Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical Frame Relay originally was designed for use across Integrated Services Digital. Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and phone numbers used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses and phone numbers. Any examples. Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and Data Link layers of the OSI reference model. Frame Relay operates in just the physical and data link layers. This means it can easily . network-notes-pu. pdf.
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Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. Frame Relay originally was. It is a broad survey of Frame Relay Networks - both from a designer's and a bibliography and a set of WWW sites with information on Frame Relay Networks. Frame Relay is a Layer 2 (data link) wide-area networking (WAN) protocol these end nodes is accomplished with the use of Frame Relay virtual circuits ( VCs).
It allows a router switch config-if switchport mode access to discover the network address of a device associated switch config-if switchport access vlan 10 with a DLCI. To remove password: It has lower overheads. IP fragmentation is a method for addressing this. The sophistication of the technology requires a thorough understanding of the terms used to describe how Frame Relay works.
Router show running-config 5.
Router show startup-config 6. Router copy running-config startup-config 7. Router erase startup-config IV. To move on global configuration mode from It is the process in which the router are predefined by previlage mode of router: Router config terminal It is secured than dynamic routing.
Router config It generally increases network administrator overload. To change host name of the router: To set service password: Router config ip route destination NID To encrypt service password: In computer networking.
To set secret password to router: To show time: To set time in router: A default routing also known as the gateway of last Router clock set To set the console password: To set banner to the router: Router config ip route 0. To remove password: Router config no enable secret password V. Router config no enable service password RIP is a distance vector routing protocol, which To enable fastethernet of router: To assign ip address to fastethernet: It's not ideally suited for voice or 2.
However, under certain circumstances, V2,RIPng. A frame can incorporate for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent packets from different protocols such as Ethernet and traffic between local area networks and between end- X. It is variable in size and can be as large as a points in a wide area network.
Frame relay puts data in a variable-size unit called a VII. For most interface configuration process: The Frame Relay pay for a full-time leased line, while the service switch maps the DLCIs between each pair of routers provider figures out the route each frame travels to its to create a PVC.
DLCIs have local significance in that destination and can charge based on usage. An the identifier references the point between the local enterprise can select a level of service quality - router and the Frame Relay switch to which it is prioritizing some frames and making others less connected. Thus, the same or different DLCI important. Frame relay is work properly.
The Frame Relay network handles the transmission over a frequently changing path transparent to all end-user extensively used WAN protocols. It is less expensive than leased lines and that is one reason for its popularity.
The extreme simplicity of configuring user equipment in a Frame Relay network offers another reason for Frame Relay's popularity.
Thus a retail chain, for instance, may use Frame Relay for connecting rural stores into their corporate WAN. The designers of Frame Relay aimed to provide a telecommunication service for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between local area networks LANs and between end-points in a wide area network WAN. Frame Relay puts data in variable-size units called "frames" and leaves any necessary error-correction such as retransmission of data up to the end-points.
This speeds up overall data transmission. For most services, the network provides a permanent virtual circuit PVC , which means that the customer sees a continuous, dedicated connection without having to pay for a full-time leased line , while the service-provider figures out the route each frame travels to its destination and can charge based on usage.
An enterprise can select a level of service quality , prioritizing some frames and making others less important. Frame Relay has its technical base in the older X.
Unlike X. When a Frame Relay network detects an error in a frame, it simply drops that frame. The end points have the responsibility for detecting and retransmitting dropped frames. However, digital networks offer an incidence of error extraordinarily small relative to that of analog networks.
Frame Relay often serves to connect local area networks LANs with major backbones , as well as on public wide-area networks WANs and also in private network environments with leased lines over T-1 lines.
It requires a dedicated connection during the transmission period. Frame Relay does not provide an ideal path for voice or video transmission, both of which require a steady flow of transmissions. However, under certain circumstances, voice and video transmission do use Frame Relay.
Its designers aimed to enable a packet-switched network to transport over circuit-switched technology. The technology has become a stand-alone and cost-effective means of creating a WAN.
The Frame Relay network exists between a LAN border device, usually a router, and the carrier switch.
The technology used by the carrier to transport data between the switches is variable and may differ among carriers i.
The sophistication of the technology requires a thorough understanding of the terms used to describe how Frame Relay works. Without a firm understanding of Frame Relay, it is difficult to troubleshoot its performance.
Frame-relay frame structure essentially mirrors almost exactly that defined for LAP-D. The Frame Relay network uses a simplified protocol at each switching node. It achieves simplicity by omitting link-by-link flow-control. As a result, the offered load has largely determined the performance of Frame Relay networks. When offered load is high, due to the bursts in some services, temporary overload at some Frame Relay nodes causes a collapse in network throughput.
Therefore, Frame Relay networks require some effective mechanisms to control the congestion. Congestion control in Frame Relay networks includes the following elements:. Once the network has established a connection, the edge node of the Frame Relay network must monitor the connection's traffic flow to ensure that the actual usage of network resources does not exceed this specification.
Frame Relay defines some restrictions on the user's information rate. It allows the network to enforce the end user's information rate and discard information when the subscribed access rate is exceeded. Explicit congestion notification is proposed as the congestion avoidance policy. It tries to keep the network operating at its desired equilibrium point so that a certain quality of service QoS for the network can be met.
To do so, special congestion control bits have been incorporated into the address field of the Frame Relay: The basic idea is to avoid data accumulation inside the network. The frame relay address has been extended from the original 2 byte address to 3 or 4 byte address, in order to increase the range of DLCIs. Its long form is Voice Over Frame Relay.
Voice is transferred in the digital form with the help of PCM. But the quality of sound is not very good. A mechanism to check if data is flowing. A multicast mechanism.
A mechanism to check the status of a switch. Congestion control and quality of service: One of the advantages of frame relay is that it provides congestion control and quality of service. Advantages of frame relay: Some of the advantages of frame relay are: Streamlined communication process. The number of functions of a protocol at the user-network interface is reduced. Lower delay. Higher throughput. Frame relay can be used at access speeds upto 2 Mbps.
Frame Relay is cost- effective, partly due to the fact that the network buffering requirements are carefully optimized. Compared to X. Frame Relay is also much faster than X. Disadvantages of frame relay: Frames are delivered unreliably.
Packets may not be delivered in the same sequence as that at the sending end. Packets having errors are simply discarded. Frame relay does not provide flow control.
It does not provide the acknowledgement of received packets. Frame discarded in case of network congestion. If congestion occurs in the network, frame data is discarded within the network without retransmission of this frame. The sender must perform retransmission control at his own responsibility. Congestion control in frame relay networks: Forward Explicit Congestion Notification.
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification. It is useful in identifying the less important traffic which can be dropped in the event of congestion. The flow control can then be initiated or the indication may be ignored.
Above that layer the protocol may be determined as desired by the user. Therefore, the IP protocol the third-layer protocol which is commonly used for LAN can be used without any modification. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes blog.
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