. As far as I'm concerned And how about the role of your team in a new product launch? This looks at four levels of assessment: This in Zurich and I'd like us to have some good inpu t will reduce the pressure on yourself.
Productivity bonus, 40 hours per week, vehicle supplied. Wage was traditionally used for the money paid regularly to a worker usually in cash on a weekly basis and salary for mont hly pay. However wage is still used as an alternative to salary when talking about pay in genera l, e. At a time of strong competition in the recruitment market, it's essential that money is spent on relevant benefits and that they are appreciated by the staff. There is a move towards more flexible benefits where employees can choose their package, the report stated.
A number of initiatives are currently being piloted by companies. One such company recently decided to introduce a new benefits package in stages and then issued all staff with an employee benefits statement, so they Is this being too democratic?
As long as budgets could see exactly what they were getting. Now they are not exceeded, what could be better than to are running focus groups on the scheme, before consult with employees on what benefits they introducing fully flexible benefits. These focus prefer? You could have a more contented and groups allow staff and employers to examine the fu ll motivated workforce at the end of the day. Are new employees ever asked what benefits they would prefer to have? P1Ui' How much do you know about trade unions?
Discuss the following statements with a partner and correct any that you think are false. Do others in the group agree with you?
I - Closed shop means a company can engage only employees who I belong to the union. What do you think the following headlines are about? France hit by massive job protests Finance workers in Denmark Flights disrupted following anxious over bank security industrial action by Spanish air traHic controllers Now read the summaries of the three stories behind the headlines to see if you were right.
Find words or phrases which mean the following: A A nationwide strike in France over First Employment Contracts CPE , allowing employers to terminate job contracts for the unders at any time during a 2-year trial period without givin g a reason, caused over 1 million people to take to the streets across France. Large parts of France's transport networks ground to a halt and airport authorities warned of delays and disruption. B The leader of the finance workers' union has called for national and European actio n to make workplaces more secure.
Thousands of bank staff have been victims of bank robberies an average of one a day in Denmark , with many requiring post traumatic stress treatment. He encouraged unions and employers to work together in a global in iti ative for safer workplaces.
Last nigh t Spain's airport authority and the air traffic controllers' union were in what were described as 'tense negotiations'. Then use them to complete the sentences. Non-union companies in U. Unionize d compan ies have shop stewards or union representatives who have been elected by union members to represent them to management. Which statements in each group below best describes the situation they are discussing?
Then use the information in the dialogue to answer the questions. It looks as if there could be a long and difficult negotiation with the union representing the workers at the British plant. How can companies avoid situations like this? Work with a partner to rank the tips below from 1 being the most important. Can you add any more tips to the list? D Always listen carefully to the other person. D Use simple and D When agreement is reached, summarize clearly and close the deal. Check your answers with a partner.
A successful conclusion for everybody. S The management can't promise anything positive. Jason writes the following email to the management committee. Complete the gaps with the correct form of the verbs below. Th 7 a substantial fall in sales and provided that there is no industnal action. Best wishes Jason Hughes What types of negotiations have you been involved in? Describe your experiences to your colleagues.
While diplomatic language see page 38 and building rapport are both essentia l for keeping the negotiation polite and friend ly, there are also many fixed phrases which can help make finding the right words easier. Below are some typical phrases for persuading and bargaining. Persuading ft would be to your advantage to.. We can reassure you on that point totally.
We might put a better offer on the table, It's the best offer around. You won't find a better provided that you stop the strike. I'd go along with that on condition that you returned to work. Bargaining That seems a good compromise, as long as as We would agree on one condition. If you agree to Unless your members return to normal working If you threathen us, we'll withdraw the offer.
The first sentence has been done for you. Choose a few situations below - or think of your own - and try to persuade your partner to accept your position. Be prepared to bargain.
You feel that one candidate is dearly the best but the manager prefers another person. The rule is a maximum of two weeks at a time. The staff are not happy about this. First look at the Useful Language on page Then use the role cards in the Partner Files or think up your own situation to negotiate with your partner.
File 06, p. What was the reaction of your staff? Read the following extracts and discuss with the rest of the group.
Ongmally the cham gave assurances that the move would not lead to widespread job losses. Workers welcomed the news as there had been widespread rumours that the plant would be closed. ThiS will lead to a loss of jobs. Despite a protest march in September; workers were urged by their employers not to take strike action as it would not be 'in the interests of the employees, customers and the company'.
Exactly how much of a comm itment should an employer have to its staff? Across 1 what you write to an unsuccessful candidate: You are visiting one of your officer at the Italian subsidiary of Green man European branches and are meeting with Partner B, International Books, wh ich is located in Tu rin.
Yo u who is a manager there, to discuss recruiting a new are currently looki ng for somebody for t he positi on marketing manager. Note the following arguments: Note that the in various countries and cover a much wider area job re quires someone with fl uent Italian spoken t han an advert in the paper.
Also, they can and written but you are prepared to pay for Italian conduct in itial interv iews and thus save you time. Today is Monday, 28 August. Call Jenny Mills, Personnel Assistant, in London to arrange a You are a recruitment office r in a large HR convenient date and time for an interview this week department and are getting read y fo r your first or next.
Look at your diary and your notes before app raisa l interview wi t h yo ur boss - the personne l making the phone call. You Meeting Nights ift lopm ,alTl sta rted off well in the job and were ve ry hap py - it's z - ,pm a cha llenging post with lots of contact with other 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 branches. Partner Files A I 61 Although you like your job, lat ely you have been Unit 6, Exercise 13 File 06 th inki ng about look ing for a new pos ition.
The reason is that one of your co lleagues Johnson has You r company has decided t o make fiv e IT st aff been making things unp leasant for you for the last redundant, as t he wh ole IT departm ent is bein g months. You fee l in a difficult are meeti ng wi t h a mem ber of th e works co uncil to position and have even been to a docto r fo r stress- get t heir agreeme nt, which you need in ord er to go re lated problems.
Prepare fo r th e meeting by com pleti ng t he not es below. You might also want t o Prepare what you want to say, then take part in the think of som e ot her arguments. You expect this to appraisal interview with your superior.
Then swa p roles and do t he inte rview again. You have per day in-house IT cover not 15 hrs as at agreed to cha ir t he meeting, so fi rst you nee d to use these notes to prepa re the agenda. Start the meeting by introducing the agenda and then discuss with your colleagues the various be nefits that have been recomme nded.
Try to agree on the next steps. You th ink you need to go slowly on this - you wo n't be able to make a decision today. Perhaps yo u nee d to first ask the staff what benefits packages they would li ke to have, meet again, t hen make a proposa l to the Board. A personnel officer from your the position of bookkeeper at the Ita li an subsidiary head office Partner A is visiting you to discuss of Greenman International Books, which is located recruitment for the job of marketing manager at in Turin.
Greenman are looking for somebody with your branch office. This is what you think: Recruitment good enough. Here are the things to mention at the interview: You need to take your seven-year-old suggestions. Try to agree on how you should recruit child to school each day so can't start before for this job. The afternoon is no problem as your partner collects your child from school.
London office of Mobile plus SA. You are responsible for arranging and carrying out interviews for the new call centre positions. The Unit 4, Exercise 10 File 04 best candidate so far for the position of team leader You are the personnel officer responsible for the is Melanie Smith, who is going to call you to recruitment section of a large HR department and arrange an interview. Use your notes and this are about to carry out an appraisal interview with extract from your calendar to deal with the phone one of your recruitment officers who has completed call and to make an appointment for an interview a year's service.
After th e interview, Interview Assess Oepl me; Iin9 2 ,tl1 Sep? Wflat was wron9? You have agreed to take the minutes in this second meeting. You have two children aged two benefits package for your company. So far Childcare issues are fine but you don't have chi ldren only one man has taken paternity leave in your and would prefer to have some sort of reward company and there are a number of female incentives profit sharing, performance-related pay, colleagues who are under extreme stress because free shares in the company?
Prepare some suggestions for childcare issues to Decide what recommendations you would like to present at the meeting and try to agree with your make exactly, and be ready to present your colleagues on the next steps. Hopefully, you and your colleagues can agree on a proposal today, so you Unit 6, Exercise 13 File 06 can make recommendations to management this week. You have offered to write the email to You are a member of the works council.
You have a management and you are going on a two-week negotiation meeting with a senior member of HR holiday in three days. As far as you know, the five employees are being made redundant without good reason it seems the company want to outsource the jobs to an IT consulting company and you've heard the company isn't being very generous with its leaving package compensation.
Check your notes before going into the negotiation and try to add one or two other points to negotiate. We need some assurances this will not continue. Ne9otiate a hi9her one! What will the money saved be used for? Who will benefit? David is responsi ble for this. Person specification 7 True desi rab le skills 8 True practical req uirements 9 False: The merger is not given as the reason for p revi a us expe rie nce the job sea rch.
She only asks to be kept posted about skills and q ualiti es needed for job them. The train ing manager is responsible for two Starter admi nistrators, one PA and a team of t rainers. An applicant should be able to summarize 4 False: S True 2 Agree and disagree: A photo is still expe cted in some count ri es bu t it is not considered 4 1 reports to 4 car ryi ng out app rop riate in the U.
In these days of age discrimination, it is no lon ger necessary to put the date of birt h on a 5 1 improve S develop CV. It is optional. An HR person can get a very 2 build 6 identify good idea of an applicant's age by looking at the 3 react to 7 ensu re details of thei r educatio n and experience.
In the U. An swer key I 65 5 Disagree: Thi s is good HR practice. The applica nt is 3 career history l ast job fi rst th en fu lly informed before the interview and 4 key skills better prepared for the questions that will be 5 ed uca tion asked. Additionally, applicants have a cha nce to 6 training decide before an interview if they are suitable for or rea lly interested in the pOS ition.
She appli ed for a pOSition as Call Cen tre agency fo r example. Team Leader. Th is is private info rmation and does 2 True no t make a woman more or less suitable for the 3 False: Th e initial interview will take place with in job.
Details will be sent in advance to t he Jobs in t he travel business always attract applica nts who are se lected. The style of the ad is also informal 7 False: She has to ca ll the London office to and has a cha llengi ng feel to it. You will be notified of the results in writing.
Employment status trial period page 22 fi xed-term contract 14 suggested answers te mpo rary employment 1 Could you tell me about your relationship with probationary period your present supervisor? Absence 2 Could you outline one or two staff problems you annual leave have had and how you dealt wi th them? Could you resignation give some examples? The company doesn't have flexitime yet. She wrote the names of the referees on 10 1 occur 6 breaking the application form.
She has told them already. She'll receive it in the next couple of days. It is also in the reduced t he number of heart attacks in the U. Output 6 Motivating staff a 7. Antonio to have cu ltura l training b peop le died in accidents at work during Peter to have leadership trai ning and As soon as they clarify the situation, t hey 7 I think you and I need to im prove our should ensure that there aren't any other co mmunication They should also check 8 Fina lly, on a personal no te, Peter, how is your that their eq ual opportunity policies generally w ife settling in?
The orde r of se ntences: It means a company can only take on emp loyees who be long to t he un ion page 44 4 Correct 5 1 f 2 h 3 k 4 b 5 6 c 5 Correct 6 False: A unio n's ma in respons ibility is to look 7 I 8 a 9 d 10 g 11 12 e after its members' interest s.
Unionisation in lots of Eastern European 6 1 contributory 5 cafeteria countries has collapsed conisderab ly 2 creche 6 merit 3 pension 7 relocation 1 1 take to the streets 4 share 8 counselling 2 ground to a halt 3 globa l initia tive The hidden word is: The union wants the same increase as transferri ng 4 the white-co lla r workers.
The last thing they want is a strike and will be no job losses in Amsterdam. As you Jackie Good morning, David. How was your weekend? Too short though! Ca n we just have a t hat. I know that it's your responsibility, but jenny Co uld yo u outline some of the problems you've I'd like to be up to date on what's happening. We're look ing for to one or two negative relationships in t he someone with 2- 5 years' generalist HR group.
Don't forget we can move around different sections to ga in more took on a lot of employees wit h the merger in experience. Then I thought I'd comp laint? It's one jackie OK. What about an ad in the Spanish HR trade of our specific responsib ilities. They have a monthly magazine, don't Otherwise my staff are inst ruct ed to telilhe they?
I'll possible. If I'm not the re, then another team look into it though. It's important that Francisco Mela ni e? Menendez is involved. As the general manager, Melanie I particula rly enjoy dea lin g w ith custome rs. I am good at it. Well, David, I can see you've got lenny Why do want to leave your prese nt job? Just keep me posted, please. Melanie Part of the call centre is being t ransferred t o David No problem.
My partner has a Jackie Oh, sorry, I've got to run. I have a meeting about good job in this area and we have two ch ildren at disciplinary procedures in about five minutes. I don't really wan t t o move at t hi s ti me, Oh, and by the way, I'll be back in t he office although my co mpany did ask me if I wo uld like again on Thursday, so perhaps we can talk again to relocate.
Tha nk yo u. So, could you tell me about your 3 experience as a team leader in your present job? Speaker 1 Melanie Yes, I've been with my present company for five It is not relevant to ask someone's age. You ca n wo rk it 4 years. I started as a member of the call centre out roug hly from t heir CV and, anyway, t he important t hin g and was promoted to a team leader two years is whether or not they have the ability to do t he job, not ago.
I'm one of eight team leaders and we cover how old t hey are. Transcripts I 71 Speaker 2 June Yes, of course. One will be sent with the offer Yes, I totally agree and older people have a lot of letter. Plus they are often Chiara We'll be taking up references with your previous better employees than their younger colleagues - they're and present employer.
I know in France you more reliable and take less time off work. Which is I'm afraid I can't agree with you on that. Older people are why we'll make the offer of employment 'subject 6 not as flexible, they expect higher salaries and they get to satisfactory reference'. Marion Yes, I understand, I've given details of my Companies want younger employees who can bring in referees on the application form.
My present fresh ideas and are not so expensive! I'll tell them to Speaker 4 expect a letter from you. You can't run a company efficiently with young, Chiara Well thanks, Marion. I hope you'll be joining us 7 inexperienced people. You need to retain older managers soon and look forward to welcoming you to the to train the younger ones and you have to organize department. Maybe you'd like to meet some of effective succession planning in a company.
There should the team over a bite of lunch? We'll all be going be capacity for a broad age range and diverse experience to the canteen in around 15 minutes.
Marion That sounds nice, thanks. We'll get the offer letter, contract, and 8 I think laws on age discrimination are wrong. Why should handbook in the post within the next 24 hours. Only the Could you please let us know if you want to companies know which people are right - or wrong - for accept the job offer by the beginning of next the job. The government shouldn't tell us how to run our week? Marion Right.
Thank you both very much. I feel very positive about everything. Of course, they'll also be Natasha: Shop floor team leader described in the contract of employment and the You know, I only started here four months ago but I'm 10 company handbook, as well as in the offer letter. Gerry, the shop floor Chiara Some employment procedures are different from supervisor, is always correcting me, always telling me that those in France, Marion, but there is generally things are done differently here and he's so negative.
He more flexibility here, I think. Please ask about never gives any real help. And my team is also against me. I just don't know how much longer I can cope, I don't feel June So, let's start with your hours. Normal working in control of the situation. Marketing director lunch. I have put lunches. I'm afraid we don't operate flexitime yet 11 together a team of marketing staff from all our different and there may be overtime during busy periods.
The Marion I see. Several members have already asked to flexible working arrangements for our employees, leave the project. Marion OK. Could you tell me what happens if I am ill? Departmental manager June We pay for the first 12 weeks of sickness and I need help with a problem employee.
He's making a lot of 12 operate a company 'Permanent Health Insurance' mistakes and is argumentative with colleagues. What's scheme which continues to pay you after that. Several clients early as possible on the first day to tell us and have also recently complained about his attitude. Project manager Marion Yes, that's clear.
Could you tell me something I've been here seven years and I desperately need some about the holiday allowance? I'm now coordinating an after two years' service. You must clear dates first international project and it's embarraSSing that I know with your department head, of course.
My boss tells me we're too Marion I have a week's holiday booked in two months' busy for training courses, but it's essential that I'm totally time - will you honour this? Can you talk to my Chiara I'm sure that won't be a problem as it's only a boss? We can discuss it in detail later.
Marion Great. Would it be possible to see the contract? Gaby Fina lly, on a personal note, Peter, how is you r Peter We ll, my biggest strengths are paying attention wife settling in? I think the re we re a few to detail and accuracy. Unfortunately, this slows problems initially? Actually, she's now found a job behind. So that has taken a lot of Peter OK.
I don't seem to have any problems there. Gaby And the output of your team - tell me about that. Sophie As you know, we need to review our benefits Gaby To be quite frank, Peter, you were actually 25 per package to bring it in line wit h our offices in 15 cent down for six months of the year. Denmark and the Netherlands. What is your view Peter Yes, well, that's because Antonio was on sick on this? When did you realize that his absence friendly benefits and also flexible working hours.
Too many staff are work ing overtime and having Peter Well, I knew it would from the beginning. Steve Uh, yes. I had hoped to solve the problem myself by Paola It means trying to achieve a better balance working overtime.
And with the help of Corinna between work and home life. Steve I see. We ll, I'm definitely in favo ur of flexible Gaby So what happened then? Why didn't it work? No one else was able to do it. In fact I'd like to subm it a proposa l Gaby With respect, I was only away for a month. Why on this at a future meeting.
How much time do you need? Could meetings? I'm concerned you didn't feel able to you submit something at our regular meetin g in a discuss it with me. Peter Actually, I prefer to deal with these things myself Steve That's fine.
Sophie Paola, could you please prepare a summary of all Gaby But the results are not very impressive, Peter. These subjects are high you don't discuss them. You need to think about on the agenda at the next in te rn ationa l meeting delegating more to other team members. This in Zurich and I'd like us to have some good inpu t will reduce the pressure on yourself. So how do for the meeting. How can I help you? Paola Yes. By the way, I've had several discussions Peter Well, perhaps we could have another team with our colleagues i n Amsterdam and member until Antonio returns, and maybe I need Copenhagen on their ideas for new initiatives on some training in leadership skills and time flexible working, so I'll fi ll you in on t hat, too.
Actually, there's a bit of a cultural Sophie Good. And I'll give you the details of the new problem with Antonio, too. Before he went sick profit'sharing bonus t he directors have been he was having difficulty dealing with the Austrian discussing Gaby OK, well, neither of the first two suggestions Sophie As you know, we haven't reviewed sa laries for should present a problem.
I'll talk to our 16 over a year. And I know increase from the first of October and I'd like you about Antonio's problems. He has discussed to come back to me with recommendat ions for all them with me and we're sending him on some your staff.
I've produced a list, here w ith the cultural training when he's back. We may do it for relevant data about each employee in Marketing. But, I'd Tim That's fine, I've got one or two people who like to add one other thing: They let's meet weekly for a while and see how we go.
It's Peter OK. That sounds good. Gaby Right. Going back to the question of output, we Sophie Well, we might be able to give more in one or have to get your team's output up to scratch as two cases if you rewa rd less in others.
Don't soon as possible. I'd like you to arrange a forget the rate of inflation is not expected to rise meeting with your team and discuss how you can much in Britain this year and so far, touch wood, improve performance in the coming months. Wi ll t hey be slashed? And are the re any other staff developments on the jason Thank yo u for ca lli ng the meeting.
We are happy to horizo n? We'd like. Then perhaps you could outline why Dece mber and that will determine the fina l bonus the offer was rejected by your members.
We're trying to separate the salary Klaus Yes. Your department sales are down. Th e outlook isn't a very bright is particularly vulnerable here as you have less one at present, b ut we th ink things w ill improve in staff and therefore a numb er of people who work th e next six to nine months provided we can too many hours. Also, there are several women co ntain costs. Frankly, nm, I'm worr ied about th e white-colla r workers were frozen. It has to be co ntained.
It's a difficu lt some of th ese iss ues at the management si tuatio n, that's true, but they want a minimum of meeting.
Tha nks, Sophie. Wh at's more, they are threaten in g industrial within a week. Has thi s got anything to do jason I'm afraid we've got a problem, Klaus. They are wo rried tha t t he pla nt is 17 been rejected by the Union.
Tha t would be a disaster for all Klaus Oh! What's behind it? You know what rumours are like. Th e union representatives Klaus We'd like to reass ure you t hat, as far as we are held a meeting with their members last night and aware, th ere is no pla n to close t he plant or failed to reach agreement. We've studied the figures and th e bottom be next week. But I to ld them that sales were li ne is t hat there's not much money in the pot, so down and that if th in gs got worse, we might have we have to reach a compromise!
Bob I'm sorry, but why should we believe t his? We had a review in salary for two years now? We cons ider ourselves to be a fair and reasonable froze th eir sa laries beca use we had lost a huge em ploye r with a consistent record of comm itm ent contract and then t here was a recession, but we and honesty with our employees.
As I mentioned when we avoid industrial action. All this happened just met before, if sa les co ntinue to fall in Am sterdam, befo re you joined. We thi nk we can jason I see.
It deal with it, but if we ha ve to payout more appears there have been rumours of an economic money here, then it's unl ikely we can. Listen, we'd downturn in the indu stry and t he transfer of work like to put our cards on t he tab le. If yo ur mem bers to the Po li sh subsid iary. But we want your assurances t hat there compe nsate them for loss of overtime over the will be no ind ust ri al action. Helen Coul d we have te n minut es to talk about it Klaus It doesn't make any sense.
But I must say I outside? Let's break fo r coffee and meet back in jason We've got to plan our tactics. Let's ta lk to the management comm ittee Helen OK. We think this is a rea sona bl e comp rom ise. An d you have our assurances there will be no ind ustria l action.
Klaus Tha t's it then. A success ful conclusion fo r everybo dy. Thank you. Jason Good , I' ll send you wr itten confirmation to morrow, which you can post on t he notice bo ards aro und the shop floor if you like. We would like to invite you ro attend an interview at this office and would be grateful if you could telephone the undersigned as soon as possible ro arrange a suitable date and time. Enclosed is a copy of the person specification and job description for this job, which we would like you to familiarize yoursdfwith before the interview.
Alternatively, you can go to our ,""ebsite for these documents and other information about the company. A map showing the location of our offlce is also enclosed. If you have any questions, please raise them when you call to arrange the interview. Mr Ge "ge McAllister 65 Belsi.: We will hold your de taUs pending and! Basic hours ofwo,k are normally 9 a,m.
Holiday e: Normally holiday cannot be taken during the probalionary period, All terms, conditions and benefits are: We would like you to start on 1 November 20, " if possibk.
During yOut' t1rst week you will participate in an induction seminar to famiLial'ize: Full details of this will be sent to you nearer the time. Please let us know as soon as possibk if you would like to accept by signing and returning one copy of the con tract.
We wi II the: Henry Fisher The above-named is being conSidered for the post ofInternational Marketing Assistant and has indicated that you would be willi ng to provide a reference. I should therefore be most grateful if you would confirm to me his position and the dates he was employed by your company. Any information you can give as to Mr Fisher's suitability for the above type of position would be most helpful. Any information YOll provide will be treated in the strictest confidence and may r take this opportunity of thanking you in.
Henry Fisher was employed by this com pany from 1 January until 31 October , when he left of his own accord.
We understand he was proposing to travel for four months in Australia. He started as a trainee in our Public Relations department and transferred to Marketing in April where he worked as a Marketing Assistant.
During his time in our employ he gave good service and worked to our satisfaction in all areas. His involvement in internationa l affa irs covered the last two years of his employment.
During this period he had eight days' sickness recorded. We are delighted to give a reference for Mr Fisher and have no reason to believe he would not be suitable for the iob outlined in your enclosures.
We wish him we ll in his future career. This reference is given without responsibility on the palt of the writer and the company. It's nice to welcome you here and I hope you'll enjoy Has there been anyth ing you have found difficult to the interview.
Please feel free to ask any questions you may have. How are th ings wit h the rest of the department? Have there been any prob lems? Finally, we can deal with any points you would Could there be a personality problem between Why weren't you ab le to talk about it?
Softening disagreement Giving information With respect, I think I'd like to tell you something about To be quite frank, I don't think I'm afraid we don't.. We'd be happy to.. Frankly, we should dea l with that differently Let me fill you in on the details of I respect your opinion, but Questions I'm afraid we can't What experience have you had of Negotiating How do you go about dealing with What do you know about managing Persuading Why do you want to leave your present job?
It would be to your advantage to Could you outline your experience in The manager also possesses deeper technical knowledge than someone from outside the department. An unsuccessful candidate who gets the impression that the organisation is unprofessional could be a potential customer.
A panel interview can therefore save company time. E The department manager may focus on the short-term task of finding the right person for this particular post. The HR manager also needs to focus on the longer-term suitability of the candidate e. D A professional interview is important for a number of reasons. For each disadvantage. You could then develop the discussion by focusing on the types of jobs which are most likely to be filled using each approach. A trained HR professional can deliver this kind of professionalism in the interview.
A Recruitment can be a very costly process. For each advantage. Mechanical interview: When you check the answers with the class. E Same as point B above. Suggested answers Hypothetical: Types of jobs each method is most suitable for: A senior appointment where board members interview B in a multi-site operation where liaison with a number of managers is important — e.
C This may be illegal or unethical e. Suggested answers 1 Stress interview: Closed and alternative questions can be useful to clarify and confirm. Then ask students to suggest more examples of each type of question. B In addition to the increased stress. A pitch is a short sales presentation. In a job interview. Ask students to make notes in their notebooks. Then ask them to look at the list of interview questions and decide which questions would be most suitable in an interview for the particular job they have chosen.
Note that they will have a chance to role play a full interview using these questions in Exercise Ask students to work in small groups to think of a specific job that they might recruit for. They compare their answers in pairs. They could also adapt some of the less suitable questions to make them more suitable.
Warn them that some questions may not fit neatly into the table. Note A prospect is someone who has been identified as a potential customer. Then draw the following table on the board: Question word Auxiliary verb Subject Main verb rest of question Ask students to suggest two different kinds of question that might be heard in an interview e. Extension activity Tell students they are going to focus on the grammar of questions.
Have you applied for this position before? Ask students to identify any questions in the interviews which can be used to complete the table above. Complete the first two rows of the table with the suggested questions. Elicit different ways of forming questions in English. You could play both Audio 3. Then ask students to look at Audioscripts 3. Have you had a chance to look around? Take me through a typical day. And in the afternoon? Can you expand on how your skills can add value to this job?
And how about the role of your team in a new product launch? How do you go about motivating and managing your team? Can you tell me, on a regular, day-to-day basis, how you spend your time? Two of the questions from the interview, however, are subject questions, where the question is about the subject. The word order is the same as for statements:. What attracts you to Moscotel? The money [subject] attracts me to Moscotel.
What prompted you to apply for this position? Five of the questions are indirect questions, where the question is embedded in a larger statement or question. Again, the word order is the same as for statements. How could you …? How do you think …? Maybe you can tell me [how you actually go about motivating your team …] Compare: How do you actually go about …? Can you expand on [how your skills can add value to this job]? How can your skills …? Can you tell me, on a regular, day-to-day basis, [how you spend your time]?
How do you spend …? Additional activity Unit 3: Indirect questions If students need more help with indirect questions, you can use the Additional activity worksheet for Unit 3 in the Resources section of the course website. Right, thank you. Can we turn, now, to the question of …? And how long does that normally take?
What exactly does that involve? Did you have any problems finding our office? Answers 1 how many; the level of 2 how; measured 3 an example of how; demonstrated. Suggested answers 1 What did the training involve?
They then swap roles. Go through the instructions with the class. Allow around five minutes for each interview and then tell students to swap roles. If you have access to the Internet in the classroom, you could show the follwoing clip to generate some discussion on the arguments for and against graphology in recruitment: Finally, discuss with the class whether they agree with what the video is saying and what the dangers of using graphology for recruitment might be.
Students work alone to complete the matching exercise. Afterwards, discuss with the class exactly what each method involves. After a few minutes, open up the discussion to include the whole class. Suggested answers 1 By providing additional information that may be impossible or difficult to get or assess in interview. Although it has some supporters, it is not accepted by the British Psychological Society. When they have discussed their answers in pairs, go through them with the class, focusing on which words or phrases led students to the correct answers.
If someone has high social needs, being involved with and working with others is important to them. If someone is consultative, they share ideas and involve others in decision making. Extension activity Students work in pairs to make similar sentences to the ones in Exercise 13c which apply to them. Allow them to change the sentences slightly e.
I have a natural disposition towards high anxiety and I often experience performance anxiety. They could do this first with their books open and then with books closed, to see how much they can remember about the phrasing. Dmitri and their colleagues at Moscotel. Allow plenty of time for the discussions. Discuss the answer with the class. Answer Ritva c Students discuss the answers in pairs and then listen again to Audio 3. You could also highlight the words from the Note on page 43 by pausing the recording to discuss what the speakers mean by each phrase.
Elements of these are then defined as being essential or desirable. Useful links Information about the 16PF: After analysing hundreds of traits.
Although the test is now quite old. It is often the case that none of the candidates possess all of the features identified but may have a strong overall profile. Psychometric testing The use of psychometric testing has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. UNIT 3 Recruitment and selection Background information and useful web links Person specification A person specification is a document that describes the characteristics required of the ideal candidate.
The majority will have a set of questions with some kind of rating or scoring mechanism. Whist some people may attempt to give what they believe to be desired survey responses. The shortlisted candidates for many jobs now undergo psychometric testing. These are presented on a bi-polar scale where pairs of opposite features are assessed.
The person specification is therefore an important guide in screening applicants rationally and fairly. By completing a questionnaire. Not only is it used for recruitment purposes. These are often placed on a bi-polar scale of opposites e.
However well prepared and organised an interview. Useful links Myers-Briggs: Approaches to interviews vary between organisations with some favouring very rigid and unvarying questions.
There are. Selectors are led towards a choice firstly by detailing the requirements of the job and ideal candidate and matching applications against these criteria. Students then discuss the question in pairs and feed back to the class. Suggested answers 2 Context and issues 3 Assumptions 4 Approach to training and development 5 Learning intervention methodology 6 Development plan 7 Evaluation c Make sure students understand that the terms internal and external refer to factors within the organisation and factors from the outside world.
Suggested answers The document is written for the management board to show how the HR strategy meets the corporate strategy. What are the dangers of cutting all training during times of economic difficulty? Students feed back to the class. Discuss what each section might include. You could explain the difference through changes in legislation external and company culture internal. Some training rooms could be converted into meeting rooms or offices. Strong competition has forced the company to halve its training budget to save costs.
The budgeting procedures could be changed. All managers need regular training in company policies e. The company may become more focused on environmental or ethical issues. Suggested answers 1 changes in legislation: Employees may need to be trained in the new rules e.
The legislation may determine what compulsory training is given and how often e. A period of financial stability allows a company to increase its long-term investment in staff development.
If unemployment is high. The management of the organisation could be very prodevelopment. Staff need to be trained in using the new technology. There are concerns that political or economic instability could force the company to withdraw from some markets. One senior manager is about to retire. Ask them to support their answers with examples. If unemployment is low. A new computer suite could allow the company to use more distance learning or blended learning.
The company may be planning to concentrate on new foreign markets. The new technology means fewer employees are needed. The training budget could be cut. Suggested answers 1 Internal — corporate objectives. In an organisation where quality is seen as less important. A competitor is much better in a particular marketing activity e. Ask students to point to examples of formal or informal language for each question from Exercise 2c. Make sure they know to tick the factors in Exercise 1c that are mentioned.
Answers more informal: When they have checked in pairs. After you have played Audio 4. Discuss briefly these questions with the class: What types of training might they need? How might the business and culture of the company affect the style of training required? Students work alone to find and correct the inappropriate language and then discuss their answers in pairs.
Formal English tends to use more nouns e. Here are our suggestions: Give the following example to start students off: Some linking words e. The training and development department proposes that: Plans to cut back on training expenditure should be cancelled as a reduced investment in people could damage the business.
We should focus more on things we can measure. Language note: Greater emphasis should be placed on measurable outcomes to prove the value of development expenditure.
Then ask students to say if they can recognise any patterns to help them recognise the difference between more formal and more informal language see Language note below. Extension activity Ask students to underline examples of formal language in the Logorhythm document that they think they could use in their own writing.
Then ask them to compare their ideas and suggest how these phrases might be expressed in a less formal or more conversational way. They could either plan their writing in groups in class and write up their strategies as homework.
Both terms can be used to describe any activity which gives an opportunity to learn a new process. The difference is mainly one of attitude and perception. Then nominate one student from the group to come to the front of the class — ask this student to lead the class in a five-minute brainstorm on the topic of learning methods.
Then discuss b Students discuss the question in pairs and then feed back to the class. Make sure they use formal language in their writing. UNIT 4 Training and development strategy 4 Make sure students have a specific organisation in mind before they begin. Training also tends to apply to only one approach. Suggested answers 1 on-the-job training — Advantages: Then ask each group to summarise their discussion for the others.
The joke relies on the two meanings of the word concrete. Ask students to work together and discuss what learning interventions could be used in each case e. Then play Audio 4. During the presentations. Should the training be conducted by an internal trainer or an external consultant? How many sessions would be needed? Where should the training take place? What might it concentrate on? How will success be measured? Students who are not presenting should be asked to take notes during the presentations and be prepared to ask the presenters questions.
Get students to give you examples. Rather than feed back immediately. The trainer intends it as an adjective. Go round the class. Ask students to turn to Audioscript 4. Then ask students to work in pairs to compare their notes and suggest a function for each one. Encourage students to remember as much as they can about each stage in the cycle. Answers By giving a practical example from personal experience. The two continua represent internal and external processing.
In simple terms. Extension activity The language used by the trainer. I was … introducing an example Exactly. The boxes represent the four stages — concrete experience. Go through the answers with the whole class. See information under Learning styles here: He also uses you to make general points about the theory. See information under the search word Intelligence here: Extension activity You could also ask students to research and prepare a presentation on other learning theories.
See http: And that point takes us to the third stage. Exploring the learning cycle If students are interested in exploring the learning cycle further. He uses we to make general abstract points about the theory. After students have given their presentations.
Bandler and Grinder. Examples of topics to research and present: A development review is usually an annual meeting between a manager and employee to discuss key job issues. They compare their answers in pairs and then feed back to the class.
A team-building weekend is usually held away from work at a hotel or in a country area where there will be a mixture of team-building exercises and social activities to encourage team morale and greater cooperation. Examples could include training in specific skills presentations. A disadvantage is that they can be inflexible and do not respond to urgent needs.
A modular course is one which is delivered in a number of units over a period of time. Answers 1 Introduction 2 Compulsory training 3 Technical and academic development 4 Soft skills training 5 Excellent manager programme 6 Ad hoc requests 7 To find out more 8 Enrolment Note Some HR and workplace-related vocabulary items: It involves checking many documents carefully in order to identify potential problems.
Examples include almost all types of training. Disadvantages include the problem that it may be an inefficient way of delivering training and may not be as effective as planned training.
Planned training programmes have many advantages. The advantage of ad hoc training is that it is quick and solves an immediate need.
Suggested answers The language is mostly formal because this is an official company document and includes instructions which employees must follow. Note Modular courses may be attractive to an organisation because it is possible for an employee to only complete the modules most relevant to the business need and thus save money.
Modular courses are therefore thought to provide a more integrated approach than a single block of study and an opportunity to explore current work issues. UNIT 4 Training and development strategy Answers 1 assistance is available 2 in-house 3 development reviews 4 explore the options 5 6 7 8 be advised will be required to attend further details modular course 9 a Ask students what they think the Excellent Manager Programme at BPF might include.
The potential problems with this approach are that it can be difficult to retain focus and motivation over a long period and people are more easily distracted by work than on a fixed block of training away from the office. Answers 1 corporate 2 team 3 interpret 4 delegate 5 understanding 6 coordinate 7 experience 8 errors 9 decisions 10 win-win 11 write 12 transition Extension activity Write the following verbs onto the board: Then ask them to read the programme summary quickly to answer the questions.
Students then work in pairs again to try to match the two halves of the collocations from the board. A week-long course or weekend residential course is more compact and may encourage concentration. It is also believed that because each session of a training module is shorter than a long course. They can then either write up their documents for homework or in their groups.
When all the documents Evaluating training and development Before you begin … Ask students to work in small groups and discuss the following questions: External training providers because they need performance feedback on their own trainers to continually improve the quality of training. Suggested answers 1 Evaluation of all learning interventions is useful because it provides important feedback on the effectiveness and the value of development activities.
You could offer your own experiences as a teacher. The trainer. They discuss the questions in pairs before sharing their ideas with the class. This provides a compromise between the narrative and numerical evaluations by giving the respondent a set of statements to choose from.
The choice of questions can be very important as this can influence which aspects of the course are highlighted. Note Numerical evaluations ask evaluators to give a number value to a question.
UNIT 4 Training and development strategy Suggested answers 1 a Numerical data is easy to analyse but may not give sufficient detail. These take more time to complete and not everybody may feel they have the skills. Which aspect of the course did you find most useful? A third type of evaluation not discussed in Exercise 11a is a narrative multiplechoice survey. A scale of 1—6 is sometimes used as this does not permit a middle. Number systems may seem objective but can still be influenced by attitudes to questionnaires.
Narrative evaluations require people to give written answers. Suggested answers 1 Well — trainer interaction. These provide qualitative data. Not so well — lunch and refreshments. Numbers can be popular with respondents as they are quick and easy to complete. The most common number scale is 1— Note A breakout area is a space or room.
UNIT 4 Training and development strategy Extension activity You could ask students to complete an evaluation of the English course for Human Resources they are currently studying if you are feeling brave enough! At the end of the course not after. This topic should generate some very interesting discussion about how to manage the evaluation process sensitively.
Ask students to return the completed forms to the group who designed them. A numerical form which includes a box for comments. Groups discuss the design of the form in class. At the end of this class. The company changes the training provider. Ask each group to nominate a secretary. Remind them to think about the issues raised by Bianca and John in Audioscript 4. They discuss their answers in pairs before going through them with the class. Divide the class into at least two groups and tell students that they are going to design an evaluation form which the other group is going to complete.
Students then analyse and discuss the results. They then work in pairs or small groups to design their evaluation forms. At the beginning of the next session. Useful links The experiential learning cycle: They developed a questionnaire to identify learning styles which is often used in a development context.
This identifies learning preferences which correspond to each of the stages of the learning cycle: Evaluating training and development Evaluation is extremely important as it helps to measure the effectiveness of training and therefore the cost effectiveness of the development budget. The training department can then produce a complete programme of events. In other organisations there is a mix of centralised and devolved training budgets. Through the process of experimenting and subsequently modifying behaviour.
Assessment of the trainer and the programme itself were largely subjective. Over the years. It is an experiential model which requires having experiences and processing them.
It is possible that this can happen at a subconscious level but many trainers seek to bring this into the consciousness by encouraging structured reflection. Useful links Example of a training and development plan: In some organisations. This is then followed by a post-training meeting to discuss what has been learned or gained and how this will be applied in the workplace.
Improved evaluation processes involve greater learner and manager involvement before the development activity begins. These were a simple set of questions often focused on environmental factors such as the room and lunch. Depending on the size and specialisms of the training department. This gathers all of the training needs identified during personal development or performance reviews and matches these to corporate priorities.
Going one stage further. Behaviour and Results. UNIT 4 Training and development strategy One of the most established approaches to evaluation is the Kirkpatrick model. This looks at four levels of assessment: Useful links Evaluating training efficiency and the Kirkpatrick model: Counselling is facilitated actively by the counsellor.
The latter is a member of a council e. Suggested answers 1 A coach. Then ask students to say what they think the words mean in an HR context. What do you call the person who receives them? Note A counsellor is not the same as a councillor. The most important skill for counsellors is the ability to listen and to get the client to open up.
The former is a person who counsels other people. All three need to be patient and tolerant. Mentoring places more emphasis on the mentee.
For a coach. Then ask students to suggest five more scenarios from their own experience of the workplace or studying where coaching. Suggested answers Coaching: Then play Audio 5. Answers 1 2 3 4 What would you like to happen So how would you define I suggest you In what way? UNIT 5 Coaching. Extension activity Ask students to work in groups to suggest possible causes for each of the issues in the five scenarios.
You may want to make sure all students agree with the definitions. Extension activity 1 There is a free lesson on empathy at work on Professional English Online. Remove emotions. Check that students understand the six questions before they listen to Audio 5. Function 8 showing empathy is especially important in counselling. Then ask students why open questions are more suitable than closed questions in the context of coaching.
Then ask students to suggest how each question might be completed in a coaching. He is not sympathetic at all. Function 6 giving praise might also be inappropriate in counselling. They discuss their answers in pairs. Can you …? Students then work in pairs to create open questions from the closed examples on the board.
Function 3 giving advice would be inappropriate in counselling.
Students then work alone to complete the questions before feeding back to the class. Note A skills matrix is a table that matches employees to a set of desired skills.
Answers 1 2 3 4 5 How. Suggested answers 1 Advantages: Then they either check in the Answer key or discuss their ideas with the class. Answers 1 catch sby: A performance objective is a specified goal regarding what somebody needs to do. Make sure students understand that this is a discussion task i. Give students the following example: She asks the whole group for suggestions.
In pairs. Answers 1 peer coaching 2 role modelling 3 instruction 4 guided reading 5 learner control and self-review d Students work alone to complete the definitions and then discuss what they know e Students listen to Audio 5.
Then ask students to discuss the task in pairs. Discuss the suitability of each phrase before moving on to the next group. The other students have to guess which stage in the coaching process the phrase is intended to be for. She defuses a potential conflict between John and Fergus by praising all the participants and thanking them for their contributions Well. She encourages Callum. Some reasons which could be discussed in class are: Extension activity Students take turns to read their phrases to the class.
When students have finished. In many languages. Note A mentoring contract is a form which documents a formal agreement between the mentor and the mentee. In this case. Suggested answers 1 Totally unsuccessful. Language note The second sentence of the email All new employees were appointed a mentor may cause a comprehension challenge for students at intermediate to upperintermediate B1—B2. What would be their hopes. Compare with the active voice: HR appointed all new employees indirect object of appoint a mentor direct object of appoint.
Conducting a mentoring session Before you begin … Ask the group if anyone has ever had a mentor and to describe their experience. They then take turns to coach each other and to give feedback on the effectiveness of the coaching. You may want to spend time checking what the issues are with the class before they begin the activity. Jim 3 It is informal. Extension activity 1 Ask students to focus on the language used in the email by asking them what other ways Jim could have used to begin and end the email instead of Hi Chinua.
Then ask students to imagine a situation where they were joining a new company and knew that they would be appointed a mentor. You could ask students to do this activity in groups of three. The sentence is an example of a passive verb which has two objects.
You may also want students to review the phrases from Exercises 4a and 4b before they begin. English is unusual in that passive can also be formed from an indirect object. This could also be expressed as HR appointed a mentor for all new employees. As students make their suggestions. Dear Sir. Chinua Endings: Hope you are well Contractions e. Anyway Short or familiar forms of first names and no surname e. Answers 1 No. This is because the writer is trying to be friendly and open while at the same time communicating some important professional information.
It is safest to use the same greeting formula that the other person uses with you. All the best. Dear Chinua. Hello Chinua. Dear Mr Okeke. Jim not James Boyle Note that the email contains a mixture of informal and neutral or even formal language e. For fairly new business contacts. If the greeting is too formal. Re mentoring. Suggested answers It is written in a formal abbreviated style.
Suggested answers 1 See Exercise 6e. Other words and phrases are omitted if they are clear from context. Give potential participants a chance to meet first and choose a mentor. There are some long noun phrases e. Suggested answer 1 The issues in Focus of meetings 69 Cambridge English for Human Resources www. Make participation voluntary. Although it causes problems with literacy. Passive is also used to avoid mentioning human subjects e. Extension activity Discuss with the class what is unusual about the language of the mentoring contract.
Problems will be resolved through discussion. Provide adequate training. The purpose of the mentoring activity. Answers 1 2 3 4 Start date End date Purpose of mentoring activity What I expect from the mentee 5 6 7 8 What I expect from the mentor Ground rules Problem resolution arrangements Meeting details Note dyslexia is a learning disability caused by brain defects which affect the processing of written information.
Have a mentoring contract and agree rules. She moves on from a topic that is becoming rather negative in order to approach it from a different direction OK. When you go through the answers. He will understand why Ole is struggling. She is friendly and informal from the beginning Oh. It makes Ole more confused. Look at previous coping strategies and apply them to this situation.
She reacts to bad news in a non-judgemental way I see. She uses a question to gently lead Ole towards a possible way around his problem … and have you told your manager about your dyslexia? She prompts Ole to provide more details using a very open-ended question In what way? She uses neutral sounds e. Elicit from the class what the counsellor might say and then play the next part of the clip to check. Make sure students also use the question types considered in Exercise 7c.
I remember from when you were recruited …. She suggests a possibly fruitful direction to take their discussion OK. Allow around five minutes for each part of the role play. Point out that each role play will involve two parts: Delivering a counselling service Before you begin … If you have access to the Internet in the classroom. Play the video to the class. She explains why the topic is of practical use … and how you could apply that to this situation.
She offers a practical solution. Answers 2 Recommend 3 Provide 4 challenging 5 happen 6 consideration 7 understand 71 Cambridge English for Human Resources www.
Suggested answers 1 Problems adjusting to the organisation or environment. It can help solve problems that have an impact on productivity and morale. Note For HR people. Students check in pairs before feeding back to the class. One of the most important rules of counselling is that it cannot be imposed.
Students discuss their answers in pairs and then feed back to the class. It provides specific advice. Tell them you are going to read out five examples of bad advice.
The counsellor should not make decisions or give advice regarding a specific course of action. Suggested answers 1 Telling you that they have broken company rules or even the law.
Encourage them to bring their own experiences into the discussion while respecting the confidentiality of the people in their stories. Their task is to listen and make notes on what is wrong with the advice after you have read out each one in turn.
The examples of bad advice are: Then ask students to work in pairs to compare ideas before feeding back to the whole group. Suggested answers 1 This statement includes the word insist. Additional activity Unit 5: Exploring counselling techniques If students are interested in exploring the techniques used by Chinua in the counselling session. Discuss the answers with the class. Do you? What do you think would be best? So you thought the return to Dubai would cheer her up? So is it just about work or are there any other factors involved?
And you came with family? Allow plenty of time for each role play. Suggested answers Because it helps the client to understand the problem more clearly and to find their own solution. They then work in pairs to find examples of the five techniques. Employers can help by creating an environment and learning processes that work best for the individual. Many organisations now encourage coaching as an effective means of developing their workforce.
A coach in the workplace may be either a line manager or a fellow colleague. There are some critics of mentoring. Overall organisational and time management skills can also be affected. It is not so much a legal contract as a psychological contract.
This often requires a change in the business culture and a different perspective on the role of the manager away from supervisor and towards facilitator. Dyslexia in the workplace The workplace can be a difficult place for the dyslexic to navigate. Mentoring schemes can be very useful but also problematic if not well-designed and monitored. In the case of the last group.
There are three main types of mentee: It is important that participants are adequately trained and briefed to know what to expect and how to behave. A mentoring contract is a useful tool in the mentoring process. The most extreme cases may involve problems with literacy and filling in forms. Like mentoring itself. It cannot be assumed that managers automatically possess the skills to coach. Many people have learnt to overcome these difficulties through list making. Useful links Guide to coaching: Other problems may relate to poor working memory.
There is no single template for this but generally. Whilst disclosure is a personal choice. Useful links Guide to counselling in the workplace: Depending on the issue. Counselling done badly or unprofessionally can be very harmful. To ensure confidentiality and employee trust.
This often supports employees in very demanding jobs dealing with members of the public. Give students another two minutes to add new competences to the ones already on the paper. Repeat the process with the class until every pair has had an opportunity to work on every piece of paper.
Ask students to get into pairs. If a more experienced professional student in the class raises the difference between competence and competency within HR. On each piece of paper. Tell students that you are going to give them exactly two minutes to write down as many competences as they can think of for the job that is written on their paper. At the end of two minutes. As a follow-up. Why not? In class. Ask them what kind of competences might be needed for hotel staff you could.
Then ask students to listen to Audio 6. HR or finance. Then go through the answers with the class. I take your point. Students then compare their notes with a partner and listen again if necessary before feeding back to the class.
If students are not familiar with such documents. Suggested answers Well. I have my doubts. But … c Students discuss the question in pairs and then feed back to the class.
Students then open their books to discuss the three questions in pairs. Extension activity Ask students to look at Audioscript 6. You could practise the phrases by asking students to hold a light-hearted argument about which of two things is better e. Students then discuss their answers in pairs before feeding back to the class.
It builds a more accurate picture. Then play Audio 6. It takes a lot of time and people with the same job will give the same answers. Suggested answers 1 To explain the purpose of the interviews and how they will be conducted. My friends and I … not I and my friends.
Extension activity Discuss with the class the features of the email that make it sound more formal.
You could also ask students to suggest possible answers to each question. As I sounds unnatural in this position. The aim of such a process is to build a complete picture through ongoing re-evaluation and assimilation of new information.