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At the beginning of the 20th century, the cultural hegemony in Brazil was white-European. Popular music, literature, and early film productions simultaneously affirmed national and cultural independence in a moment of political and economic modernization. Just another Miguel Rojas-Sotelo: Ironically, Ciudad Kennedy was populated initially by sympathizers of the Communist Party and advocates of the left.
Homogenization, instead of diversity, was the premise to build a prosper nation-state reproducing the North-West program. However, the persistence of the racial mixture that had started with Columbus's policy of colonial settlements and the impossibility of total homogenization only brought frustration for the new rulers. The white elites kept control over territories and maintained the colonial masked as modern republics.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the cultural hegemony in Brazil was white-European. They wanted to commemorate the real Brazilian culture in its centennial. Being trained abroad he understood their outsider condition with respect to, what he considered the decrepit European model.
De Andrade embraced anthropophagi as the common denominator of their artistic practice; his objective was to establish a "national style". In the cover of the manifesto, a painting of a Brazilian flag highly geometrical - a blue circle on a yellow square on a green rectangle with the words "Pau Brazil" the name of the tree from which the country was named of replaced the motto "ordem e progreso" from the original one.
In that way Tarcila, who made the illustrations connected nature and knowledge. This emblem, at the same time, connects Malevich suprematists exercises with Jasper Johns' early pop American flags as nationalists interventions from art. Tarcila's work during the s and s shows the blending of local themes and European styles, through the introduction of tropical colors and endemic themes and content.
Popular music, literature, and early film productions simultaneously affirmed national and cultural independence in a moment of political and economic modernization. The Bossa-Nova constituted the best example of artistic anthropophagi in those early years -mixing Afro-Caribbean rhythms with American Jazz and blues launching Brazilian music to international awareness. Anthropophagi functions as an auto-ethnographic exercise produced in a zone of contact allowing auto-representations in the form others would represent them.
He sees "waves" of modernization that brought an uneven development to the region he emphasizes internal and external forces pre and post During the neo-concrete movement in Brazil s , Tropicalia would have the same impact on the cultural production of the country a wave of modernization. Derived from the title of one of Helio Oiticica's environments Tropicalia , , Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil would establish Tropicalia as a musical movement that put on the map the new Brazilian music of the second half of the 20 th century a mix of popular rhythms, Latin jazz, rock, psychedelic sounds and social lyrics.
Veloso and Gil had to flee and exile because their political commitments during the dictatorship. That capacity of blending styles and technologies with popular aesthetics and languages to create self-representations intervening in metropolitan modes of understanding is characteristic of Latin American art. They created private and de- politicized art institutions; the Museums of modern Art in Rio and San Paulo and The Sao Paulo Biennale , all under private control are examples of this trend.
They placed attention to a modernizing project that supported the practice of a formalist modernism the concrete movement had its first national exhibition in one year after the first Sao Paulo Biennale.
The increasing repression of the military regime pushed artists to work in pure abstract terms, at the same time it provided a space for the development of parallel practices that we know today for their theoretical and archival records.
Modernization had increased, now in the cities, the social inequalities. The early work of Oiticica shows how the Concrete project succumbs before the reality of the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. Art as a living space and organic architecture or art a space of living is present in his penetrable-installations of the s.
Clark's sculptures derived from concrete exercises resemble "living organisms. They required participation of the spectator, not only in visual but also in sensorial terms. These early works bring again the cannibalistic spirit at its full. Devouring cannibalizing European modernism, in particular constructivist and concrete art, Brazilians find a space of encounter in which the body, the performative, the ritualistic, and shamanic emerge.
It provoked series of interesting confrontations that took place not only in the artistic arena but also in the social and political environment of the country.
It is important to recall that Brazil suffer one of the longest dictatorships, from to To set the historical evidence of such tradition, they invited several views that from the western world could validate it. They looked at it historically, politically, aesthetically and artistically. Brazilian scholar, Suely Rolnik explained how "antropofagia" is a form of radical quotation. She sustains that the organic, sexual, and erotic of Brazilian culture is its product. It is also a practice of survival; if well ingesting the body of the other is reproachable today, using its organs has become a good business - Brazil, as most of the world in development is before an emergency of organ trafficking.
Recently it has been exposed by several reports in main stream media and even by movies such as Sthepen Frears' Dirty Pretty Things which undercover a traffic ring of organ traders in London with global implications.
The margin is where its power resides, affirms Rolnik. Anyway, its practitioners are going to be treated as 'exotic', always moving across cities and jungles, museums, and the Internet they do not respect any cultural hierarchy.
As the multitude in Negri, anthropophagic artists come into terms with Empire. Exposing their otherness marks the anthropophagic strategy. Figure 2. Images from: Frears, Scholars like Michael Taussig or Chilean Ticio Escobar that work in the margins of their own disciplines comment on the practices of contemporary "natives".
Tausig in his book Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man presents several examples of contemporary rituals in the Putumayo river valley and in the southern part of Colombia. Escobar's account of Guaranies indigenous-mestizo of Northern Uruguay explains how using modern technologies and accessories they interact with the white "other".
Hybridizing and cannibalizing what they need to survive, "at the end of the day of work or trade they leave to be with their ancestors in the forest. Colombian Jaime Avila fuses in his photo series and installations " Cuarto Mundo " Fourth World and " La vida es una pasarela " Life is a Catwalk the fashion world to homelessness and the world of art to images of popular neighborhoods in the megalopolis of the south.
Figure 3. Miguel Calderon, "Evolution of Man" Figure 4. Helio Oiticica " Parangole " Their legacy resonates in Latin America. Their presence is a ghost in the practices of new artists and in the rhetoric of new critics, curators and art historians.
Gerardo Mosquera has said that to break with the "zones of silence" of globalization that had produced curating and curated cultures it is necessary to reverse the dynamics -an anthropophagic turn- using all its terrifying power. The postmodern debate in Latin America brought to the table cultural syncretism and eclecticism.
Through the 'carnivalesque' in terms of Bathkin, Enwezor, and Zamudio-Taylor the extravagant, the flamboyant, unstable and sometimes grotesque find a path to keep its inner cultural values in a context of constant homogenization.
However, it is not an issue of celebration but of survival. It is at the same time a way to resist, share, and a way to hide.
Without us, the Europeans could not have their poor declaration of the right of men The state takes control over patrimony the public sphere defining national identities; meanwhile private interests take over the arts and the profitable culture industry orchestrating tensions and encounters between hi and low art, when needed.
However, he comments on how during the s a phenomenon he calls "sociological art" surfaced. Overcoming the disconnection of the public and private spheres, suddenly artistic practices returned 'action' to the people.
Workshop-art in Chile discussed extensively by Nelly Richard , popular theater in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico highly political , social cinema in Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, and Cuba Jorge Sanjines, Miguel Litin, Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas' militant cinema and the consolidation of a Third Cinema with the Cuban scene of the and 70s are some examples of the legacy of a contested decade that had given the substrate for many of the new artistic production.
If for Anibal Quijano the only way of breaking with "la colonialidad del poder" is through social revolution he mentions the Haitian, the Mexican, the Nicaraguan, and the Bolivian revolutions as the only real social ones, unfortunately unfinished ones.
For thinkers such as Jose Carlos Mariategui the turning point would take place, only, when the consciousness of the people is raised.
The young go out into the world wearing Yankee or French spectacles, hoping to govern a people they do not know. In the political race entrance should not go for the best ode, but for the best study of the political factors of one's country. The first " cholo " reached the presidency in Peru recently. Unfortunately, this cholo -Alejandro Toledo , was trained in Stanford not in Cusco.
The danger resides in that the cultural industry and the mass media has kidnapped the body-politic replacing it with mere representation, not only is the political pressure from the neo-colonial world but economic interest by multinational or national corporations, the real and now legal citizens of the globe.
What is necessary is to go beyond representation, towards action. It is clear that art is not politics; nonetheless, it can affect it. The New Social movements must use the new art practices. Moving from representation to action art helps to "re-structured the fragmented body" after the trauma.
If well art has been kidnapped by modernity making it alien to the real , artists such as Lygia Clark in her experiences with relational objects introduced a bodily condition that almost in a ritualistic manner where merging healing and artistic practice.
Helio Oiticica's Parangoles work in the same direction, turning representation towards action. Clark talks of a state of art without art and Oiticica of a state of permanent invention like in Trotsky's permanent revolution. They deemphasized representation in order to underlined participation and collaboration as a way to free themselves of the privations of the everyday life. Today collective experiences like the ones taking place in Cuba, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Argentina, Mexico, and elsewhere, emphasize the crossing of boundaries among disciplines and practices and envisioning a new south map.
Omni's members have been working for over a decade. They define themselves as a group of action with socio communitarian projection. Art becomes the tool which they use to communicate the social, political, and existential reality of their experience living in an outskirt of a paradigmatic place.
From the community the collective produced, in the neighborhood they display their work. These are the sites in which the fusion art and life takes place. They do not consider themselves artists, their community do the members are mostly autodidacts.
However, lately they have shown their work in art, poetry, and music venues; OMNI's presence in the Havana Biennale as participants not as phantom presence like before talks about the recognition of their work in the cultural world of the island and beyond.
They have found a genre of expression, Performance. According to many of the members it is "an attitude that flows from the constant manifestation of the creative state. Performance is the artistic tendency that characterizes us as a group. Performance encompasses all possibilities of creation".
Oral, visual, and bodily actions are shown as event-actions. Using especially poetry, appropriating the word as commanding element and transforming it in dance, and absurd theater, sometimes mediated through lyrics, music, noise, and silence, they built a new poetics of marginality and participation. Figure 5. Omni Cover for their booklet ; the author with Luis E. The members of OMNI-Zona Franca have realized more than actions and have participated in the co-creation and sustaining of cultural events in the Havana province.
The National Rap Festival was co-created by them and another collective called Grupo Uno whom are rappers , national events of visual arts and performance, street performance, action-poetry are part of their busy agenda. One of their strategies is to interrupt the daily life of Cubans. For the last six years they have organized every 30th of November "Poesia Sin Fin" Never-ending Poetry a marathon of poetic declamation.
During Saint Lazaro's day, December 17th, when the country makes promises and prays for a better health which is a spontaneous performance , Omni offers a procession. They drag an immense piece of wood, for them it is "the symbol of opening up the paths-for poetic health.
On Fridays night every other month, the collective organizes a community poetry-action meting. The objective is that the community must learn about poetry from experience and vice versa.
It is supposing to become a collective space of healing for Cubans. Poetry is seen as contributing to a universal well-being. Besides, they have permeated the cultural institutions of the district using official cultural infrastructure to put on various exhibitions of individual members of the group and have participated in various collective events as well as produced some publications in a country in which paper and media technologies are major commodities.
Recently the collective has obtained a physical space to meet and work. They called it the "cosmic lab" in which they have been collaborating with artists and activist from at least 30 countries. The recent acquisition and appropriation of media tools a couple of computers, digital cameras, and open source software had increased their activities.
It has helped to put their work in certain alternative circuits. They affirm, "Since our creation, and now in our work space, we share, produce, and appropriate creative works of art and self-healing.
We work in projects with all creators of our community, and accept projects that other people propose us to do. Figure 6. In the "Cosmic Lab" now the collective uses media technologies.
Here a screening of video clips made by the collective, April The works of other renowned Cuban artists such as Rene Francisco and Tania Brugera both who travel a great deal show the same path.
A pedagogical dimension is found in their work. Their practice as instructors in the ISA Instituto Superior de Arte and elsewhere makes them an interesting phenomenon in the increasing sophisticated Cuban art market. A rising of a new class has taken place in the last decade in Cuba.
The world-class Cuban artists is a creation of a market avid for objects and mementos of the post-Soviet Cuba a phenomenon that happened in Russia during the late s and s, as well as in post Germany. As members of a high class they are subjects of a cultural policy that react to the economic and political blockade the US has imposed on the island since Paradoxically, the blockage does not cover works of art they are allowed to sell in dollars, their work pay taxes to the state.
The state allocates studios, materials and even living quarters for the most successful. However, an alternative production is still taking place. Other collectives like Los Carpinteros, had appeared form the same pedagogical approach had been, paradoxically, they are very successful in the art market. Francisco in his series of urban interventions, rebuilding living spaces for poor and sick female senior citizens in a poor neighborhood in Havana his now famous trilogy of social sculptures, "Rosa's House" , "Min's Patio" The last one was never completed and Brugera's Arte de Conducta program, that offers fellowships to all its students many courses take place in Brugera's house in Old Havana make clear that after the boom of the s and 90s what is important is to work at the interior of the communities creating networks of solidarity and support.
Figure 7. Sao Paulo's alternative art scene is leaded by a collective group named Bijari. Formed in by architects and visual artists, Bijari is a creative nest of visual arts, multimedia and architecture. They understand the city as a fragmented space; their interactive activities inform the inhabitants of Sao Paulo about the real materials the city is made of.
The activities of the group signal the lack of the ideal city which is in a liminal space. Their objective is to establish a resistant image from the existent image of the city. In order to understand the role of the contemporary subject in the city the members of the collective develop gadgets, images, and devises which in a weird way interact with the passer-by.
Sometimes they arrange and alter public spaces, plazas, abandon buildings, streets, etc. On other times, they spread their reach to the entire city using posters, adhesive ads, graffiti, and web-pages. Their collaboration goes from helping and participating in the taking-over of abandon buildings, to workshops, communal exhibitions, web design, advertisement, video production and document production.
Their purpose is to put these issues into main stream media and to reach a larger audience. Pedagogy is understood as a frame in which different artistic world-views met, in order to find their role in society and the way to be tuned with different audiences.
The BVB also works with the community to help improve their relationship with the urban space, the neighborhood, and with themselves. Indeed, it implies a new way to produce art. The hundreds of artists other professionals and academics as well participating in the several versions of the event six at the time of this text , the workshops, the conferences, parallel events, and exhibitions had to interact with the community one way or another.
Through resident programs or systematic visits to the neighborhood and the exhibition sites the context and the community become central to the art work produced. In that order of ideas, the event looks for new concepts and practices of community-based-art, new fields of action, and alternative solutions for the art work.
In the initial call for works it got 65 entries many others maintained their commitment as non- governmental and independent. Ciudad Kennedy a self-built community started back in the early s; today it is an inner city of more than two million people. Ciudad Kennedy: Memoria y Realidad Kennedy City: Memory and Reality is a kind of artistic archeology of a community, mostly farmers displayed by the violence during the s that were arriving in large numbers, becoming the new work-force of the city.
The project led by Raul Cristancho artist and teacher was centered in the houses and the families that were the foundational nucleus of the district. In December John F. That event became foundational for the district and soon after Kennedy's death it changed its name. What is interesting is the fact that the urban project was not sponsored by the US government, not even by the Colombian government.
It was a self-built program in which the families had to pay for the lot, materials, and put the labor. The collective of artists calls attention to the policies intervention and control developed by the US during the Cold War years, in particular the so-called Alliance for Progress, a set of policies to help countries of the South in particular Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia fight the phantom of Communism.
Ironically, Ciudad Kennedy was populated initially by sympathizers of the Communist Party and advocates of the left. Figure 8. The artists working with the community the founding fathers of the district and their families produced a series of pieces, installations, in-situ interventions, photographs, documentary videos, tapes, performances, etc. Miller Lagos and the collective Imagen Pirata Pirate Image are some of them, they are focus in using the city as their surface and the materials offer by it as their mediums.
For example Imagen Pirata has developed a series of works in which plagiarism and copy is the main concern. The whole project is conceived as an advertising campaign, the paintings imitate advertising posters, the videos imitate the TV spots, and images in the public space imitate the big billboards from the streets.
The artists argue "So in this case, plagiarism does not only refer to the images that we present but to the methods we used to make this work with images taken form the media". Many other spaces and self-run studios and galleries emerged before or alter this experience: Fernando Pertuz, "La muerte ronda por todas partes" Death is Everywhere. Performance, Figure Fernando Pertuz, "Quiebra Patas" Handicap.
Performance, In Bolivia the collective "Mujeres Creand " Women Creating based in La Paz, has been addressing issues such as feminism, self determinacy and political power. The anarchic-feminist collective activities include graffiti, publishing, and direct action, today they run a small cultural center.
They are best known for their poetic-graffiti and performances. The group has been going on for ten years, and started as a reaction to the oppression Bolivian women had experience in the past. The members of the collective recognized that if well the government was talking about the rights of women on the radio and in documents, in practice no changes were happening. By contrast, the feminism of Mujeres Creando was real and tangible. They affirm, "Political activity does not only happen in political parties or in organized groups; it happens when consciousness of your actions and your decisions rise, an intuitive kind of feminism.
In Latin America within the university system, there has been a different group on the left Trotskyites, Maoists, Guevarists, Marxists but none of them addressed women in particular. When the activities of the group began they realize that identity as women in Bolivia, as well other sectors without representation lesbians and in particular , was vastly forgotten. They comment, "When we got together we said, we are a group of women and we're a different kind of organization than the ones around us where the revolutionary subject is the proletariat.
We tried to demystify this ideology. Graffiti and public intervention by the collective Mujeres Creando , La Paz. The group has been producing audiovisual material as a tool to create new working class subjectivity. They are always ready to interact with organizations unions, individual workers, community groups, etc. Their work on the Brukmann and Zannon occupied and run factories in put them in the map of alternative media.
Their films use a fundamental axis for action; it is the application of media skills and technology by the community. They provide tools to struggle and construct subjectivity from the interests and identity of the working class and oppressed sectors.
Their work on the dressing room of metro-transport workers, the story of an old female militant during the dictatorship years, or the ways to organize a strike, in addition to footage of land-squat or barrio-based demonstrations piqueteros is a new form of archive that work from the base. Here the repertoire is recognized by their actors and is self-documented. The protagonists in the films propose, appropriate, and use the video language to organize and establish networks of support. The artist here becomes a trader and keeper of the most valuable: Jose Miguel Gonzalez Casanova lives and works in Mexico City; working from an approach that fusions economy, organizational culture, performance, installation, and social work he has been able to interact with people of different cities of the global south.
Today it is possible to access freely the assets of the bank on the Internet. Indeed, another kind of development and intervention policies are in place here, the BID trades affection, care, and hope. In Costa Rica the Museum of Contemporary art and Design is addressing, in regional workshops, talks, and exhibitions, the issue of what is to be a Central American today. The many workshops and residences organized by collectives in Central America and the Caribbean as well as the participation of some progressive cultural institutions around the subcontinent are signaling another way of production.
Even traditional events like the Havana Biennial, which has been always in the space of liminality and alternatively -as Cuba is, is not completely co-opted by political and economic pressure. These events, actions, artists, and communities, are working toward spaces of freedom and self determinacy.
This short review only recognized some of the collectives and individuals working in major cities in Latin America, there are many more examples of a vision of the region that is resisting to be constructed from the outside.
What is happening is a snow ball in which collaboration, solidarity, and friendship are central to self-determinacy and exercises of bottom up democracy and participation. Miguel Rojas-Sotelo: Figure 1: Author photos. Figure 2: The New York Times. Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Photo by Jorge Alban, and author photos. Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Courtesy Imagen Pirata.
Courtesy Fernando Pertuz. Figure Courtesy of Indymedia-Ecuador and prensadefrente. Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas. Prentice Hall and Harry N. Abrams, Hunter Sam, Jacobus, J. Modern Art. Prentice Hall, Art Since Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism. New York: David E. Duke University Press, The emporium has control over an important percentage of telecommunications, TV, radio, and cell phone in the region.
The company represents a vanguard of free trade in the Americas. The foundation's mission is both local and global is home based in Venezuela: Built on the belief that education is the key to democracy and democracy is the key to freedom, the Cisneros Foundation strengthens and promotes Latin America through a variety of programs. These focus on the areas of education, culture, the environment, and community". Fri Sep 25, 8: Forum 3. Search Advanced search.
Quick links. Post Reply. Will be grateful for any help! I'll be really very grateful. Graciliano Ramos e suas obras.
Acesse Online Cursos Gratuitos e baixe outras livros. Baixar em epub Baixar em pdf Baixar em mobi Ler Online. Biografia de Graciliano Ramos - eBiografia ; 17 ago. Graciliano Ramos foi um escritor brasileiro. O romance "Vidas Seus trabalhos Obras - Graciliano Ramos ; poss vel dividir a obra de Graciliano Ramos de v rias maneiras. Para melhor entendimento, optamos pela seguinte classifica o: Os livros mais Em companhia dos livros: Graciliano Ramos e outros autores. In company of books: