Residential masonry construction involves the laying of brick, con- crete block, or Brick and concrete block walls are typically laid out based on a 4-in. or 8-in. module, (from Beall, Christine, Masonry Design and Detail- ing, 4th edition. Masonry construction is one of the oldest styles of building, and Echelon Masonry brand, shows some great examples of buildings .. come. □. Project Details. Masonry Construction Manual BIRKHÄUSER EDITION DETAIL PFEIFER RAMCKE ACHTZIGER ZILCH The original German edition of this book was conceived.
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Masonry Construction Details PDF. F7_01 Concrete Block Walls-PDF. PDF icon caite.info F7_02 Sample Bar Positioners-PDF. PDF icon. Masonry Construction Details PDF. ALBERTA, CANADA. Range Road Rocky View Country, Alberta T1X0J9 Phone: Fax: . Concrete Masonry Association of Australia cannot accept any liability .. Figure 28 Typical construction details for reinforced single-leaf masonry walling system.
The Faguswerk in Alfeld. Whenever we want to understand a building or architecture through looking, our mental repertoire of deciphering is automatically set in motion. It can 1. Floor Connection Detail — Option 1 November 3, The novelty of Hoffmann's invention was that the fixed cycle was developed into a continuous process by arranging at least two firing chambers in a circle and by shifting the firing or heating process from the outside to the inside fig. Academically speaking, they were a blend of clear, precise, structural-constructive thinking and a baffling transposition of primeval power into masonry that reveals the basics of tectonics and is reminiscent of the equilibrated structure of tectonic plates fig.
The bricks themselves serve as a heating grate. This effect was even augmented by integrating fans to increase the performance despite existing savings in energy and fuel. Thirty years would pass in experiments before an accelerated and practical setting process was discovered.
In addition to construction "kits" for balcony balustrades. In Prior to Schlikeysen's invention. In a patent application for a steam-hardening process was filed. Full automation has made heavy manual labour redundant. The inventions multiplied the production capacity of a brickyard fivefold.
The ziggurat of Babylon consisted of 85 million bricks. Some ring kilns are still in use today. By From there. As soon as one chamber is loaded with "green" bricks. Fixed-cycle operation for firing had already been introduced in England some time before. The units were immediately used for private and public buildings. When the firing process is completed.
They achieve a livelier surface and distinct manufacturing traces by means of scale modifications. The inexpensive units were initially produced in field factories set up right at the construction site.
Ring kilns can be operated continuously for decades. The Romans had already tried to manufacture building bricks from mortar. That is. As soon as one load of bricks was fired and had cooled.
The aesthetic appeal of the material lies in its blend of a severe. The bricks were transported into the city from surrounding brickyards on barges. Prefabricated steel structures such as Paxton's Crystal Palace or the Eiffel Tower are not the only examples worth mentioning in this context. This had been linked to a far greater risk of shrinkage and cracking. In the tunnel kiln. At the same time as Schlickeysen's and Hoffmann's inventions revolutionized brick manufacturing.
Friedrich August Stuler Jugendstil window in Nancy 1.
The invention of the tunnel kiln. One weak point in the process was the manual loading and unloading of the firing chambers. The novelty of Hoffmann's invention was that the fixed cycle was developed into a continuous process by arranging at least two firing chambers in a circle and by shifting the firing or heating process from the outside to the inside fig.
The manufacture of masonry bricks was revolutionized by two inventions. Friedrich Hoffmann. The same goal had been pursued for some time. The chambers are separated from each other with iron dampers.
They were called "efficiency kilns" because the heating of one firing chamber also preheated the neighbouring chamber. Masonry in architecture Technical developments in the 19th century Set in motion by the principles of the 18th century.
The performance capacity of the new building industry increased through the production of prefabricated elements in the last quarter of the 19th century. By blowing the oxygen required for combustion into the tunnel from the far end. A few years later. The process of brick manufacture could thus be transformed into one continuous operation from preparing the material to firing. In structure. Nine schools existed in the German-speaking countries alone: This style. From the character of brick as "a single material".
The synthesis was characterized by the fact that architectural elements were deformed and warped less by the tectonic or spatial forces of architecture than by ornamentation fig. Positions in history passionate as it was unremitting. Several of his students continued to evolve this building style. Architectural competence was increasingly measured by historical knowledge. Had sentiments and dogmatism of this nature existed in an earlier time.
During a short phase of 20 years at the beginning of the 20th century. Proponents of dogmatism formed their own opinion in opposition to the emerging functionalism. The buildings of the various schools of the 19th century certainly demonstrate great knowledge of history. As a result. Schinkel began to pursue a style of building in which the character of the material determined the architecture. Munich and Karlsruhe schools. In this sense.
Even the silhouettes of buildings. The first half of the 19th century saw a number of improvements in the quality of brick materials. Hard lines were drawn in the development of architecture in the second half of the 19th century. Brussels and Glasgow.
We should perhaps note Karl Friedrich Schinkel's efforts in this context. They proselytized a German-Christian Gothic revival with a fervour that was as 1. Impressed by the industrial brick buildings he had encountered on his journey to England in By the same token. Once upon a time. In Austria. The best-known forerunner in the United States of building that rigorously realized the intellectual tradition of the 18th century was Robert Louis Sullivan.
In the evolution from the Palazzo Pitti to the Hofbibliothek and on to the Faguswerk. These were chiefly the Arts and Crafts movement in England. New York and other major cities in the USA. This fragility is the result of design characteristics that seem to contradict one another. He explained it with the example of an oak tree in which each part. He defended his position with furious energy and such high ethical demands on building that a public scandal ensued.
The principal focus of architecture shifted towards the simple act of manufacturing buildings and their uses. Chile House in Hamburg Fritz Hoger. His famous statement "form follows function" is one of the most misunderstood and. Many larger masonry structures of the s. The most prominent detail is the absence of a corner column in the glass wall as well as the ambiguous architectural response to the question whether the curtain wall supports or is supported by the brick cornice!
In all this. It no longer defines supporting and being supported. The number of courses of the masonry in the entrance projection. It must express the power and violence of height [.
The Viennese architect Adolf Loos decided to dispense with ornamental trimmings altogether. What Sullivan meant was that individual functions seek expression in form. The harmonious scale of the facade is subtle and differentiated. A brick building such as the Monadnock Building in Chicago Masonry was the standard material in the s for the construction of skyscrapers in Chicago.. The Werkbund was as passionate in its moral demands on building as the guilds of the 19th century had been.
Gropius was originally commissioned exclusively for the facade design. Gropius's design is independent and convincing by comparison to the narrow. This design marks the beginning of a new phase in the development of architecture and yet another answer to the question of what is masonry. Walter Gropius succeeded at exactly the same time in a pioneering act of architectural perfection that has rarely been matched since: As historicism was being rejected for the hypocrisy of its stylistic aspirations.
This went so far that he wanted to build the windows on the upper floors of his commercial building on Michaelerplatz in Vienna without frames. At the start of the 20th century. The structure is pure brickwork.
The columns are recessed by one face length. Faced with the It was reinforced with iron frames. Yet masonry isn't seen in relative terms. The corner areas of the glass facade are only a few centimetres wider than the glazed sections in the walls. Monadnock Building, Chicago, , architects: Burnham and Root Hannover municipal library, , architect: Karl Elkart, during construction as in fig. Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer. These retrospective "declarations of war" expressed in the moral principles of building at the decline of the 19th century reverberate even today.
Perhaps because they seem to offer ready and comfortable solutions without the need for an exhaustive, and exhausting, investigation of facts. Thus, they run the risk of becoming a cause for opposition themselves. To Gropius, however, they were appeals worth taking to heart and he adopted them as the principles for the Bauhaus. But, like Mies van der Rohe, he was always conscious of the superiority and persuasiveness of the design. The purifying intent of the Bauhaus is expressed in liberating architecture from its character of being a means, of giving rise to and directing feelings and moods.
The Bauhaus seeks to establish immediacy by looking upon building as a social task directly linked to work and society, that is, the sphere of the human activity, certain that these tasks can be transmuted into building forms without styles that cloak the intent.
In doing so, the movement unconsciously delves so deeply into aesthetic principles of the architecture that the final built products take on a common, unmistakable character. To stay with the metaphor: Ultimately, historicism was rejected out of the same spirit from which it had been born. Simultaneous with the rather bourgeois tone of the masons' guild and the Werkbund, there emerged a strong movement towards the spiritual creative forces of man.
Embracing and reflecting primordial, natural elements, these tendencies met with widespread approval. But they came dangerously close to "cosmology" and exaggeratedly "earthy" evocations of the forces of the soil and the elements. Still, the combination of turning away from civilization and towards the mythology of nature and the enthusiasm for Utopian, futuristic concepts released creative energies that encouraged an abandoned, violent and inspired development among artists.
Antonio Gaudi's buildings had none of the offensive, occasional character of the Faguswerk or the scandalous effect of Loos's architecture. They were immediately popular. Academically speaking, they were a blend of clear, precise, structural-constructive thinking and a baffling transposition of primeval power into masonry that reveals the basics of tectonics and is reminiscent of the equilibrated structure of tectonic plates fig. From this perspective, the Bauhaus with its outward focus on social relationships and work and Expressionism with its inward-looking focus are but logical developments of the.
The common interest in material-construction-production is subsumed in the pre-eminence of action and use: Another strong influence on the building concepts of the following decades was provided by the De Stijl movement in the Netherlands, whose founder.
Theo van Doesburg, sought to gain a feeling of space, of floating, from the wall by translating time into pictorial movement. Gerrit Rietveld realized these ideas fig. Mies van der Rohe's interpretation of masonry was equally influenced by this movement in architecture. His residential buildings from the s demonstrate an open flowing sense of space fig.
Van der Rohe established the spatial movement of walls and openings as the principle theme of architecture in the 20th century. During the same period, the Amsterdam School, represented by Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer and others, translated ideas borrowed from the visual arts into plastic masonry, whose curved or vertical bed joints and folded openings qualify its loadbearing property, yet by this very device also emphasize the original spatial quality fig.
Van Doesburg explored a duality that is a recurring topic in the history of masonry, namely that masonry is both mass and surface, by stressing colour as a two-dimensional, all-. Fritz Schumacher, who greatly influenced the development of masonry in the first three decades of the 20th century as both an architect and an author, referred to examples of Backsteingotik the impressive and very simplified Gothic in northern Germany to draw attention to the importance of the surface and the difficult relationship between colour and plasticity in the surface.
These ideas on two-dimensionality, surprising as they may be at first, also identify the qualifying relationship between columns and loadbearing, outside and inside, that we encounter in Gropius's work as a new attitude. Building mass is an image of building mass, uniting two-dimensionality and cubic form, a visualization of the spatial concepts of movement. The aesthetic influences of photography and, above all, film are evident here.
The new laws of cinematography begin to show their impact, which would continue to grow stronger as the century advanced.
In contrast to German Expressionism, which was founded in the internal dynamic of spiritualemotional forces, De Stijl and the Amsterdam School were more intellectual, but at the same time also more geometric-cosmic in orientation. Both were open to exploring the problems of industrial production and its impact on society. Housing shortages after World War I led to a building boom in the Netherlands and in Germany, which made it possible to translate the previously theoretical-speculative developments into practice.
Red bricks and engineering bricks were the building materials of choice. The latter are marked by a weather-resistant quality resulting from the sintering of clay and lend themselves to expressive wall articulations with projecting and recessed blocks and courses. To Schumacher, brick as a material is a unique opportunity for discipline in design in the sense of concentrating on the building purpose as well as on the unity of material and form.
In analogy with musical composition, the masonry bonds and unit projections were to emphasize and illustrate the functional relationship of the walls. He transforms the exterior image of building through projections and recesses, dog-toothing and inventive vari-.
To look upon the surface image exclusively in terms of its importance as a dynamic effect of functional internal references is simply the logical continuation of the fragmenting building analysis.
New structural possibilities opened up with the bracing of masonry by means of a surrounding steel structure, which nevertheless maintained the massive character of the masonry. Schroder House, , architects: Antonio Gaudi Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, study for country house in brick construction, Sulphuric acid treatment plant in Luban, , architect: Hans Poelzig De Dageraad housing complex, Amsterdam, , architect: Pieter Lodewijk Kramer.
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India, , architect: Louis I. Sigurd Lewerentz Saynatsalo town hall, , architect: Alvar Aalto. The buildings gain an abstract internal tension by means of the paradoxical manner in which the materiality is intensified and simultaneously dematerialized, reducing the masonry to its basic conditions.
The planning laws and building regulations of today are lasting symbols of the analytical autonomy of individual aspects of living. At the dawn of the 21 st century a new autonomous component has been added, that of environ1. Based on the aforementioned tenets of the Bauhaus and Expressionism, extraordinary new exponents of architecture were developed by the succeeding generations, although they remained true to the fundamental theories of the 18th century, which we have discussed in detail.
Its artistic variety notwithstanding, Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture is always firmly grounded in working with primary geometries. In one of his later works, the "Morris Gift Ship" in San Francisco , a circular matrix and a linear, dynamic matrix overlap fig. The Roman brickwork, which Wright had already employed in Windsor House and Robie House , supports the basic geometricdynamic idea. Alvar Aalto's buildings are a continuation of the formal canon of the Bauhaus fig.
Here, the division of volume is more original than the expression of the plan, which once again traces the plot in the interior. As architecture continued to evolve in the subsequent decades, it began to divide the city into individual sections for living, work, recreation and traffic. The midth century saw the rise to prominence of an abstract, performanceoriented order that strove to address the purpose of building.
The rational approach of exploring the function of each purpose and to create strategic alternatives as a self-referential system, now culminated in a structural analysis that would have an impact on the subsequent development of masonry.
The basic premise of the autonomy of each individual element became an independent system itself. In the work of Herman Hertzberger, for example, buildings answer to the requirements of use; but the latter are held captive in the structural scheme of the building. The architectural language of Louis Kahn is characterized by a demonstrative play with the structural conditions of building, above all the compression and tensile forces.
Kahn invites the viewer to experience the elemental forces of masonry. Two examples in particular illustrate this approach: Each of these examples is achieved independently of the relevant building task. Kahn views masonry as independent of history, discovering the truth of building in this basic premise. This is a different kind of demand for truth than the retrospective moral imperative of the masons' guild and the Werkbund.
It also incorporates the demand that traces of production should remain visible - and not hidden, as had been an unspoken rule in the history of building. In this regard, Kahn's structural approach is not unlike Le Corbusier's. Both architects show the simple and hence elemental conditions of building. The late brick buildings by Lewerentz are designed with an archaic flavour fig. The seemingly simple combination of sparse 1. In recent decades there has been no let-up in the development of a unifying building concept.
Post-modernism and deconstruction, for example, are terms borrowed from literature and philosophy, to provide a theoretical underpinning for the new architecture. It is difficult to imagine, however, which kinds of architectural postulates could be derived from Paul de Man's textual concepts.
The term architectural minimalism - borrowed from the visual arts in this instance - is simply a new name for design in the tradition of Mies van der Rohe. These attempts at theoretical adaptation by means of literary catchwords are still caught up in the tradition of historicism and do not reveal any traces of change in masonry. What remains today is the need to explore the ideas of the Werkbund, which have become stale and hackneyed, in more depth and with less obedience to the "bogged-down scheme" Ernst Bloch , to confront them with the problem of modern incrustations.
Only then can we answer the question of what is masonry in the full knowledge of our current situation. We should remember that the functional method of rationalization has permeated all areas of human activity. New construction methods with materials such as steel and reinforced concrete, developed for increased performance, relegated masonry to the secondary role of facework and infill over the course of the 20th century. Moreover, the same developments in masonry itself meant that the wall structure was divided into individual functions to reduce material consumption and construction effort.
With few exceptions, this development no longer allowed for the homogeneous treatment of masonry, which in turn has resulted in great uncertainty in design. The common reaction is to quote, with much bravado and little thought, the typical argument of the trade that masonry - which is usually a curtain wall today - should show what it is. Conventional arguments of honesty etc.
The situation hasn't changed, but the conditions have.
However, this too is no novelty. Design doesn't end at this point; it's just beginning. Design has less and less to do with realizing ideas, sketching out concepts and defining details. The division between the abstract world of drawings, numbers, measurements and the subsequent implementation activities all the way to the construction site, has been lamented for some time.
By now, the division has become so great that the profession is at risk of being degraded to mere draughtsmanship. Some may regard this as an advantage, a lightening of the workload. But it has had a profound impact on the built results, making them less diverse, levelling out differences. Consequently, many feel a growing need to re-establish contact with the construction site, to return to the real, material problems of building in order to achieve authenticity in design and accountability in execution.
The masonry unit - natural stone, concrete blocks, calcium silicate units and especially clay bricks - is an effective tool to achieve this goal. The ease with which elements are substituted in today's progressive architecture, the relentless search for equivalencies in material and construction, leads us to remember the formative, real power of material resistance.
To use the trade jargon: Masonry makes us aware of the challenges of the material; we can feel its weight and design for it. Masonry is by its very nature equipped to age. This is expressed in the fact that when materiality and purpose grow apart, as they inevitably will, a kind of objectivity that is independent of purpose gradually evolves in the relationship between materiality and workability, which ultimately produces material waste.
The rigidity of masonry, the limited design range imposed by the units, course depths and spans, constantly force the designer into a tight corner. It is a struggle against the constraints of the material, its limited ability to fulfil the purposes of construction, use, manufacturing requirements and many other factors.
Yet anyone who has noted these conditions has also praised the abundance of design options that arise from this difficulty. The creative secret lies in overcoming these constraints in an assured manner and in the lessons of simplicity to be learned from processing masonry materials. The limitations of the material are a defining aesthetic criterion.
The success of masonry across the millennia is founded in its ability to offer stunningly simple solutions for a number of individual problems. It would be unjust to describe masonry units as prefabricated units. The workability of these. Like all simple devices or tools, the masonry unit is an ingenious element of everyday life.
Its typology is deeply rooted inside us and has grown impervious to misuse. Let us introduce another vital relationship that is particularly evident in masonry buildings: Observation, the act of looking, is always an act of deciphering, recognizing and interpreting contexts and connections. We are only able to look because we are taught to do so from birth and we practise this ability until it becomes a routine of which we are no longer even aware.
Whenever we want to understand a building or architecture through looking, our mental repertoire of deciphering is automatically set in motion. By applying this knowledge "in the light of theory" as Karl Popper put it, we learn what lies behind the surface by looking at the surface: Yet this is a highly complex process, in which looking and being looked upon merge into a single event.
By covering and uncovering connections between outside and inside, exposing the invisible, the observed object is transformed into a mirror of the observer. The observer deciphers a building in much the same manner he applies to himself. The design of the wall surface, which is difficult to grasp as matter, its structural, plastic, material, colour and tactile characteristics, each shed light on another relationship with the wall - t h e design relationship. The surface reflects these relationships in ever-new connections or is cleverly self-referential, a topic that has been explored in detail in the historical section.
To design means to develop this relationship. Conversely, the observer, too, is called upon to "design" by looking, recognizing and drawing conclusions, and by his observation make the building what it is. One example of extraordinary refinement in design is Jean Nouvel's idea of copying the image of the facade, itself an image, and transferring it back onto the facade, making, as it were, the copy into an image of the copy, which in turn is a copy of an image.
In this instance, the tectonic is lost in itself. When designing and building with masonry, this intellectual-aesthetic link is inescapable because it has come to define architecture, design and the fine arts.
But not only that. Today, it also means exploring the idea that the surface, the exterior world of masonry, has its own interior world, whose fascinating qualities it communicates to the observer so that he may reconstruct the logic, tectonic, imagery and mimesis the "as if" in his own mind. Unlike most building methods, masonry is suited to meet this demand not least of all because it has an inherent power that calls for simplicity.
The manufacture of masonry has changed fundamentally as a result of technical development. Nevertheless, it can still be carried out by hand at any time and without great effort fig. In the meantime, the entire process from digging clay or other materials to firing has become a fully automated process in all industrial countries, as we have already described.
When it comes to evaluating the cubic, plastic and rhythmical disposition of the building components and the building volume, the quality of architectural design is evident without taking material into consideration.
On the contrary, it would even impede our judgement. However, this is not true of brickwork buildings. In these buildings, the quality of the architectural design is inextricably linked to the material used to build them. It would be impossible to imagine the one without the other. Anyone designing with this material must be willing to get involved with it. The quality of the masonry is less distinctively expressed when the surface is treated with colour.
A white or red coat of colour moderates the moulding without erasing it. To a lesser degree, the same rules apply to calcium silicate units, although the colour scale in these units is more or less limited to the natural colour of the material in a few variations of grey.
The similarity with the various grey hues of concrete and the interaction with it can achieve a subtle iridescent effect that transforms the oft-maligned coldness of exposed concrete into a velvety warmth. This iridescence, a changing atmospheric veil, comes together in front of the observer's eye out of a series of elements: Clay bricks come in a wide variety of formats and shapes.
There are shell-shaped, irregular, compacted bricks made to fit into courses. They are always dimensioned to be gripped in one hand. The manufacture and processing of sun-dried clay or earth bricks is the most ancient building method still practised today.
The problem of vulnerability to rain is addressed in a number of ways. In the early Mesopotamian cultures BC panels of woven reed, fabric or skins were suspended from fired ceramic rods in front of the wall, presumably as rain protection. Clay brick was also used as backing for exterior leaves built from fired brick. In northern Europe, clay or earth walls were erected beneath wide roof overhangs and protected with a neat lime wash that was renewed each year.
This method was also common to Asia. In Africa Mali the structural timber members of floors and bracing were pushed through the wall like a scaffolding to facilitate any repairs in case of washout see fig. Until very recently, the rule of thumb that each masonry unit should be of a size and format that could be lifted and laid with one hand also applied to bricks, calcium silicate units and concrete units.
One historical exception is Roman bricks, which, as we described in the historical chapter, were manufactured as flat elements and laid in alternating straight and diagonal courses, In Catalonia, Roman bricks are used to this day. In the past, this was not necessarily. The buildings on the Place des Vosges in Paris, built in , feature walls of large bricks of monumental appearance on the facades overlooking the square.
The formats of the units in the cross-vaults in the colonnades surrounding the square are adapted to the scale of the space and the detail work in the spandrels. Apart from units in large formats, which are unsuitable for facing masonry, the selection of standard formats is fairly limited today.
On the other hand, the industry offers and uses a tremendous variety of moulded bricks. But it is a mistake to try and improve masonry with moulded bricks.
In contrast to formats, the selection of colours and surface treatments is quite manageable. Brick colour is influenced by the composition of the clay and the firing method and temperature. Two colour scales are predominant: But nearly all other colours are available as well: The surface of the brick is the other important feature of appearance.
There is the grainy surface of hand-moulded brick, the various horizontal and vertical grooves and notches created by the nozzle of the extrusion press, the sintering traces from the firing process and plastic characteristics from firing, slag marks, surfaces smooth as tile and sand coatings in a variety of hues. Inexpensive units are often treated with an imitation grain to simulate the fine surfaces of expensive units.
A decisive factor in selecting. Each has its own unique effect. The result comes as a shock to the observer. With these elements. The visible external surface consisted of quarter and half bats. As Julius Posener comments.
Yet the naturalness. The profane. Walls were raised. The choice of header bond. The principal rationale was its efficiency. It is a brick masonry building. Any keen observer of masonry that has been laid and jointed with expertise will experience this captivating tension. The scale seen from a distance should be harmoniously reflected and logically interpreted in each intermediate scale from distant to close-up.
Header bonds were widely used during the Grunderzeit at the end of the 19th century. It's adaptability is chiefly exploited in curved walls and arches. Gothic bond 1. The result. In the following. The unique beauty of Cistercian masonry is widely appreciated and has been the topic of much praise. Masonry in architecture The bond Header bond 1. From the very beginning another common application of this bond has been to create patterns with polychrome or glazed bricks.
The Faguswerk in Alfeld. It is a system of rules for the creation of a readable. The same forces are still felt today when knowledgeable observers stand in front of a building with an expert bond and make an effort to reconstruct this discriminating rapport.
Gropius contradicts the "natural" relationship between support and load. The facing masonry has been integrated into the backing as an incrustation.
The Cistercian Order was founded on a philosophy of fulfilling the promise of salvation in the Christian faith by serving the community in practical ways.
Plain brickwork surfaces see St Mary's in Stralsund. This is because the eye measures the wall in units of bricks and since this narrow range of expression. Herein lies the core of the forces at work: It paraphrases the monumentality of Behrens's Turbine factory into a parody. A bond must always adhere to a distinct precision and yet appear perfectly natural and without artifice. Small movements. The cubist Flying bond 1.
Hannover Hans Poelzig 1. A surface with a vibrating tension has been created on this building with efficient. The dogmatic severity we usually apply to bonds was still unknown then.
A large west window illuminates the church interior and two choir windows allow light to fall onto the altar from the north and south sides. By shifting the stretcher course by one half brick length.
The English bond on the Meyer warehouse building designed by Hans Poelzig fig. Gothic bond figs. The reliefs frame the building at the top and yet maintain a measure of openness.
English bond fig. To achieve such cool neutrality. Paul Korff-Laage 1. This may be explained by the duration of the building phase.
Design residential block design by architects Kahlfeldt see example 20 in part 4 "Details of built examples" is intended to provide a stark contrast to the frame structures in the courtyard.
Towards the cornice. It was not unusual to see flying bond alternate with Gothic bond in different components of the same building. It comes alive above all through the firing marks on the bricks. Both bonds illustrated above were used as early as the German Backsteingotik. Only a narrow slit between the column and the wall behind it illuminates the vestibule.
Stralsund Apart from flying bond. The windows diminish imperceptibly in width from storey to storey. In the former provincial bank of Pomerania in Stralsund fig. Due to the high component of stretcher courses. The large side wall to the nave of the Sacred Heart Church in Prague. It derives its lively character from a loose. American bond fig. Mies van der Rohe preferred thin formats for his brick homes in the s because of the precision in scale they offer. Villa Wolf in Guben on the Neisse River.
The gilded headers glow softly in the dark brown brick fabric of the nave. The oldest brickwork church building. Influences from northern Italy in many details may also indicate that the bond originated in Lombardy. The captivating texture. Despite the expressive sequential disposition of vertical wall components. Irregularities in the hand-moulded monastery brick format also imposed changes on bond design.
It is largely unknown in Europe. The plasticity of projecting concrete bricks in the neverending pattern register adds a second scale to the surface. New York or Philadelphia for example. Silesian bond figs. The classic brick architecture on the East Coast of the United States. One of his most beautiful designs. Flying bond fig. By doubling the stretcher component in each course. Flying bond does not have the same two-dimensional tension as Gothic bond.
The result is a slightly hyperactive image that is shown to best advantage on large surfaces fig. Fritz Hoger proves his mastery of working with facing bricks in the church on Hohenzollernplatz in Berlin fig. Masonry in architecture Flying bond. Flemish bond fig. Josef Plecnik Church on Hohenzollernplatz. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1. Until very recently. The simplicity of the pattern. In the functional context of building science in multilayered wall composition.
Guben Stretcher bond. Developments in building science and scientific studies on wall composition have separated these components into independent parts according to the task they need to fulfil. Owing to its even scale it is. Honesty cannot be experienced as an abstract value.
Breune Villa Wolf. What may seem a simple and logical step had far-reaching consequences for the aesthetic of the whole. And which "truth" would then be valid? The claim to truthfulness can thus only be regarded as an attempt at justification. Since the connection to the rear is achieved with the help of wall ties and storey-high brackets supporting.
Stretcher bonds In masonry. The principal tasks are loadbearing. Each is now represented in an independent wall layer. This process of evaluation is always informed by the observer's own conscious and unconscious concepts. It can 1. Fritz Hbger Flemish bond on Deutsches Technikmuseum. Design 1. It does not reflect the complexity at work in the perception and evaluation of visual phenomena.
Berlin This may come as a surprise at first glance. Justifying its use by referring to the honest. A masterful tour de force! In the trade. In a variation of this bond. The continuous register of stretchers is transformed into a finite and defined surface through the contrapuntal grid of the headers.
This is equally true for tunctional justifications. The vertical pattern in the bond shown in fig. The dovecote in Varangeville-sur-Mer. Normandy fig. During the 19th century in particular to decorate verges and gables.
It is reminiscent of a repetitive rhyming scheme. To interpret bonds as ornament. The half-brick facing on a bridge abutment shown in fig. The observer is presented with a changing image hovering between confusion and clarity. Expressionist architecture of the 20th century favoured relief styles with projecting and recessed bonds in engineering bricks.
The simple. The round choir columns of the main aisle in St Gotthard's in Brandenburg fig. One possibility of enriching the bond is to use coloured or colour-glazed brick patterns on the surface.
Another possibility of treating masonry as an "ornamental bond" is to abandon the usual practice of laying bricks as headers and stretchers. Masonry in architecture Stretcher bond. Truth in design as an artful lie has always been stronger in the history of building than other forces.
The aesthetic here Stretcher bond. This design form has been employed throughout history in endless variations. St Gotthard's. Owing to its natural horizontal supporting surfaces. Design abundance of materials.
They all have a random crystalline structure. Conglomerates such as calcareous tufa and nagelfluh. Here is an example of bond as ornament. Owing to their geological origin in consolidated sediment they have a layered structure. In earlier times. Three types of natural stone are used in building construction: Primary rock plutonic and igneous rock such as granite.
Crystalline plutonic rocks. Natural stone Magnificent buildings have been erected in natural stone by all advanced civilizations around the world. The layered structure must be taken into consideration when processing stratified rock or using any of these rocks in walls. Some examples follow to illustrate this principle. Brandenburg 1. When boulders are split into natural shapes. A geological exception is the boulder also called erratic block.
Jurassic limestone. Pyrenees 1. In contrast to random crystalline primary rock. It can also be set vertically without a batter fig. This evaluation. Kai-Michael Koch 1. The structure of conglomerates is amorphous and random in character. Manoir d'Ango 1. Even when architecture began to focus on human activities in the 18th century. It takes great skill to erect high walls with these rounded rocks.
Whenever possible. Stratified rock in flinty. These highly different parameters for working with stone have evolved into rules on how to build walls. The unspoken rule in all these traditions is that the artistic quality in natural stone masonry is in direct proportion to erasing any traces of construction. Natural stones must be processed and combined into masonry according to their origin. The medieval monumental buildings of the Hanseatic Gothic were constructed with bricks in monastery format with an approximate joint width of 15 mm.
A pure white joint tends to appear clumsy and bleaches colour from the units. This was chiefly a result of the technology then available. In facing masonry with clay. At the same time. This is one of the reasons why 2 DF masonry is never truly satisfactory from an aesthetic point of view.
The decisive factor in these structures was the greater elasticity offered by pure lime mortar with coarse aggregates compared with brittle masonry units. Colour effects in joints are at their best when the difference in colour between joint and unit is imperceptible in the overall appearance of the surface and is only discernible upon closer inspection.
The relationship between joint and unit is harmonious with the formats commonly used today. The joint reveals how the pieces are linked: A certain liveliness or. The manufacture of ashlar stone and processing the stone into the most challenging architectural components was and is a crowning cultural achievement.
In the past there were a number of larger and smaller formats. The scale. The treatment of joints is invariably an indicator of the architectonic stance. This attitude towards joints is directed at reshaping tooled pieces and combining them artfully in the masonry fig. It is also influenced by creating a harmony between the size of the unit and the width of the joint. In Old High German the word "Fuge" joint signified both the place where two pieces were joined as well as the dexterity and skill in making the joint.
It is even more important here than in natural stone masonry. Only terracotta relief is divided according to ashlar stone rules. In the case of masonry units. But the overall effect in colour and tectonics of these expansive walls.
Depending upon hardness and composition. It pushes itself into the foreground. It has always sparked theoretical debate in architecture. The colour repertoire ranges from pure black to dark blue. One rule of thumb is that the colour of the stone is intensified the darker the colour is in the joint. Creative solutions such as tinting the mortar. One of the astonishing and alarming facts in the history of building is that the knowledge of working with ashlar stone has become nearly obsolete within just two generations after millennia of expertise and practice.
Nearly all these processing steps can be machine-tooled today. It is fundamentally different from the bonding rules of clay brickwork. One basic rule is that the scale of the building and its subdivisions should 1. The joints cover the surface like a dense mesh and give it scale. In facing masonry with 2 DF formats. Masonry in architecture Le Corbusier was the first to draw the observer's eye deliberately to signs of the building process.
By accentuating or downplaying the importance of the joint. Bed joints must always be arranged perpendicular to the compressive load. As in Friedrich Gartner's saltworks administration building in Munich.
The tectonic context is lost. Design establish a specific. Irregular units. The simplest and most costefficient manner of creating a durable joint is "flush pointing". The joint material is always less durable than the adjoining masonry unit. In that case. A soft facing unit should be jointed with pure lime mortar and siliceous. Sintered units required cement additives. The common method. Any subsequent working of the joint with jointers. Friedrich Schinkel 1. This is achieved with facing bricks which diminish into wedges towards the interior of the wall or by creating an approx.
The surface of the joint must never be "ironed out" with the jointer because this will concentrate the binding agent on the surface of the joint. Conrad Wilhelm Hase 1. Catalan masonry of prefabricated brick elements.
At the time of Ludwig I. Smaller formats. The following four historic examples illustrate different approaches and interpretations of working with joints: The masonry of the Friedrichswerder Church fig.
The "clinker disease" masonry saturated with moisture on the inside. Specials were manufactured to achieve the interior angle at the projecting pilaster. Face Brick November 2, Concrete Block. Foundation Dowel Alignment November 3, Floor Connection Detail November 2, Load Bearing Pilaster November 2, Control Joint — Preformed Gasket November 4, Control Joint — Grout Fill November 4, Control Joint — Fire-Rated November 4, Control Joint November 2, Vertical Cantilever Wall October 12, Floor Connection Detail — Option 1 November 3, Floor Connection Detail — Option 2 November 3, Flexible flashing, drip edge, termination bar, drainage mat October 17, Anchored stone veneer October 17, Insulation November 30, Window Detail — GYP.
Limestone Anchorage Detail October 30, Exterior Stone Restraint Anchorage October 30, Tile Floor, Tile on mortar bed over plywood October 17, Tile on Wood Stairs October 10, Wall Tile — Cement Mortar November 2, Tile Shower Assembly November 21, Floor Tile — Tile on mortar bed over plywood November 2, Tile to Carpet Transition October 10, Floor Tile — Thinset on Concrete November 4, Concrete floor flatness diagrams for ceramic tile November 13, Floor Tile Expansion Joint November 2, The Bonding Patterns September 28, Expansion Joint, Tile on mortar bed October 10, Epoxy Terrazzo — Acceptable Concrete October 12, Epoxy Terrazzo — Slab on Grade November 13, Epoxy Terrazzo — System Overview November 2, Polyacrylate Terrazzo — System Overview November 2, Rustic Terrazzo — System Overview November 4, Bonded Terrazzo — System Overview November 4, Structural Terrazzo — System Overview November 4, Plank at Bearing Wall October 30,