So both of these links are downloads so you can get them in pdf for FREE. Lol, I read and own closet cultivator, people kept telling me here. Closet Cultivator by Ed Rosenthal pdf eBook. Section on lighting containers planting mediums and there. From stratch then this this, book deals with itunes on . DownloadCloset cultivator ed rosenthal pdf. PDF sys bytes Microsoft. Corporation, Server driver EXAM Q AND A V2. Closet cultivator ed rosenthal .
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Table of Contents Foreword Preface Chapter 1: THE THEORY Chapter 2: PERSPECTIVE Chapter 3: THE SPACE Chapter 4: NOVEL. caite.infoator - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Big Book of caite.info, , 11M. Biology_of_Marijuana. Closet Cultivator by..> Closet Growing - The..>
The nutrient is used in building amino acids, the stuff protein is made from. This is supplemented using Epsom salts, available at drug stores. Negatively charged air seems to be conducive to less irritable behavior in animals and faster growth in plants. The mixes with soil, compost or worm castings contain some nutrients for plants and help to "buffer" the nutrients supplied through the water. Organic Mixes These mixes contain organic ingredients which help to support plant growth and act as a buffer. They are often used alone with no detrimental effect to the plants, and will promote faster plant growth than MH bulbs during both vegetative growth and flowering.
Woody Harrelson is great. Love that guy - he's one of us. Pot Belly , Sep 23, Yeah, me too. I started to read it and couldn't stop. I think I'm going to post it in the medical section as well. I liked the letter from G. Washington at the end.
Sep 24, Sep 10, Messages: Jan 20, Messages: Thanks haze, nice find. Weeddog , Sep 24, You must log in or sign up to reply here. Show Ignored Content.
Which light should i use Bruce , Jun 15, Bruce Apr 15, at 8: What are you listening to? Looking for strains with high CBD content.
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Tony Dokoupil - The.. True Living Organics.. Astrolon is a silvered plastic which is extremely reflective, but not opaque. The thin plastic is quilted and very pliable It is very durable and very reflective. Step by Step 1. Successful closet cultivators know that light should be distributed evenly throughout the grow space. Light movers or several lights may be indicated. Smart growers line the walls of the growing area with a reflective surface to conserve light. The environmental factors affecting plant growth are light, root conditions, water, nutrients, temperature and air CO2 and O2.
A plant can grow only as fast as the weakest link on the chain permits. For instance, when a plant which receives all of the light, water, and CO2 it can use, without adequate nutrients, its growth is thwarted. They hold the plant in position and they are its primary means of obtaining water and nutrients.
The size and efficiency of the root system has a great effect upon the development of the plant and ultimately, upon its yield. The amount of space that the roots have to grow depends on the cubic space of the container and the size of the particles in the growing medium. Roots growing around large sized particles obviously have less room than roots growing through small sized particles. The size of the container is determined by the final size that the gardener intends for the plants.
When plants are grown to the same size in different size containers the plant grown in the larger container is lusher, with more branching and more vigorous growth.
Usually gardeners use a container for each plant. This allows them maximum flexibility in moving the plants in the garden. However, using the techniques described in the book, trays holding a group of plants are just as convenient to use. Trays provide more room for the roots to spread out as well as more total cubic space than individual containers. Cannabis is very easy to transplant so plants are often moved to larger size containers as they grow. Size of Containers Most containers have less space than you would think because they are round and tapered.
It more than triples the cubic 4 inch 4"x4"x4" 5 inch 5"x5"x5" 40 12" 80 20" 6" 6"x6"x6" 36" 10" 10"x10"x10" 60" space. Indicas are rarely higher than this. Sativas are rarely taller than this indoors. One way to increase the amount of material a container holds is to increase its height. An additional 1 inch depth to a 4 inch container increases its capacity by 16 cubic inches. Some "6 inch" containers are really five inches, and the standard "1 gallon" container is usually about 3 quarts.
Growers make sure all containers have large holes on the bottom or sides to allow for drainage. A grower cannot go wrong growing a plant to maturity in a square six inch container.
The roots will have enough room to support healthy vigorous bud growth. Plant roots need adequate space to grow.
The more space the roots have, the larger the topside growth. There are a number of choices regarding containers. Trays provide the most space but do not allow the convenience of being able to move individual plants.
Most gardeners choose individual containers. A two inch square container supports a plant 4"-6". A 4 inch to 1 foot. A 5 inch to 2 feet. A 6 inch to 3 feet. Mature plants do very well in a 6" container. An easy way growers provide more space to the roots is by increasing container depth. It is obvious that the roots are used by the plant to obtain water and nutrients, but they need oxygen too.
Roots not obtaining sufficient oxygen become sickly and are attacked by mildews and rots. Planting mediums range the spectrum from totally organic to artificial materials.
Organic materials such as compost, topsoil, humus, worm castings and steer manure have nutrients tied up in complex molecules. Almost everyone has grown a house plant After the plant was in the container for a while, its growth slowed for 2 reasons: When some fertilizer was added to the water, the plant showed renewed vigor. The inert soil held the water-nutrient solution but did not supply nutrients of its own. The container became a simple hydroponic unit The nutrients in the fertilizer were in soluble form and immediately available to the plant through the water.
Most books take a vehement stand on the advantages of hydroponics vs. We are courageously sticking to a non judgmental middle ground. Almost everyone growing marijuana indoors delivers at least part of the nutrients mixed in water. This is, of course, hydroponic. Many growers make a nutrient rich "planting mix" or use top soil. These mediums support growth for some time without additional fertilization, but they are not "natural".
Frankly, it is impossible to get a mini-ecosystem going in each container or tray. It does not matter to the plant. As long as its needs are met, it thrives. Various books and magazines advise that hydroponic growing is more exacting and less forgiving than organic growing methods. In fact, hydroponic growing takes no more expertise or skill than growing in soil based mediums. Here is a list of ingredients for planting mixes: It is sold in nurseries for use outdoors.
It is looks dark brown, almost black and smells earthy. It is about as organic as you can get. However, it is not sterilized or pasteurized, so it may contain pests or pest eggs as well as fungi and diseases.
This is usually not a problem though. Although topsoil works well in the ground, it is heavy in containers and clumps or packs unless used with other ingredients which lighten it. Packed soil prevents water from being distributed evenly. Part of the medium becomes soaked, while the other part remains dry.
It is acidic unless limed. Some commercial composts are nothing more than chopped up dried plant matter. This material may add some organic matter to the soil, but is not the same as real compost. As they digest the ingredients they concentrate them so that the nutrients are readily available to the plants. It is a excellent ingredient in mixes. HUMUS - is a compost produced in a very moist environment.
It is very fine textured and rich in nutrients, but is quite acidic. These mixes have virtually no nutrient value unless fertilizers have been added. Usually mixes with organic ingredients are long on carbon compounds and short on nitrogen, which means they need fertilization. In a controlled experiment, researchers with the California Dept of Agriculture found that commercial planting mixes vary in their ability to support plant growth, even with fertilizers added.
There was no way of telling which mediums were best without testing them by growing plants in them. It is inert, and holds water like a sponge. It is often mixed with other ingredients to loosen the mix and aid in both its water and air retention.
It comes in various sizes. The coarse and medium sizes are preferred because they allow more air to form between the particles than the fine.
Dry vermiculite produces a lot of dust which is harmful to breathe. It contains minute amounts of asbestos. Before using the material wet it down with water. This prevents the dust from forming. It comes in 4 cubic foot bags at nurseries and grow stores.
It is used to loosen planting mixes and stabilize their water holding properties. It is so light weight it floats in water. Coarse perlite allows the most air to mix with the medium. Dry perlite produces an obnoxious dust.
Wet it down before using it. SAND - both construction or horticultural - was much more popular as a soil ingredient before vermiculite and perlite were available. It performs many of the same duties in the planting mix; stabilizing water retention and loosening the structure.
The problem with sand is its weight. Even a cupful of sand adds considerable weight to a container. It is heavy and tends to sink in the medium. It is sometimes used alone in hydroponic mixes. LAVA - holds water on its irregular surface and holes in its structure. It is lighter weight than gravel. It is sometimes used as a hydroponic medium. Clay pellets are sometimes used in place of lava because they are lighter weight Pea size pieces are the best to use.
It is extremely lightweight and tends to float to the surface of the medium. Usually the little balls are used but sometimes irregular chips are.
It performs many tasks in planting mixes. It helps to retain water and holds nutrients and is a nutrient buffer which holds excess nutrients rather than letting them remain too concentrated in the water.
For this reason most commercial mixes contain peat moss. It holds water well. Many growers swear by it. Unless it is pasteurized, it may contain insect eggs and other pests. BARK - is lightweight, absorbs water and holds air in its pores. As it comes in contact with fertilized water it slowly deteriorates, becoming more of a compost. It is used extensively by commercial greenhouse growers.
It can be substituted for lava and it weighs much less. They are just placed in the growing chamber and watered. They are inert; sterile and hold water and air well. Most experiments show that plants do better in these mediums than in most mixes. Transplanting substrates is very easy.
The smaller used piece is placed on top of the larger new piece. The roots grow into the new block.
All of the substrates support fast vigorous growth. Originally it was used as an insulating material in home construction. Then commercial greenhouse growers in Europe started to use it for their crops. Rockwool looks a lot like fiberglass. It is made by heating rock and extruding it into thin threads. Rockwool comes in prepressed blocks and filled bags. It is lightweight and it holds a tremendous amount of water, more than soil, but allows plenty of air in.
It comes in several forms, blocks and cubes of various sizes, bags filled with loose fiber and bales of fiber to be placed in containers. It is reuseable for several crops. Rockwool releases noxious fibers when it is dry. Before growers use rockwool, the material should be wetted. A face mask and rubber or leather gloves, should be used. Body should be covered with a face mask in place. Rockwool provides a uniform consistency and holds both water and air. It is very lightweight when dry, but holds a tremendous amount of water.
It is inert and easy to use. It releases no deleterious fibers into the environment. The problem with floral foam is that horticultural grades come only in small cubes. The larger blocks which are used for floral arrangements have been treated with a preservative which is not good for growing plants. Before these blocks are used they should be well rinsed with water to remove the chemicals. It is inert and easy to use in either the block form or as chips in a container.
It can also be added to planting mixes if chopped to pea size. It holds ample quantities of both water and air. Since it does not come in block form it can be used by rolling it up firmly and placing the cylinder in a container or by holding it together using a rubber band or tape.
Growers have reported fantastic results using it. Successful houseplant growers often choose their favorite house plant mix. Here are some adaptions of popular mixes. The mixes with soil, compost or worm castings contain some nutrients for plants and help to "buffer" the nutrients supplied through the water. Buffering means holding nutrients within the chemical structure so that they are temporarily unavailable. This helps prevent over fertilization.
Organic Mixes These mixes contain organic ingredients which help to support plant growth and act as a buffer. Contains medium high amounts of nutrients. Best for hand watering systems.
Light weight, high in nutrients. Holds high amounts of water and air. Good buffering capabilities. Inorganic Mixes These mixes contain only sterile, inert ingredients and have no nutrient value. Lava, pea sized gravel or small ceramic beads alone or mixed with a little vermiculite. All of the mixes listed will support a vigorous, fast growing crop. Some growers try several different mixes to see which they like working with.
If I had to choose one medium for cultivation, I would use one of the substrates. I feel they have many advantages: They are easy to prepare no preparation , distribute water and air well, are easily disposable and promote rapid growth. Their main disadvantage is that they have no buffering abilities so that the plants are more sensitive to over fertilization.
First time growers usually feel more confident with a mix. Several different mixes are sometimes tried at the same time. Mixes with nutrients supply some of the nutrients required by the plant.
Mixes with organic ingredients "buffer" or chemically bind with fertilizers. They allow the grower a little leeway. Substrates are convenient to set up. They often require no other containers. They require a little more care than other systems. Enough mix is prepared to fill the containers. Chapter 12 PH PH is the measure of acid-alkalinity balance of a solution. It is measured on a scale of with 1 being most acidic.
Most nutrients are soluble in a limited range of acidity from about Should the water become too acid or alkaline, the nutrients dissolved in the water precipitate and become unavailable to the plants.
When nutrients are locked up, the plants cannot grow. Typically, a plant growing in an environment with a low pH is very small, often growing only a few inches in several months. Plants growing in a high pH environment will look pale and sickly and also have stunted growth. PH is measured using aquarium or garden pH chemical test kits pH paper or a pH meter. PH meters are the most convenient to use. The probe is placed in the water or medium and indicates pH.
These items are available at plant stores and hi-tech garden centers and are easy to use. Once the water is tested gardeners adjust it if it is not in the ideal range of 6. Hydroponic supply companies sell pH adjusters which are convenient and highly recommended.
The solution can also be adjusted using common household chemicals. The pH of highly acidic solutions can be raised using bicarbonate of soda, wood ash or hydrated lime. Alkaline water can be adjusted using nitric or sulphuric acid, citric acid or vinegar. Once a standard measure of how much chemical is needed to adjust the water, the process becomes fast and easy to do. Plants affect the pH of the water solution as they remove various nutrients. Microbes growing in the medium also change the pH.
PH is adjusted whenever the water is changed or added. Water passing through a low pH medium can be adjusted upwards. High pH mediums such as rockwool are often irrigated using low pH water. All of these systems are easily set up and maintained. Water is poured into the container until the medium is saturated. After saturation, water drains from the container. Sometimes the containers are placed in a tray.
The systems are often home-made. Most grow rooms are in spaces without drainage. Systems in these areas use an enclosed system with either a top or bottom reservoir. Bottom reservoirs store water in a space below the plants, perhaps under the platform. A pump running periodically on a short range timer pushes water from underneath through a series of drip irrigation tubes to the top of each individual container. Excess water drains once the medium is saturated.
Drip irrigation set-ups and instructions are available at the local garden supply store. Suitable pumps are sold in garden supply stores as well as tropical fish stores. Short range timers as well as the other supplies are all available at high-tech indoor garden centers. Drip irrigation systems with a reservoir above the garden use a sump pump to move water from the collection tray at the bottom of the garden to the reservoir. Water remains in the top reservoir until a valve opens allowing it to flow through the drip emitter tubes to the containers.
Automatic valves with timed opening and closing cycles are available at garden supply stores or can be put together using a closed solenoid valve and timer. Valves are available at plumbing supply stores. The plants are irrigated from an overhead reservoir using drip tubing. The water drains onto a sheet of corrugated plastic which drains into a rain gutter and then into a tray. A sump pump recirculates the water back to the reservoir.
Gardens situated in a space with water and drain can be constructed using an open system. Water from the tap is supplied to the plants using drip irrigation. Excess water runs out the drain.
Indoor drip emitters are placed over each container, in this case, rockwool. However, house plant owners often put a tray under their plants to capture the excess water. The container sits in the water and draws the water as the roots use the water held by the medium.
To assure that the roots oxygen requirements are met, especially the roots which grow into the water, gardeners sometimes place a fish tank air pump with aerator attached which constantly moves the water. Oxygen dissolved in the water is used by the roots. This system works best with the drier mediums, which are impossible to get too saturated. A mixture of 5 parts lava and 1 part vermiculite is ideal, but mediums which are compact and hold a lot of water in the particles are too moist for this system.
Adding a high proportion of lava gravel or styrofoam pellets helps to dry the medium out. With the reservoir method the roots sit partially in water. Containers can sit in individual trays, or for convenience of watering they can be placed in a single large tray. Plastic dish trays, lab trays and plastic kiddie pools all make ideal water trays, or a watertight tray one can be constructed from wood coated with plastic resin.
This is the easiest system to set up. A container with a well drained mix is placed in the tray and water is added. Water can be added through the tops of the containers or the water can be poured into the tray. Gardeners use several methods to maintain this system.
The water level should be maintained at a constant level by adding water as it is used up. Most American gardening books advise that when roots sit in water they may be damaged. In Europe however, containers incorporating the reservoir system are sold as standard items in plant stores. As long as the roots come in contact with air containing oxygen, their needs are met. A ball valve similar to the ones used in toilets are sometimes used to automate this system.
When the water level falls, the valve opens up filling the tray to the desired height. When several trays are being used, the valve sits in its own container and controls the water level of all the other containers. The containers are connected to the central unit using tubes. A constant level of water is maintained. This simple unit is very effective and will produce about the same yield as a sophisticated, water moving system.
These simple units increase the time between watering by several days. They add water to the reservoir only as it is needed. They consisted of two plastic containers which fit into each other.
The top container was filled with vermiculite. The bottom container was used as a reservoir and the nylon cord drew up water into the vermiculite and kept it moist. The unit produced some incredible vegetables and flowers. Wick systems are very easy to construct, work well and are trouble free. Moist mixes are suitable for this unit. The wicks act as a self-regulating moisture supplier.
It is often used by novice growers because it is hard to make a mistake using this system. There are several ways to automate the wick system. Probably the easiest way is by placing the containers on a platform above a water tray and let the wicks dangle into the water. One grower took a kiddie pool and placed a pallet inside. The containers rested on the pallet. A flush valve system as described for the reservoir system easily automates these units.
The containers are periodically flooded and then drained. Construction of a manual unit is easy. Imagine a tray with a flexible drain tube on the bottom.
The tube is held up in the "plug" position. Water pours into the tray until the containers are flooded. The reservoir, often a water jug, is placed back into position so that it can catch the drain water.
Then the tube is placed back into the "drain" position. Growers often make small automated units. First they seal the reservoir tightly. Two tubes are attached using a bottle stopper. One is attached to an air pump at the other end and pushes air into the top of the reservoir. The other tube goes into the bottom of the reservoir.
When the air is pushed into the reservoir the water rises, flooding the growing area. When the pump is turned off, the water flows back to the reservoir. More sophisticated units have a back-flow valve.
Usually gardens are flooded twice a day using a short range timer. Larger systems use a water pump to flood the growing area. Before watering the drain hole in the tray is plugged. Water is added to the two and one half inch level, then the plug is pulled allowing the water to drain into the holding tank. The grower watered two to three times a day. After each flooding additional water is added to the reservoir to replace the liquid absorbed by the containers.
Ebb and flow tables are commercially available. These work like the flood system, but only partially submerge the growing container with 2 or 3 inches of water.
Gardeners choose the system that they feel is right for themselves. All of the systems work well because they supply the roots everything they need. The choices are A. Watering from the top and letting it drain out. Drip irrigation and letting the water drain out. Automated drip irrigation. Manual reservoir system. Automated reservoir system.
Aerated water system. Wick system. Automated wick system. Manual flood system. Automated flood system. All of these systems are designed to support fast growth. The choice is based on convenience. The roots absorb the nutrients from the water as dissolved salts. These are the simple compounds found in chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizers travel a more circuitous route, first breaking down from complex molecules through microbial action, and then dissolving into the water.
Nitrogen N , Phosphorous P and Potassium K are called the macronutrients because plants use large quantities of them. Calcium Ca , sulfur S , and magnesium Mg are also required in fairly large quantities. They are often called secondary nutrients. These are called the micro-nutrients. When marijuana germinates, it requires a modest amount of N and larger amounts of P. This supports vigorous root growth and limits etoliation stretching of the stem.
When it goes into its vigorous growth stage, usually within two weeks, marijuana's need for N increases. The nutrient is used in building amino acids, the stuff protein is made from. Plants which are being grown in soil mixes or mixes with nutrients added such compost, worm castings or manure do better when watered with a dilute soluble fertilizer, too. When a non-nutritive medium is used, the nutrients are supplied as a solution in the water from the beginning.
Typical formulas used for the seedling and early growth stages include: Formulas for the fast growth stage usually have a little more nitrogen. Most growers use different formulas for the different growth stages. Other growers supplement low nitrogen formulas with fish emulsion or other high nitrogen formulas. A typical formula for this is Plants growing under warm conditions over 80 degrees are given less N to prevent stem etoliation.
Plants grown in cool environments are given more N. During flowering a high P formula promotes flower growth. Formulas such as , and are used. Plants are sometimes grown using a nutrient solution containing no N for the last 10 days. Many of the larger leaves yellow and wither as N migrates from old to new growth. The fertilizer should be complete, that is, it should contain all of the secondary and trace elements.
Some fertilizers do not contain Mg. This is supplemented using Epsom salts, available at drug stores. Sometimes growers prefer to use more than one fertilizer. They find that changing the formulas and ingredients helps to prevent stresses and deficiencies. However, the chemicals in each fertilizer are blended to remain soluble.
Different fertilizer formulas may react with each other. As a result some of the chemicals may precipitate and become unavailable to the plants. To prevent this growers use only one fertilizer at each watering. Overfertilization is very dangerous. When plants are under-fertilized more nutrient can be added, no harm done.