OLED Tutorial. Lisa Pattison caite.info Structure of OLED Stack . Various colors. Adapted from The OLED Handbook, Enterprisewide PDF . OLED technology enables thin, efficient, flexible and bright displays and lighting panels, and is on track to The OLED Handbook provides a great introduction to the world of OLEDs and covers everything you need. fundamental differences between OLED and LED technology. 2. Performance comparisons . Source: The OLED Handbook; Ron Mertins; Advantages of .
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and OLEDs. They also, like OLEDs, suffer from burn-in. Plasma displays are also quite inefficient compared to both LCDs and OLEDs. The OLED Handbook. 8. OLED technology, materials and production processes; How OLEDs compare The OLED Handbook provides a great introduction to the world of OLEDs Download (PDF) for a single user ($97); Printed (hardcopy) edition. The OLED Handbook. Table of Contents. Introduction. °. About the Author. 9. Preface to the Edition. What is an OLED? OLED: An Organic Light.
The problem with active shutter TVs is that they need a fast response time to switch between the images if you want a 60 Hz movie, you actually need a Hz refresh rate , and LCDs suffer from image crosstalk and ghosting. The largest panel that SDC currently offers is a The company s flagship Smartphone has a 5. The company currently produces about a million 5 panels each month, and will soon start making other AMOLEDs as well 1. An incandescent lamp an almost blackbody radiator has a CRI of In Univision was acquired by WiseChip.
Spin-coating can be used to make very thin films, but like vacuum deposition it needs an excess amount of material as some of it spins off the edges of the substrate. Slot-Die Coating uses a container that holds the solution-processed OLED liquid, which forces the liquid out using pressure into a moving substrate.
This is a very basic and efficient method used for coating in many applications. Slot-die coating results in long uniform stripes, and it s a very fast process to coat a flexible substrate. The disadvantage is that it s quite complicated to pattern pixels using this method.
In OVJP, the organic material is vaporized in a small chamber and is then sprayed through a microscopic nozzle. This creates a highly collimated gas beam which is then directed to the substrate. It is very similar to an inkjet printer, but does not require soluble materials. Scaling Beyond Gen Scaling beyond this level is difficult on both the backplane and the frontplane level. One of the solutions is to use different frontplane and backplane technologies. This results in easier scaling, and indeed the company managed to achieve good yields in mass production.
LG is now incrementally expanding its Gen-8 line from 8, monthly substrates the pilot line to 34, monthly substrates by the end of During the company stopped commercial production and does not expect to start mass producing OLED TVs again at least until Apparently the yields they managed to achieve using the current technology is simply too low which resulted in high panel prices and the company could not compete with LG Display.
As we discussed before, there are other methods that can be used to scale OLED production laser patterning LITI , inkjet printing or roll-to-roll manufacturing. This means that there s no need for patterning, which makes it easier to fabricate the panel and should also make it easier to scale up panel production. In an OLED lighting panel the light temperature color and power efficiency are of top priority. But of course, there are production issues unique to OLED lighting panels. The power of the OLED is induced via the edges of the panel, and the power flows into the middle and creates a halo effect because resistance builds up as the electrons travel on the organic layers.
The further you are from the power connector, the less bright the display. OLED lighting companies are developing techniques that minimize this effect. The simplest solution is to actually create conducting circuits in the OLEDs; this sometimes creates a visible grid on the panel depends on the circuit type , as can be clearly seen in OSRAM s Orbeos panel below.
Another possibility is to pixelate the panel basically building a large OLED panel from several small ones. Samsung Galaxy Note 4 source: Samsung s new Gen Their capacity is far smaller than Samsung s, but in the near future they are expected to increase capacity and other makers are expected to start mass production as well.
Both companies are expanding capacity and it is likely that we will see more products utilizing these exciting screens in the near future. SDC produced over million displays in mostly 5 to 6 panels. The largest panel that SDC currently offers is a The company has a 4. The company expects to increase capacity in the near future the full capacity is 15, monthly substrates, or about a million 5 panels. The company currently produces x panels and also 4. According to our information, AUO s current capacity is limited to around , panels per month for the mobile phone panels.
While none of these companies started mass production yet, this will hopefully change soon. Samsung Galaxy S6: PenTile uses an RGBG matrix the green subpixels are smaller and are interleaved between the red and the blue subpixels. This means that each real pixel uses only two subpixels compared to a classic real-stripe subpixel matrix that uses three subpixels RGB for each pixel.
PenTile takes into account the fact that the human eye is more sensitive to green, and in PenTile displays each green subpixel participates in two pixels. PenTile s main advantage is a higher resolution, as overall each pixel is smaller. The second advantage is that it enables larger subpixels and a higher aperture ratio, which reduces the current density required to achieve a given luminance - which in turn improves lifetime.
Other advantages include a simpler drive fewer subpixels and lower power consumption. The disadvantage of PenTile displays is that they are not as sharp or clear as real RGB displays the subpixel pattern is somewhat visible. Some people seem to be more sensitive to this than others, but this effect diminishes over time i. In the Note II smartphone Samsung used a unique kind of OLED subpixel scheme, in which there are three subpixels per pixel as in the regular RGB Stripe , but the blue subpixel is double the size of the green and red ones.
This enables them to extend the lifetime of the blue materials because they are driven at a lower voltage. In DP displays, the green subpixels are oval and small while the red and blue ones are larger and diamond shapes the blue is actually slightly larger than the red.
Samsung Electronics has been integrating Super AMOLED displays into virtually all high-end mobile phones, and market acceptance has been highly positive. When light hits the screen it hits the linear polarizer and the circular polarizer retardation layer making it right circularly polarized. The reflected part of the light which bounces back from the display toward the user is left circularly polarized; when it passes back through the retardation layer it becomes horizontally polarized which is blocked by the linear polarizer.
This helps to eliminate screen reflection. CBD is Nokia s premium display technology featured on many of their high-end mobile phones. While these two companies produce at a much lower volume compared to Samsung, and have a limited product range, at least they are willing to supply small volume customers, which is great news to device makers seeking to use the best displays on the market.
Toward the end of Mitsubishi installed the first such display at Merck s new Material Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany this display has 60 modules offering x resolution , measures 3. Diamond Vision can also be built on curved surfaces and the second Diamond Vision installation was the 6 meter Geo-Globe at Tokyo s Science Museum with 10, panels a total resolution of over 10 million pixels. Samsung is finalizing the construction of a larger Gen-6 line that will begin producing panels in the first half of Samsung is currently producing small flexible displays for wearable applications smart watches, mainly and larger displays for curved mobile phones.
Both prototypes have a radius of curvature of 5 mm, better than the Galaxy Note Edge that has a curvature of 7 mm. SDC goal is to reach a radius of 1 mm, and they aim to achieve that within two years. SDC says that those displays are about 0. SDC revealed that it is also looking at flexible glass substrates.
The touch layer currently uses ITO, but they are looking at alternatives Metal Mesh, Nanowire, graphene and other carbon-based materials. The whole phone can be slightly bent. LG s G Flex 2 smartphone source: LGE This panel is no longer in production, but it was used for a few products including Lenovo s S feature phone.
We do not know who the panel maker is reportedly it is Samsung Display. The first is that because OLEDs are emissive and because the off state of a TOLED is transparent you can only display pixels that are brighter than the image you see through it. An OLED cannot emit a black pixel. This limits the usefulness of transparent displays. A transparent phone or laptop is obviously cool but what is it really good for? One can think of some nice applications such as displays embedded in windows or automobile windshields, but using transparent displays for monitors, phones or laptops doesn t really make a lot of sense.
OLEDs can also operate in a wide temperature range which is OLED microdisplays are fabricated on the control circuitry on the silicon and are completely solid state. The defense market is still the largest market for OLED microdisplays today. Other markets are digital camera EVFs and headmounted displays near-eye displays.
Sony announced their first products in April , and the company currently uses OLED microdisplays in electronic view finders EVFs in several of their high-end digital cameras. Sony also offers head-mounted-display HMD products. One interesting development is the bi-directional OLED microdisplay a display that also includes an eye-tracking camera in the same sensor basically, the idea is to place photo-diodes between the OLED pixels.
The Fraunhofer Institute has been demonstrating this technology for quite some time, and it is being commercialized by Dresden Microdisplay currently offered as engineering samples only. Active shutter 3D is a simple method to make stereoscopic images: The effect is that each eye sees only the images intended for it, and you get 3D vision. The problem with active shutter TVs is that they need a fast response time to switch between the images if you want a 60 Hz movie, you actually need a Hz refresh rate , and LCDs suffer from image crosstalk and ghosting.
Using special glasses that include headphones, the TV can show two different images so two viewers can each view a different program.
There is a lot of information that needs to be conveyed in a car, and flexible and transparent displays such as OLEDs are great as they can fit non-flat surfaces, be used as HUD displays, and are light, efficient and durable. The Kia Soul EV, for example, has a 3. Samsung, for example, envisions a navigation system that displays the information right in front of the driver. Transparent OLEDs can also be used in other ways: Kia is showing a car concept called POP that has a transparent OLED panel behind the steering wheel to display the speed, battery charge and more information.
A transparent display is not the only way to display information on the windshield, though some companies Pioneer, for example are opting for a solution that is based on projection.
Flexible OLEDs are also exciting both display and car makers. The Prologue s OLED panel which is ergonomically adapted to the driver is integrated in the center console tunnel and is nearly invisible when not in use. When the car is started, the display pops up and Audi says that the fact that it bends ensures a constant distance to the hand which makes for better ergonomics. This flexible display made by Samsung Display , is 8. Audi says that there are only 10 such displays in existence today, this is a very early sample from Samsung.
Audi s 8. It s likely that these contracts will include flexible plastic-based OLED displays. The company s flagship Smartphone has a 5. Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge: LG G Flex 2: A curved Android smartphone with a 5. Mid-range slim smartphones with p, and 4. An Android device with a 5. A Note 4 variant with a flexible display that is curved around the right edge x rows on the edge.
Dell Venue: The world s slimmest tablet has a 8. Samsung s flagship tablets for sport either 8. LG G Watch R: Google Nexus 6: Made by Motorola, this Android 5. Samsung flagship device uses a 5. YotaPhone 2: Samsung Gear Fit: Samsung Galaxy Gear: The LG Lifeband Touch: Samsung Galaxy Round: A curved Note-3 variant with a 5. Nokia Lumia A Windows Phone 8. Sony A7s: A full-frame mirrorless digital camera BlackBerry Z Sony HMZ-T3: A feature phone from with a 2.
Samsung later withdrew from the market temporarily , and while LG is still progressing as fast as it can, the market is still very small in LG estimated it will sell , TVs, and this will grow to 1. The main reason for this lead is the fact that LG Display chose a scalable production technology Oxide-TFT backplanes and a WRGB frontplane which allowed them to reach good yields and relatively low production costs. Of course this technology also has its disadvantages the main one from the consumer point of view being a shorter lifetime due to the blue subpixel being always on.
Here s a list of the main models currently on offer from LG Electronics. First we ll start with the models that are currently on offer and models: These are 55 Full-HD, curved and flat sets. It is sold in It seems that unlike LG Display, Samsung did not manage to scale-up its production process mostly because their choice of technology is a lot harder to scale.
During trade shows, we ve also seen prototypes from Grundig and Panasonic, but these aren t on the market yet. What to expect from and ? It s highly likely that LG Display will remain the only OLED TV producer until The company s current production capacity is 14, monthly Gen-8 substrates, which will enable the production of around , TVs in LG Display is expanding its production, and by the end of the capacity will more than double to 34, monthly substrates.
This will enable LG to produce about 1. OLEDs also offer exciting new design opportunities as they can be made flexible, transparent and color-tunable. OLED lighting is being researched by all major lighting companies around the world as well as dozens of smaller companies and start-ups.
While the market is just emerging, already several companies are offering OLED panels mostly aimed towards premium lighting installations and experimental design kits. Lumiblade panels are being offered mostly to designers to experiment with the new technology; Philips also install OLED panels in premium commercial installations for example the panel installation in a new theater in Hamburg, Germany.
Most of the OLEDs available today are rigid white glass-based panels, but we already have flexible curved , transparent and color-tunable panels on the market. The U. Real mass production of OLED lighting samples is still some years away as companies struggle with the technical issues that still prevent them from making cheaper, larger and better panels.
Real market adoption of OLED lighting isn t expected before Some analysts believe that OLEDs will only ever fit in niche markets such as automotive lighting, emergency lighting and decorative and premium lighting. OLED is considered by many to be the most exciting next-generation lighting technology. The first reason is efficiency. Besides tiny amounts of non-toxic Iridium a heavy metal , OLED panels do not contain any harmful materials so they are easy to dispose of and recycle.
This all means that OLED is a very green lighting technology. OLEDs can be made flexible and transparent so an OLED lamp can be placed in your window and when turned off will not be seen, or wrapped around a pillar or a curved surface.
Your lamp can change the light temperature during the day and mimic the natural sunlight at the same time. Because OLEDs emit soft, diffused light, they can be viewed directly without shades or indirect placements. New manufacturing methods are being developed that will hopefully lower the cost and perhaps make OLED lighting affordable but that is yet to be proven.
Constructing a mass production fab for OLED lighting is a very large investment and will be a huge leap of faith for lighting companies, one that we re not sure any company is ready to make. The only exception at this point in time is Konica Minolta, and we ll discuss their groundbreaking OLED fab later in this book. Another challenge that OLEDs will face in general lighting is that they won t be used as a replacement for regular light bulbs as can be done with CFLs and LED lamps; these are completely new size factors.
You can t just buy an OLED panel to replace your old incandescent lamp. We also have to keep in mind that most of those exciting properties large size, color tunability, efficiency, flexibility and transparency are not yet available in today s OLED panels. As was stated earlier, most of the panels being produced today are small, expensive and not very efficient.
It may take years for companies to actually achieve low-cost flexible OLED mass production. OLEDs vs. Let s look at these different technologies and see how they compete with OLEDs.
Incandescent lamps have been around for ages, as they are simple and cheap to make. The basic idea is heating a metal wire to a high temperature, which makes it glow. The light emitted by those lamps is considered to be very pleasant. Incandescent lamps also do not last very long and the average lifetime is only 1, hours. Some countries have already banned the sale of these lamps because of their low efficiency, and virtually everyone agrees that the incandescent lamp days are numbered.
These are gas-discharge lamps that use mercury to emit ultraviolet light, which then causes a phosphor to emit visible light. The two main problems are the hazardous mercury and the low light quality. LEDs are also more durable. LEDs can be made in a variety of colors Most people believe that in the future the lighting market will be shared by three technologies: OLEDs will be the most expensive technology, but will offer freedom of design and high quality, diffused light.
LED and CFL lamps aren t very pretty and are usually hidden behind shades or used in indirect lighting. This obviously lowers the efficiency, as some of the light is blocked. OLED Efficiency There are many factors defining the efficiency of an OLED lamp, including the choice of organic materials, the panel design, outcoupling techniques, electrical efficiency and luminaire design.
To make things simple, we ll start with the efficiency of a single OLED pixel and work our way to the luminaire itself. Note that when companies refer to an OLED pixel they typically mean a small square panel, 2 mm2 in size. The luminous flux to radiant flux, or the percentage of light emitted that is in the visible spectra to the human eye from the entire light emitted. The percentage of all electron-hole recombinations that actually produce photons that s because not all electron-hole recombinations are radiative.
EEF Electrical Efficiency: The optical energy gap minus the applied voltage as some voltage is lost in the stack in the nonemitting layers. EEF is the percentage of the energy that is used for the light emitting layer. OC Outcoupling Efficiency: Outcoupling means the escape of photons from an OLED after being generated.
In an OLED, a There are technologies to improve the outcoupling both from within the OLED internal light extractors and by using external films, micro lens arrays and other solutions external light extractors.
This was discussed earlier in the book and this resistivity can create a halo effect on larger OLED panels. The IR can be minimized by pixelating the device or by using a conductive grid also called a bus. When an entire OLED luminaire which may have one or more OLED panels is being considered, you have to take into account even more factors, such as the shape, shades if any, usually this is not required with OLEDs , placement and power supply.
OLED Lighting Quality The efficiency of a lighting source is a crucial factor, but almost equally important is the light quality. OLED lighting quality shows great promise, though. Some OLED panels can be tunable you can change the light color on the fly , which means that they can provide much more pleasant light according to the customer s taste. One interesting idea is to mimic the sun color currently outside the house to get a very natural light.
It basically measures how well the light source outputs reference colors. The CRI is the percentage difference between a set of color samples illuminated by the light source under test and the reference source.
An incandescent lamp has a CRI of , as it is an almost blackbody radiator. Most people consider a CRI of 80 or higher to be good indoor lighting, and 90 or more for visual inspection used in the printing or textile industries.
CRI is often criticized a high CRI does not actually imply good color rendering and it isn t always correlated to actual quality in practice. There are other suggested color quality standards, but CRI is still widely used today. Those panels are quite expensive and are mostly used for design experiments or premium lighting installations or lamps. Philips panels are made on glass and come in a variety of shapes and colors: The panel size is x mm It comes in either a diffused finish or mirror finish.
The CRI is The basic FL panel costs , but Philips offers a lower price for volume purchases currently if you buy 40 panels it will cost 60 each. In early Philips also launched the SI panel, aimed towards signage and emergency lighting applications.
This panel is x mm in size and only 2. As far as we know this panel is still on offer from Philips, but it cannot be bought online. Philips developed special technology and masks to enable production of these custom-made panels, and they reported several customers for these panels including automobile makers and high luxury outlets each buying pieces or more.
Lumiblades have been used in several interesting installations. For example, British designer-artist collective random International used panels to create their You Fade to Light interactive display which acts like a mirror. It is hoped that they will find a suitable buyer that will be able to take Philips excellent OLED technology and production experience to the next level. The largest panel is the x mm square which emits , lumens. In early , the company announced the completion of their plastic-based truly flexible OLEDs.
This fab is nearly complete, and production began towards the end of Konica s new fab produces both white and color-tunable flexible panels. The white panel is x60 mm in size 0. The color-tunable panel is smaller 50x30 mm, 0. Both panels are flexible with a curvature radius of 10 mm.
The company does not yet ship panels to customers, but will hopefully start soon. Orbeos panels have been used in several commercial and artistic installations including the Qube, which uses over 1, panels and also several OLED lamps. The color temperature is K and the CRI is.
Their 3rd-gen panels, announced in early offer the same specification but at a higher efficiency The Velve panels were developed by Mitsubishi Chemicals and produced by Pioneer. This process should lead to much cheaper panels, but the two Japanese companies did not reveal the price and features of these new panels yet.
Tabola panels come in three sizes: The panels themselves are either transparent, opaque or structured e. The Fraunhofer is a research institute and only offers these panels as demonstration devices. They do not plan to ever mass produce these panels. Neoview offers opaque panels in three sizes 50x50 mm, x50 mm and x50 mm.
Neoview also offers transparent OLEDs offering the same specifications as their opaque panels. They offer four panel sizes 50x50 mm, x50 mm, x50 mm, x mm. We do not know the efficiency of this panel. These panels use the company s own external light extraction technology. First-O-Light currently only provides panels for installations in China they do not sell individual panels yet. All of these lamps are considered premium lamps you need to pay a hefty price to own a lamp that uses the newest lighting technology.
The company is producing their own panels in a small Gen-2 fab in France, and do not sell them to designers they are only used in in-house luminaires. Automobile makers have been playing with OLEDs for a long time now. The light weight, flexibility, homogeneity, durability and soft light of the OLED panels are very appealing to this market.
We ve seen several prototypes in past years of cars that use OLEDs both inside and outside rear lights, mostly. The company believes OLEDs will be used for rear lights in the relatively near future, and a few years after that they will be adopted for brake lights as well.
In Audi unveiled the swarm - a concept car covered with hundreds of small triangular OLED enabling a sort of large display. Turning right for example makes the swarm move in that direction. The driver can use those displays to show custom signs on the rear window to alert the driver behind him, for example. The main reason is the low production capacity, which results in very high production costs. With lighting devices, the most common way to calculate the price is dollars per kilo lumens.
Of course this is not always a fair comparison for example with point-area lighting devices such as LEDs and CFLs , usually the lamp is shaded or pointed indirectly which means that the actual perceived brightness is lower than the brightness at the device level, but with soft, diffused area lighting OLED panels, no shades will be needed.
But this is a very expensive panel that just entered production. Today there are over a hundred companies both large and small researching, developing and producing OLEDs, and the OLED industry already fuels a multi-billion dollar market. Most analysts believe that the OLED market will continue its fast growth in the coming years.
There are three major markets for OLEDs today: Each of these markets is a multibillion-dollar opportunity. OLEDs have also the potential to unlock new markets that we cannot imagine today thanks to their flexible and transparent nature.
It s not easy to forecast what will happen in such a market and we will only include publicly available information from research companies covering the OLED industry.
The Korean company started to mass produce AMODLED displays in , and has invested billions of dollars in research, development and production expansion. EDO has a 4. The company currently produces about a million 5 panels each month, and will soon start making other AMOLEDs as well 1.
They currently make three panels x, x, p , and will soon release a 5. The capacity is still limited according to our information, they can make around , panels per month. Most of this growth will come from Samsung. Samsung is currently producing flexible OLEDs in its 5. In the first half of its new 6-Gen production line will start operating, which will greatly increase the company s production capacity and once that happens we can expect to see many more flexible and curved and hopefully foldable devices.
LG Display produces 5. LGD has yet to commit to a larger-capacity flexible OLED fab but in the company did increase capacity from 6, monthly substrates to 14, in its existing fab.
It s highly likely that eventually most OLED displays will be produced on plastic or other flexible materials substrates. All display market research companies agree that flexible displays will grow very quickly in the near future.
DisplaySearch estimates that the flexible display penetration into the smartphone market will grow from 0. Following the launch, the two Korean companies quickly parted.
The company is also set to release the world s first bendable TV. For , this means the company can make about , panels depends on yields and the production size mix. Several companies including LG Chem, Philips, Osram, Lumiotec and Konica Minolta are already producing panels, the production capacity is still low and prices are high. Some OLED lighting panels source: Nanomarkets, one of the few companies that cover the OLED lighting market thinks that the market will not take off until The first applications will be in the automotive industry, but the largest application in the long term will be general lighting followed by architectural applications.
But Nanomarkets isn t sure that the market will ever take off. They say that the technology is still waiting for a champion to take it up to the next level they bet on LG Chem as the most likely champion, by the way but it s not clear whether this will actually happen.
The new fab capacity will be a million panels per month. LGD also operates a 4.
At full capacity, the fab will produce 15, monthly substrates, but EDO is not there yet. Innolux, another Taiwanese display maker, also has an active OLED program, but due to financial issues the company hasn t committed the funds needed to start mass production yet. Innolux is owned by Foxconn a major Apple supplier , and according to some reports Foxconn aims to start producing flexible OLED panels by , and this may eventually happen via the company s Tianyi subsidiary and not Innolux.
The company did comment that they will continue developing OLED technology independently. Sony does have a small scale 3.
In November the company finally started constructing its 5. Visionox has been constructing a Gen The 4. The company operates a Gen The latest reports suggest that the company decided to use an evaporation process and not inkjet printing , with mass production delayed to the end of AIV-BEX s line will have a monthly capacity of 30, substrates at the first stage.
It does not include pilot lines. Samsung is using several OLED materials suppliers. Large companies that have an active OLED program might be a good investment, but it s unlikely that a growing OLED market will make a significant change in the business of those companies.
Of course, the companies that are early in the game will probably enjoy the growth, while companies that are still hesitating toward OLEDs might be left behind in these markets.
Keep in mind that this might prove to be a risky investment it is still not clear whether OLEDs will be able to capture a Of course even if OLEDs are a huge success it does not mean that an individual company will survive to enjoy it.
Here is a list of public companies with an active OLED program that might have a large effect on their business: If you re looking for US public companies that are only involved with OLEDs, as far as we know there are only two options: Several companies were showing early OLED TV and lighting prototypes, but the future seemed uncertain, as the big consumer electronics companies were still hesitant about the technology.
Today OLED represents a multi-billion-dollar market. Several companies are commercially producing OLED lighting panels, paving the way toward mass production.
OLEDs are still far from realizing their potential to provide flexible, transparent and efficient display and lighting panels. There is still a lot of work to be done but it seems certain that OLEDs are here to stay. Forecasting the future is never easy, but I tried to provide a glimpse into the future of this technology. Finally, in the following appendices you can find a lot of reference information: Our web site provides a wealth of information and news.
Our free monthly newsletter can keep you updated about this fascinating and ever-changing technology. Here s for a bright OLED future! Amorphous Silicon. The most commonly used substrate for LCD displays, which is easy to use but suffers from low electron mobility and threshold voltage shifts. Clear Black Display. A display technology developed by Nokia. Candela per square meter. The higher this number, the brighter the display or lighting panel. Cambridge Display Technology.
Color Rendering Index. The percentage difference between a set of color samples illuminated by the light source under test and the reference source. An incandescent lamp an almost blackbody radiator has a CRI of A CRI of over 80 is considered good enough for indoor lighting. Cathode Ray Tube. The old bulky TV display technology. CRTs are made from a vacuum tube that contains an electron gun that fires on a fluorescent screen.
Direct Emission: Direct emission OLEDs do not use color filters. Also referred to as side-by-side design, sometimes. Electrical Efficiency. This is the optical energy gap minus the applied voltage. Semiconductor fabrication plant, where integrated circuits are manufactured. Internal Quantum Efficiency. Liquid Crystal Display. An LCD is a flat display technology that uses liquid crystal to modulate light. LCDs do not emit light by themselves and require a backlight typically a cold compact fluorescent lamp or LED.
Light Emitting Diode. A LED is a semiconductor made from inorganic materials that emits light when electricity is applied. Luminous Efficacy of Radiation. Low Temperature PolyCrystalline Silicon. Lumens per watt. A way to measure the efficacy of light sources.
Incandescent lamp: A measure of the power of light as perceived by our eyes. It is also used to label the light output in lamps. For example, a 23 watt CFL emits about 1, lumens. Nozzle Printing: Organic Light Emitting Diode. An OLED is a solid-state semiconductor made from a thin film of organic carbonbased materials that emits light when electricity is applied.
Organic TFT. A display backplane driver made from organic materials, allowing for transparency and flexibility. An OTFT may be produced using printing techniques. The escape of generated photons from an OLED panel. Organic Vapor Jet Printing. An OLED deposition technique developed by Universal Display that uses a nozzle to vaporize materials and a highly collimated gas beam to deposit it. Organic Vapor Phase Deposition. Phosphorescent-based OLEDs, as opposed to fluorescent-based ones.
Pixels Per Inch. A measure of the screen s resolution. Smaller screens used in smartphones or tablets usually have a much higher PPI compared to larger ones used in TVs or computer monitors. OLEDs that use small-molecule based materials as opposed to large or polymer materials.
Many display technologies use several monochrome subpixels to create one color pixel; usually three subpixels colored red, green and blue are used to create one full-color pixel. Each subpixel is driven independently of the others. Subpixel Matrix: The design layout of subpixels in a display. The classic Real-Stripe matrix is a simple design in which each pixel is made from three subpixels, which are arranged in a row, one following the other and all in the same size.
There are other schemes, though for example, Samsung s Diamond Display subpixel matrix a form of Pentile display. Thin Film Transistor. Universal Display Corporation. Vacuum Thermal Evaporation. White OLED. To make a white OLED panel you need to mix different color emitters. CDT was also a shareholder in Add-Vision. Peter Brody, inventor of the Active- Matrix. Advantech has created a roll-to-roll fabrication technology for producing thin film electronic circuits at exceptionally low cost.
The company intends to exploit this technology to manufacture active matrix backplanes for OEM sale and licensing. The company produces transport, injection, dopants and emissive materials.
The company planned a 4. The first line with the 30, monthly sheet capacity will cost 3. According to the latest information from October , the project is still on track. The company s solutions are used to build components for electronic and opto-electronic applications based on compound, silicon or organic semiconductor materials.
Ajinomoto Fine-Techno Ajinomoto Fine-Techno is a Japanese electronic material producer established in In the company started developing light extraction film and a moisture vapor barrier for OLED technology panels. Alkilu has a diverse range of products - from night lights, to bike lights and music conductor stands, and are collaborating with several OLED lighting makers one of which is China s Visionox. Applied merged with Tokyo Electron in September to form Eteris.
Arubedo Arubedo is a Swedish company, founded in , that designs and produces new materials for OLED panels on a customer need basis.
The company also provides specialty services such as computational chemistry guided design and isotope labeling. Arubedo can deliver materials in milligram to kilogram quantities. Ason Technology Ason Technology was established in in Japan to develop OLED lighting technologies based on a unique multi level stack architecture.
The company develops OLED lighting panels, related electronics and inspection equipment. Ason has a small scale production fab, and is planning to launch a mass production fab in AsTEK AsTEK is a private company based in Korea that offers sapphire substrates, wafers and ingots. It is the world s third-largest LCD manufacturer. Avaco Avaco is a specialized equipment and system maker, developing equipment mostly for the display and solar industries.
BASF is focused on developing an efficient blue phosphorescent emitter. Bayer MaterialScience Bayer is a global enterprise involved with health care, nutrition and high-tech materials. Beneq Beneq is a supplier of production and research equipment for advanced thin film coatings.
Beneq s offering includes dedicated coating equipment for barrier films and device encapsulation for the OLED industry. The company has a 2-Gen production line located in Toulon, France and The company does not offer individual OLED panels, only complete lamps. Boron Molecular Boron Molecular, based in Australia, is a small chemical company that offers a range of early and late stage intermediates for several markets.
The company s OLED materials line include dopants, host materials, transport materials, hole injection materials, carbazole derivatives and fluorene derivatives. Calvary Automation Systems Calvary Automation Systems is a manufacturer of special turnkey process systems. The company delivers machines, tooling and software solutions for a wide variety of automated machinery and machined components. Calvary supplies production and process equipment for OLED assembly and testing in full automation.
Cambrios Cambrios, established in in California, develops nanotechnology-based transparent electrodes for consumer devices. The first product, ClearOhm, a coating material that produces a transparent, conductive film by wet processing, offers significantly higher optical and electrical performance than currently used materials such as ITO. Leti is a large institute with over 2, employees and it has an active OLED research, focusing on microdisplays.
The lab spun-off MicroOLED back in and they are currently researching the full integration of OLED technology into systems, optical development, encapsulation and more. CPI caters to the pharma, food, chemical, energy, transportation and printable electronics markets. Cheil Industries Cheil Industries was a Samsung affiliate that produces electronic components and materials.
Samsung Everland, which acquired Cheil s fashion business in March , changed its name to Cheil Industries. So Cheil Industries now is involved with the fashion, construction and resort businesses. The company provides small molecule organic synthesis custom manufacturing services, and their core competency is based on organic chemistry expertise as well as scale up technology.
ChemPacific developed unique high performance chemicals for major industry leaders, enabling breakthroughs in various industries. The company produces small and large LCD panels. Coherent Coherent manufactures and develops laser-based solutions for the commercial and scientific markets.
The company makes innovative products for vapor phase processes including ALD atomic layer deposition , CVD chemical vapor deposition and high temperature selenium deposition.
Colnatec s inventive product line includes patented, high-accuracy quartz crystal microbalances QCM , sensor Colnatec lists Samsung as a customer since the company started producing sensors in They also state they have received orders for advanced sensor technology from seven major OLED manufacturing organizations, research institutions and system builders in Europe and Asia.
COMEDD FEP s aim is to carry out customer and application specific research, development and pilot fabrication of novel device concepts, and manufacturing methods in the field of vacuum-processed organic materials, with a technology focus on semiconducting organic materials small molecules.
The organic activities cover three main application areas: Corning Corning is one of the world leaders in glass and ceramics working on these materials for years. Corning is active in several markets display technologies, environmental technologies, telecommunications, life sciences and others.
Corning has three products aimed at OLEDs: The company provides solutions in the field of material purification and organic thin film deposition, with a focus on the purification of organic compounds for use in organic electronic devices. CSEM CSEM the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology is a privately held, knowledge-based company carrying out applied research work, product development, prototyping and low-volume production.
In October the company unveiled flexible solution-based OLED prototypes that use the company s own emitter materials. In July Germany s BMBF launched the cycesh project which aims to develop soluble printable materials for low-cost high efficiency OLED lighting devices, Cynora is the leader of the consortium in this 6 million project, together with Novaled and the University of Regensburg. Dialog Semiconductor Dialog Semiconductor develops mixed-signal circuits for personal, portable, short-range wireless, lighting, display and automotive applications.
Dialog developed a PMOLED-driving technology called SmartXtend that includes a multi-line addressing scheme, pre-charge schemes and accurate dynamic current matching. SmartXtend enables longer lifetime, lower voltage and higher resolution displays up to x Dialog Semiconductor is based in Germany and the company is listed in the Frankfurt stock exchange ticker: Dow Chemical Company Dow Chemical is one of the largest chemical companies in the world, providing materials for industries such as electronics, water, energy, coating and agriculture.
Dow trades on the NYSE ticker: The company also offers bidirectional microdisplay samples. Duksan produces OLED materials and is a supplier of Samsung Display apparently it s the sole supplier of blue emitting materials. DuPont DuPont is a science-based producer that is involved in many markets, including materials, plastics, electronics, energy, medical and transportation.
DuPont is also involved in displays and is developing solutions that improve display performance, reduce production costs and enable next-generation technologies across a broad range of applications, including displays such as LCDs, OLEDs and plasma TVs. Their third-generation evaporable green OLED has over a million hours lifetime, and their solution processable OLED materials feature 29, hours for red, , for green and 34, for blue.
Nozzle printing is very fast DuPont states that they can print a 50 OLED TV in under two minutes but there s no optimization for the individual subpixels. Dupont signed license agreements with two display makers reportedly one of these companies is Samsung Display. Dynic Dynic Corporation is a multi-national company based in Japan, focused on coating, coloring, laminating and embossing. Eastman Kodak Eastman Kodak is primarily engaged in developing, manufacturing and marketing traditional and digital imaging products, services and solutions.
Kodak scientists discovered, developed and patented OLEDs in the s many of those patents have already expired , and the company has been involved in producing OLED displays and licensing the technology.
In January Eastman Kodak filed for bankruptcy. Army and the Department of Energy. The company had a consumer visor product in the Z 3D visor , Disclosure the author of this e-book personally holds some shares in emagin.
Encapsulix Encapsulix, established in in France, develops ALD equipment for thin-film deposition. Encapsulix developed an ALD reactor configuration injector, doser, reaction chamber which is infinitely geometrically scalable.
The company focuses on encapsulation and ultra-barrier coatings applications specifically for OLED lighting and display , flexible organic electronics, data storage and other emerging applications. The company s current ALD system, the M can accommodate rigid and flexible Gen-2 substrates up to x mm. In early Encapsulix shipped one M system to Blackbody. Eteris Eteris was established in as a merger between Applied Materials and Tokyo Electron TEL , creating a leading semiconductor manufacturing equipment maker.
The company offers small-molecule OLED electron transport, hole injection, hole transport, emitting materials and dopants. EDO operates a 4. The company currently produces about a million 5 p panels each month, and will add more displays during Everest Scientific Everest Scientific, based in the US, is a chemicals and raw materials supplier for several industries.
For the OLED market, the company provides intermediate materials for several companies and research universities. Evonik Evonik, based in Germany, is a multi-national specialty chemicals company. The company focuses on high-growth sectors, especially health, nutrition, resource efficiency and globalization. The company developed a new oxide-tft backplane material ixsenic S and a solvent-based process.
The company was spun-off from Plastic Logic in February to further develop the technology and license it for display makers. The company also develops graphene-based display backplanes. Their software product called SETFOS was designed to simulate light emission from thin film devices such as OLEDs, thin film solar cells organic and inorganic and organic semiconducting multilayer systems.
In July GE unveiled their latest panels flexible OLEDs that are made using soluble phosphorescent small-molecule materials in a roll-to-roll printing process. Since the company did not release any OLED updates. The company is using technology based on research done at the universities of Marseilles and Grenoble. In July the company announced a new silver-based solvent conductive ink for digital and screen printing, mainly for printing of efficient and transparent electrodes on flexible substrates for OLED displays.
In September Heraeus bought the Clevios business unit from H. Hodogaya Chemical Hodogaya is a chemical company, established in in Japan, which is involved with functional colorants, functional polymers, basic chemicals, agro-science and more. The company is also developing Hole Injection Materials, Emitters and hosts. Hohance Chemistry Hohance Chemical develops and markets pharmaceutical and chemical materials and is based in Shanghai, China.
The company offers several OLED intermediates. The center is located in Eindhoven, and has around employees and over 20 industrial partners. The Holst Centre is involved in several programs including one that is focused on printed organic lighting and signage. The centre develops device designs compatible with roll-to-roll R2R processing. The company became independent in and is focused on display production.
Idemitsu Kosan Idemitsu Kosan, founded in in Japan, develops chemicals, plastics, fuel-related products and electronic materials. Idemitsu Kosan trades on the Tokyo stock exchange ticker: Inficon Switzerland-based Inficon designs, markets and manufactures thin film controllers, QCMs, E-gun power supplies, sweep controllers and accessories. Innovacene Innovacene is a new start-up founded in by a New Hampshire University professor.
The company is commercializing new thin, organic and ultra-lightweight coating for OLED and organic solar cells. Innovative Technology Innovative Technology established in offers standardized and custom built inert atmosphere gloveboxes, gas purification systems and solvent purification systems.
The company supplies to several industries including the OLED, thin film and solar industries. ITRI Taiwan s ITRI Industrial Technology Research Institute is a national research organization, with a mission of conducting technological research, promoting industrial development, creating economic value and improving social welfare for Taiwan. It also has active research on e-paper displays and 3D displays. JD considers OLEDs to be the core technology of the next generation small size and medium size displays.
The company currently offers hole injection materials, hole transport materials, light-emitting layer materials and electron transport materials. Glossary Appendix B: Other Emerging Display Technologies. We request your telephone number so we can contact you in the event we have difficulty reaching you via email. We aim to respond to all questions on the same business day. Why do we think this is the best guide to OLEDs on the market? It's comprehensive: Challenges Ahead 5.
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