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Shown left top to bottom: Fine needles and yarn create a lacy fabric. In a dye with poor light fastness the molecule will be broken down by the absorbed radiation. Garments can be sand. Fibres Non-cellulosic or synthetic fibres Nylon Germany was the centre of the chemical industry until after the First World War when the USA took over its chemical patents and developed its inventions. Continue on UK site. It is the finished edge to the inside seam.
Vasile Diana Alexandra. Syed Muhammad Ashfaq Ashraf. Oscar Espinoza. Irina Akkaya. Sabita Ramcharan. Hany ElGezawy. Shashi Kant. Annabelle Rigat de Leon. Jose Kouassi. Developing A Collection. Compartio Rosalia.
Denise Afonso. Polyester is made from chemicals extracted from crude oil or natural gas by non-renewable resources and the production of fibres uses large amounts of water for cooling.
Spider silk is naturally stronger than steel and is stretchy and waterproof. It resembles silk and is used for garments. They have taken the wool fibre and altered its structure to produce a wool fabric that has superb drape and tactile qualities. Japan has produced a fibre made of milk protein and acrylic called Chinon.
They are also developing microfibres and nanotechnology. New fibre developments Odin Optim Chemists are now producing fibres from natural sources. The fibre is also known as Kevlar. DuPont introduced aramid fibres under the trade name Nomex nylon in The fibre is produced from a renewable source.
The fibres have exceptional strength and are five times stronger than steel. The heels are positioned at the side of the shoe. It was introduced by DuPont in and is a manufactured elastic fibre. It is derived from naturally occurring sugars in corn and sugar beet.
Is a fibre developed by Nippon Keori Kaisha. This is a fibre that started being developed in under the trade name NatureWorks. Nomex is used for its flameresistance properties especially in military clothing and firefighting uniforms.
Fibres Spandex Aramid fibres Spandex is a super-stretch fibre as it can be stretched per cent and will return to its original length. Spandex is used to add power stretch or comfort to textile products.
Biochemists are currently studying its structure and developing synthesised fibres with the same properties that could be used for fabric production. Power stretch provides garments with holding power and is often used in underwear or swimsuits whereas comfort stretch adds only elasticity.
Ltd in Japan. Kevlar is used for strength applications where the fabric needs to be light. They are also flame resistant. Schoeller has developed a dirt-resistant coating for fabrics. Microfibres can be more expensive to manufacture so they are often mixed with cheaper fibres.
Micro-organisms can also be incorporated that live off dirt and sweat. As their properties are integral to the fibre they will not wear or wash off. The use of silver is being developed within fabrics as a result of its antibacterial properties. Chemicals in the microcapsules can be released on to the skin either by abrasion or as a result of heat given off by the body. These fibres can be engineered into the construction of a fabric or can be used as a finishing coating. Microfibres can be produced with microcapsules that contain chemicals such as medication.
X-static is produced by Noble Fiber Technologies and bonds silver to the surface of another fibre to give it advanced properties. Microfibre properties may include being lightweight. The microfibre Tactel is produced by DuPont and has great tactile properties. UV blockers or perfume. Currently nanotechnology is used for producing finishings for fabric. Nanotechnology works at a molecular level. Most fibres go through a process that produces a yarn.
Yarn producers also look to trend and colour predictions when producing and developing yarns. Shown from left to right: Non-woven fabrics go from fibre straight to fabric — this will be discussed in the next chapter.
The way in which a yarn is produced is related to the texture. Fibres Yarn 1 Shown anticlockwise from top right: Sewing thread is normally Lycra and spandex can be mixed with other fibres to give a stretch quality so that a fabric retains its shape with wear.
Slub This is when some parts of the yarn are left untwisted. Synthetic fibres are cut down to become staple fibres when they are blended with natural fibres. Synthetic yarns can be heat set during manufacture to produce a texture. Two-ply yarn is two yarns twisted together and three-ply is three yarns twisted together.
The higher the denier the thicker the fabric. Spinning is also the name given to the process of twisting staple fibres together to make yarn. Yarn is twisted during the spinning process. Filament fibres can be cut to resemble staple fibres. Unlike natural fibres. Blending Chenille yarn Extra fibres are added into the twisted yarn to create this. It also has better absorbency and a softer.
During fibre production. A single yarn is one yarn twisted. Cotton count This is the numbering system for cotton yarns.
The lower the number the thicker the thread. Nepp Small pieces of coloured fibres are added that show up in the finished yarn. Synthetic fibres are often blended with natural fibres to improve their qualities.
Blending can occur during fibre production. Aesthetically a blended yarn may have a better handle and drape. Yarn for weaving is tightly twisted to make it strong. Yarn can also be twisted and textured to enhance its performance or aesthetic qualities.
Fabric made from this yarn has a characteristically knobbly surface. Ply yarns are stronger than single yarns. Staple fibres are short. If a garment is to be dyed. Fabrics can be cross dyed for interesting effects. Fibres Dyeing The colour of a fabric can inspire. It is also important to make sure all the parts of the garment will react to the dye.
Remember that the original colour of the base cloth will affect the final dyed colour. A dye is a colouring matter that works as a stain. It is absorbed into the fibres of a textile. There are also other aspects that can enhance a garment. Fabric should be washed to remove any coatings before the dyeing process. Colour can be applied with synthetic or natural dyes at fibre.
Most dyes can be used for printing fabric when mixed with a thickening agent. If it is quickly absorbed there are no or few impurities or coatings on the fabric. If the water remains on the surface the fabric will need to be washed before dyeing. A simple method for checking the purity of a fabric to be dyed involves applying a droplet of water to the surface.
Substantive dyes do not need mordants during the dyeing process to make the fabric light and wash fast. There are two kinds of natural dyes. Half the collection was shown in shades of black and the second half in shades of pink. Most mordants come from minerals such as tin. The dye must form strong chemical bonds with the cloth to set the colour permanently. Natural mordants include mud. Fibres Natural dyes Dyes originally came from soil. Natural dyes use renewable sources.
Adjective dyes need a mordant to help the cloth absorb the dye. Also many natural dyes need mordants to fix the colour and these can be harmful to the environment. Some dyes sourced from natural dyes produce a subtle colour.
The use of different mordants with the same dye can produce a variety of colours. Indigo is the best known of these dyes. Mordants These prepare the fibre to receive the dyestuff and help the bonding. The mordant enters deeply into the fibre and when the dye is added the dye and the mordant combine to form a colour. Basic dyes were the first synthetic dyes to be developed. They have poor light and wash fastness and are not often used today except to dye acrylic fibres.
Synthetic dyes tend to have a better light and wash fastness than natural dyes. Fibres Synthetic dyes Basic dyes Towards the end of the 19th century. This class of dye has since grown into a large. If wool or silk is dyed then acetic acid is added instead. In some cases. Direct or substantive dyes These are suitable for dyeing cellulose fibres such as cotton and linen.
Direct dyes are simple to use and come in a wide range of colours. As a result. Great quantities of natural resources were needed to produce the dyes for the fabric. Some acid dyes may also be used for dyeing other protein fibres. The resulting dyed fabrics have poor wash fastness. Milling acid dyes are also available in a range of bright colours and have good light and wash fastness. Levelling acid dyes are available in a range of bright colours and have good light fastness.
The first direct dye was called Congo red and was introduced in There are different types of acid dyes including levelling and milling acid dyes. At this time. His discovery made him very wealthy and paved the way for the research and development of other synthetic dyes. There are a wide variety of synthetic dyes formulated for different fabric types and for specific effects. Cellulose acetate Disperse.
Polyester Disperse. Disperse dyes have brilliant light-fast properties. They can be used in hot or cold water and some are ready to use in the washing machine. Developed in the s. Nylon Acid. Acrylic Basic. They are applied at relatively high temperatures so are not suitable for use on fabrics that are mixed with wool as the wool may felt. Cellulosic Direct. These dyes were first marketed by ICI in as Procion dyes.
Wool Acid. Nowadays disperse dyes are mainly used for polyester fibres. Reactive dyes are suitable for dyeing cotton. Polyamide Acid. The dye thereby becomes part of the fibre. Pigments Vat pigments Pigments are used for printing fabrics when mixed with the appropriate binder or thickening agent.
These are actually pigments that are insoluble in water. The fabric is then exposed to the air or treated with an oxidising compound. Dyeing takes place in alkaline conditions normally through the addition of sodium carbonate. Discharge paste is frozen into ice cubes then placed on the fabric and allowed to melt.
Disperse dyes were introduced in the s to dye acetate fibres. Variations in the amount of alkali and salt produces lighter or darker colours. They are easy to apply and do not need to be washed afterwards to remove the binder.
They can then be absorbed into the cloth. When the fabric is dyed the resist is then removed and the fabric is left with a negative pattern. Silk satin and black organza dip-dyed dress. Certain techniques employ the use of resists that are applied to the fabric and act as a barrier to the dye. The design features a side seam that allows the organza layer underneath to be seen in between the sides of the baby-locked silk top layer. Tie-dye textile samples by Furphy Simpson. Fibres Dyeing effects Dyeing techniques can be used to create pattern.
The starch is then flaked off or with the wax-resist technique batik the fabric is boiled and the wax melts off. In a dye with poor light fastness the molecule will be broken down by the absorbed radiation. The stitches are pulled tight. When the fabric is untied and dried. Testing involves comparing a dyed sample that has been exposed to an agency.
During washing fastness a coloured sample is tested with white fabric to assess the extent of staining. Fabric can also be stitched before it is dyed. Companies test textiles under specific conditions for their colourfastness. Fabrics can also be gathered or folded first. The colour in swimwear must be fast to seawater and the chlorinated water found in swimming pools. A double ikat is produced when warp and weft are both dyed and woven together.
Fastness to light is. The starch or wax is left to dry and the fabrics are dyed. Changes are accepted up to an agreed level depending on the end use of the dyed material. No dye is completely fast to light. Equally a blouse worn next to the skin should not discolour as a result of perspiration.
Because of the wide range of end uses for coloured textiles. Parts of the knit. Finishes can last the lifetime of a fabric or may wear off with time.
Mechanical and chemical finishes can either take place at the fibre stage of the development of the fabric or on the actual finished surface of the textile. Processes can be used to add extra properties to a fabric or garment for visual. Cleaning removes starch. Scouring removes impurities from wool. It also makes the fabric stronger and more susceptible to dye.
The singeing process makes a fabric smoother as the fabric is passed over a flame and excess fibres are burnt off. Bleaching cleans and whitens manufactured fabric and can improve the dyeing process. Felting occurs when a fabric is heated or mechanically manipulated. Brushing the back of looped-back jersey sweatshirting will produce a fabric that now traps air and will insulate better. Fabrics can be treated with optical brightening agents that are colourless fluorescent dyes.
Desizing removes substances added to yarn before weaving to make the yarn stronger. You can see the pin marks down the selvedges of fabrics that have been stentered. Calico is not desized and as a result has a stiff handle. Aesthetic finishes Aesthetic finishes help give a fabric the right feel or look. A fabric could have a high-tech finish added to it that makes it look more modern or it may be that its finish could be a wash process that makes the fabric look older.
Mercerization is usually used on cotton fabrics. During the stentering process the fabric is pinned along its selvedge and stretched to realign the warp threads to their perpendicular position. During the calendering process a fabric passes between heated rollers producing a flat glossy surface. Putting a finish on a mixed-fibre fabric can create interesting effects as the fibres may react in different ways to the finish.
Chemical processes can change the tactile quality of the fabric. The milling process incorporates felting a process where moisture. Permanent crinkles and pleats can be achieved on most synthetics and wool fabrics through applying heat and shaping as the fibres are permanently changed.
Washing Stonewashing was a hugely popular finish in the s and was the fashion style of choice for numerous pop bands of that era. Various effects can be achieved. A chemical is sprayed on to the front trouser leg and then steam pressed.
This can also work on fabrics that are a high blend of synthetic. The resulting fabric takes the texture of the pleated cards. Lasers can also be used to produce precisely faded areas on a garment.
The flat construction of the garments has reference to the kimono. Stonewashing is achieved with the aid of pumice stones. Garments can be sand. The Siroset process is used for wool and can be applied to specific areas of a garment to create a press line. Barbour waxed cotton coat. As the garments are so stretchy due to the pleats there is no need for zips or buttons. The hand-pleating process involves the fabric being placed between two already pleated textured cards. Issey Miyake signature pieces are made from thermo plastic polyester jersey.
Creasing and fixing the fabric before washing can form crinkles in specific areas. Enzyme washes. Fabrics can be randomly creased by washing and leaving them unironed.
The garments are made first then pleated. Acid dyes were introduced to perform the same task and the effects are called snow or marble washes. Enzyme washes can also be used to soften fabrics. The use of new microfibres is being developed in this field. It was then developed and registered as a breathable. They can be visible or non-visible. Teflon-coated fabrics also provide an invisible protective barrier against stains and dirt — useful for practical.
Fabrics can be flame proof. Chemical treatments can also control the growth of bacteria on a fabric therefore reducing odour. Reflective Laminates applied to a textile give the cloth a new property and function.
These fabrics are ideal for outdoor wear and footwear. It is now used widely for its properties in outerwear and sportswear. Breathable waterproof fabric is produced by applying a membrane to the surface that contains pores big enough to enable perspiration to escape from the body.
Mass-produced shoulder pads are made from foam that comes from a solution. The cardigan is made from plasticised mohair. A herringbone fabric is fused with silk satin then through a needle-punching process areas of the herringbone are brought forward through the satin cloth.
Tyvek is made from the matting together of fibres to make a paper-like fabric. When looking at fabric construction it is important to consider what properties a certain technique will give to a fabric and ultimately the finished garment. A knitted fabric will tend to be used for its comfort stretch and ease of fit. When heat-pressed. They are not constructed. The outer side of the knit is sprayed with a plastic substance then heat-pressed to give it a shiny and puckered appearance.
Fabric can also be made directly from fibres and solutions. A woven fabric may be used when a garment needs structure and stability. A woven fabric can be stretchy and comfortable if woven with Lycra and can also be decorative if produced on a jacquard loom.
Other types of construction include crochet. The weft yarn is not continuous. The warp is stretched on to a loom before weaving. A woven fabric is made from a warp that runs down the length of a fabric and a weft that weaves across the breadth of the fabric. As the weft is inserted across the warp a puckered effect is created by the looser warp yarns. The three main types of weave construction are plain.
Seersucker Here the warp is held at different tensions. Basket weave Is a loosely woven fabric achieved by alternately passing a weft under and over a group of warps so the weft lies over the warps. Fabric construction 1. The loom traditionally had a shuttle carrying yarn back and forth under and over the warp yarns.
Fabric construction Weave Structure variations There are many variations in the structure of plain-weave fabrics: Ribbed This is created by grouping warp or weft yarns or using thicker yarns in areas of the cloth. Newer shuttleless looms use air or water jets to propel the weft yarn across the warp at incredibly fast speeds. These machines are a lot quieter than traditional looms. This is repeated to produce a square pattern in the fabric.
Looms can be circular. The way the warp and weft are woven together produces a variety of fabrics. The warp is sometimes coated with starches to increase the strength of the yarn. Basic plain weaves have a flat characteristic and are good for printing and techniques like pleating and smocking.
Shown top row left to right: Muslin A lightweight soft-handled plain weave. Organdy A sheer. Chiffon A lightweight soft fabric. The chiffon is a plain weave construction. Canvas A heavyweight tightlywoven cotton fabric. Organza A sheer. During the weaving process the weft is passed over alternate warp threads to create the fabric and is usually closely woven. Plain weave structures. Gingham Features a small check weave structure usually made up of two colours.
Using different yarn weights and tensions creates variations to the plain weave.
It therefore still contains starch from weaving and has a slightly stiff handle. Chambray A medium-weight fabric with white warp yarns and coloured weft yarns of cotton or cotton mix origin. Voile A lightweight fabric made with two-ply warp in cotton. Fabric construction 2. Twills are usually closely woven and are strong and hardwearing fabrics. Twill and satin weaves. Denim Usually made from yarn-dyed cotton or cotton blends.
Twill weave fabrics Chino This has a steep twill and is made from combed or two-ply yarns. Where this is staggered down the length of the fabric it produces diagonal lines on the surface of the fabric. Tweed and houndstooth Twills using different coloured yarns and weave structures to create pattern.
Herringbone An even-side twill where the wale regularly reverses to form a chevron pattern. Drill A dyed medium. Twill lines or wales can also run from left to right. The wale can run at various degrees across the fabric. Wales can show on one side of the fabric or can show equally on the front and back of the fabric.
Sateen fabrics These are made from spun yarns. The warp is woven to lie on top of the weft or vice versa. Satin weave fabrics are often used for lining as they glide easily over other garments. Satin fabrics These are often made from filament yarns with low twist. Pile fabrics that show pattern Corduroy Extra weft yarn is woven leaving regular floats.
Towelling This is created by slack tension weaving. Often long floats occur on the fabric that can catch and snag. Pile fabrics These are woven with extra yarns to the basic warp and weft. Dobby These weaves have small repeated geometric patterns in their structure.
Waffle A dobby weave that produces a honeycomb pattern. Velvet is commonly woven as a double cloth — that is. Jacquard Creates patterns and textures through a complicated weave system in which warp and weft threads are lifted or left. Double cloth This is the result of weaving two interconnected cloths at the same time. Pique The dobby weave is used to create a surface pattern. Velveteen A fabric with an all-over cut pile.
This kind of fabric is reversible so that either side can be used as the outer layer of a garment. Fabric construction Other weave structures es The three basic weave structures can be varied to produce more complicated weave structures. Damask Usually constructed in one or two colours in a similar way to brocade. Sometimes the fabric is connected all over or it may be just connected in some parts creating pockets and puckers.
Fine lines are known as needle cord. Spot weaving Yarns are added to the basic warp and weft to create pattern and texture in places. Doublecloth construction can also produce a fabric made of two quite different qualities. Other weave structures Brocade Usually using different coloured yarns to produce a highly patterned fabric with many floats on a plain.
Velour A woven fabric or felt resembling velvet. Evisu jeans with a selvedge edge used in leg seam. Produced using the same process as velvet construction. Computer-aided weave can produce fabrics with many layers and surfaces. This could then be cut and incorporated into a garment that when placed on the body would tighten to fit it in specific areas. Shape-memory alloys. The elastic when released would constrict.
It is the finished edge to the inside seam. This principle is used in the production of bras. An elastic yarn could be woven across the width of a fabric to change its construction. In jean production sometimes the denim is woven narrow so that the selvedge edge can be incorporated into the trouser leg.
Shown left top to bottom: Patterns from other European countries tend to be more bold and graphic than British designs. In the 19th century British sailors and fishermen developed styles of knitting that incorporated pattern and texture that are still well known today.
Shetland sheep produce fine soft-quality wool that is not clipped from the sheep. The patterns were handed down from generation to generation often just visually rather than being written down as a pattern. The wool is also dyed with lichens to achieve soft rose. Shetland is positioned between Scotland and Norway and the influence of a folk-style motif is apparent in Fair Isle patterns.
It should. Knitting machines were developed in the second half of the 18th century due to the demand for patterned stockings and following the invention of the rotary knitting machine. Fair Isle is an island south of Shetland. The Bjarbo pattern from Sweden was traditionally worked in red and blue on cream ground.
With the increase in leisure time in the 20th century. In the late 19th and early 20th century fashions changed and women and men began wearing jumpers and cardigans and other knitted garments for day. Scandinavian designs also use small figures on a light ground and an eight-pointed star was common in Norwegian designs.
An Aran knit was originally cream and heavily embossed with cable. Fabric construction 1 Knitted socks. Fabric construction Knit Knitting dates back to the Egyptians. Fair Isle is a term that is used to describe patterned knitting in multicolours. Texture was important. The wool is available in a variety of colours such as white.
Knitted fabric tends to be comfortable to wear as it is stretchy. What is reserach? What should research contain? Who are you designing for? Exercise 1: Brainstorming Interview: Alice Palmer Interview: Wendy Dagworthy Interview: Alexander Lamb Interview: Daniel Pollitt Choosing what to research Choosing a theme What are primary sources? What are secondary sources?
Sources of inspiration Exercise 2: Recycled garment manipulation Interview: Dr Noki Interview: Richard Sorger Compiling your research The sketchbook Techniques for drawing Collage Juxtaposition and deconstruction Cross-referencing Analysis of research Focus of key elements Exercise 3: Focus research pages Sketchbook examples Interview: Omar Kashoura Interview: Jenny Packham Designing from your research Bridging the gap Exercise 4: Collaged research on figures Model and drape Photomontage with drapery Design development elements Exercise 5: Working with the colour wheel Market levels in fashion Exercise 6: Design development 1 Refinement for individual garments Exercise 7: