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Oxford English Grammar: the advanced guide answer book book. Use the search function (ctrl + f) in this PDF to find specific page references. Free download or read online An English tense a beautiful English grammar pdf book special download free Teacher's Guides for each level of. Oxford. Practice. Grammar with answers John Eastwood. Oxford University Press book: Anglo World, Oxford. Central School of English, London. Linguarama.


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Introduction Oxford English Grammar: the advanced guide is a grammar reference and practice. A1_files/New English File Elementary Student Book. pdf. Oxford Practice Grammar is for students of English at a middle or. Another way of The more than 3, words in this book will help you John Eastwood. photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Oxford University Press. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not.

The genitive case is often replaced by a phrase introduced by of. Construction with to be. How Is it ever soon thing is? These nations, which were once our enemies, have now become our friends. It will be noticed that many of the nouns in list b are used more frequently in familiar speech than are those in list c. The appositive can be close:

Explain the case of each of the italicised words in sentences 2 and 3. In the next chapter, you will learn that the names nominative case, accusative case, etc. While nouns have four cases, they have only two case-forms, a common case-form for the nominative, accusative, and dative cases, and a genitive case-form.

I Acc. We are men now we possess men's rights. Him who cares to give me the lie, I shall be prepared to meet 1. But while 4.

Though the mist comes up from the marshes grey, this softer hrt their bliss supplies, It gives their follies also And covers the earth in its phantom fold, Though it shrouds for a moment the golden day, There must come a time when it back is rolled; And then thou wilt see that the day so dull in its heart as it had of yore, the world as ever with bliss is full, nought is changed from the scene before.

Has the glow That That R. When Ceres heard this, she S. But that I am forbid the secrets of my prison-house, could a tale unfold, whose lightest word To I tell Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood. The mortal relics of Lord Byron, the illustrious poet, which have been just brought from Greece," said the dapper-looking individual.

EXERCISE 14 Write a paragraph of about ten lines about what you would like to do to-morrow, and then select from your paragraph all subject substantives, direct objects of verbs, indirect objects, and words in the genitive case.

A declaration, or ask a question. You have already learned that verbs are classified according to their meaning, as follows: We reward our brave men. Our men are brave. Our brave men fought well. Verbs are inflected changed in form for tense, person, distinctions are shown number and mood. Sometimes these by means of verb phrases. TENSE indicates time, present, past, and future. Name the tense of each italicised verb. Name the case of each italicised substantive. Merrily the feast I'll make ; To-day I'll brew, to-morrow bake Merrily I'll dance and sing, ; For next day will a stranger bring.

Hobson Newcome was a better man of business than his more solemn and stately brother, at whom he laughed in his and he said rightly, that a gentleman had to get jocular way up very early in the morning who wanted to take him in. The Scots are a bold hardy race, and delight much in war.

When they invaded England, they were all usually on horseback they brought no carriages and carried no provisions. Under the flap of his saddle each man had a broad plate of metal and behind his saddle a little bag of oatmeal. So that when occasion needed, he made cakes of the oatmeal, and baked them upon the plates. They do me wrong, and I will not endure it Who are they that complain unto the King That I, forsooth, am stern and love them not?

If Father forgive your trespasses. An stantive. Moreover, the addition of the adjective happy changes the meaning of the whole subject, and indeed of the whole sentence.

These pictures, beautiful and costly, belong to the National Gallery. Many pictures in the National Gallery are beautiful and costly. Notice the positions of the adjectives in these sentences.

An adjective, or another adverb. The man drove very furiously. The driving of the man was very Explain the function use of furious. I pleasure, Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay, Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. Soon the assembly, in a circle ranged, each look was changed Stood silent round the shrine To sudden veneration women meek Beckon'd their sons to silence.

Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, And still where many a garden-flower grows wild, There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, ; ; 5. The village preacher's A man he was to all And modest mansion rose, the country dear, pounds a year. Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland lass Reaping and singing to herself 7. Canada, rich as she is in natural resources, has been found!

For three whole days across the sky, In sullen packs that loomed and broke, With flying fringes dim as smoke, The columns of the rain went by. The crow doth When neither sing as sweetly as the lark, is attended. The road now became The lilacs smell The flag came The moon does not shine 5. Lloyd George 6. The 1. This made my friend He did his work well, as 9.

His visit He was up Foch has gone. The substantive position is which immediately follows the preand is in the called the object of the preposition, accusative case.

Have you received letters from your friends? The noun friends is the object of the preposition from, and is in the accusative case. A words, phrases, or clauses but not to form phrases. Cartier and Champlain were great explorers. Love of right and hatred of wrong were his great virtues.

What he did and what he tried to do are known to all. An interjection is equivalent to a whole sentence, and has no grammatical connection with the other words in the sentence. Faith they have failed in their attempt.

Have they come Do you? Explain the function of each preposition and conjunction. Maitre Jean could not bear the man, but Catherine, his would keep for him a choice morsel of bacon, and answer her husband, who seemed put out about it " I have my seat in church, and I wish to have my seat in Heaven and you, too, will be glad to sit by my side in the i.

And And ; Which ne'er might be repeated. Let us go over the 4. The boy told his hills he had done. He had 5. Our friend Bert had been away from home, but he hurried back to Fullarton for the wedding.

EXERCISE 20 each blank with a preposition or a conjunction, and then, in connection with the word you have supplied, tell what part of speech it is, and explain its function. Joe ran the stairs, he never walked he Fill could run. Russians have died hunger. All roads lead Rome. He left his children nothing a good name. Five them were wise, five them were Many I foolish.

Toronto 9. Never trouble trouble The storm was so severe 1 1 Let us dispense. This house The 6. It's easy enough to be pleasant, life flows along a song. It ceased; still the sails made on soil his troubles A pleasant noise noon. These cadets march These cadets march Up!

Phrases as well as words are classified as parts of speech. This ne'er-do-well is lazy. The Duke of Richmond has come. Pronouns We admire each other. They praise one another. Verb We shall have done it. He would have come, if he had known the hour. The people of this city will help the men of the Adjectives army. Our friends work in the city, but we work on the Adverb farm.

Your friend came by way of London. Preposition He did it in order that they might be free. Conjunction Upon my word! Interjection Nouns: Subordinate adjectives, a Clauses are as classified substantives, and adverbs. What he did interests me very much. I know that our friends have come. I shall give what he says object.

Direct object of attention. What is your opinion of what they propose object of preposition. Direct one that modifies a substantive. Have you seen Harry Lee, who has just returned from France?

A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The mouse that always trusts to one poor Can never be a mouse of any soul. They never taste who always drink They always talk who never think. Like simple adverbs, In the adverbial clauses express a variety of ideas. Place Whither thou goest, I will go I shall Ruth I will lodge. Time i. Since he left, I have been reading this book. Our 3. They have Do 4. Since you have helped me, I shall help you. They came, 5. They came, in order that they might help us.

Neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they Matthew vii. If you help me, I shall help you. If our friends were here, we should rejoice. Even if help came now, we should fail. Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him. They were so exhausted that they fell. I told such a story that they pitied me.

Degree He Job: This man's speech is better than his brother's Notes 1. Notice that in each of the first sixteen sentences quoted in section 3ic, above, the adverbial clause modifies the verb in the principal clause. Adverbial clauses modify verbs more frequently than they modify adjectives or adverbs.

A clause of purpose always refers to a time subse- quent to that of the principal clause. Moreover, a clause of purpose always implies a wish.

A clause of concession is similar to one of condition, but implies a concession of some point by the speaker. The following sentences illustrate this point I concede that Smith Even 4. Clauses of degree might be called clauses of com- them assists in expressing a comtwo clauses of degree given above that the Notice parison. The first one modifies the adjective good, and the second one modifies the adjective better. Be careful not to confuse, clauses of result with either clauses of degree or those of purpose.

The clause of result explains the result or consequence of some action or state. Such a clause does not help to express a comparison as does a clause of degree nor does it express purpose. Give the relation of each. The Allies their side. When were victorious in the war because right was the battalion returned to the city, the bells rang and the whistles blew.

My friend, Mr. Gourlay, tells his pupils that children cry 3. The zero hour was three o'clock in the morning when the enemy trenches were usually quiet. Though many were invited to the banquet, few came. Smith told the family that, if his directions were followed, the patient would recover. The difficulties to be overcome by the first settlers of this province were greater than the us so much. He is as bold as a lion. He saw that, though there was g. The boys in Mr. Mclntosh's charge were so anxious to he was compelled to prevent them from studying The scout hid in the dense forest, lest he should be seen by the enemy.

The book lay where it had fallen. As the twig is bent, the tree inclines. The delayed you have been pleased to take of but it has been early, had been kind Bos WELL, indifferent and cannot enjoy it. Don Quixote had always showed himself such a goodnatured man, that he was beloved, not only by his family, but by everyone that knew him.

He told me that nothing would give him greater pleasure than to see me dance a minuet with his wife after the marriage dinner. I was bid go this way by a man who directed me also to and as yonder gate, that I might escape the wrath to come I was going thither, I fell in here.

Grammar 5. God, in cursing, gives us better 7. Than men in benediction. Oft in the stilly night, Ere slumber's chain has bound me, Fond memory brings the light Of other days around me. Because she was extremely zealous for the education of my younger brother, her desire was that he might be sent with me to Lewes.

Get work, get work Know 'tis better than what you work to get. Certain words resemble parts of speech, but are not fully enough like any one of them to be classified as parts of speech. They are called particles, and are classed as adverbial, prepositional, or conjunctive according to the part of speech they resemble most.

There are Even many my friends friends here. My friends even criticized me. My friends criticized me, even. Prepositional particle. As chairman of the meeting he was successful. Conjunctive particle. The word there adverbial force, and in sentence I has lost its original here used simply as an introductory word by means of which we are enabled to put the subject after the verb.

Even resembles an adverb more than any other part of speech, and yet it may be used to emphasise is any part of speech. Justify the name prepositional particle for the word on in sentence 5. The word as in the last sentence does not join one clause to another, or even one to another, yet it is conjunctive in origin. This is best shown by substituting when, and adding a verb, as word follows: When You have already learned to analyse sentences into subject and predicate, objects, complements, and modifiers.

There is another kind of analysis, called clausal, which simply divides the sentence into clauses, and defines their relations. In clausal analysis, the principal clause should be stated and then the subordinate clauses in turn. The first, following form is suggested for written work see p. Peace 2. The war has been fought, and peace is being made. Our soldiers went to Europe, because there was a war there and now they are coming home, because the war is will ; over.

If the statesmen in Paris are wise, and just peace, shall we not be happy? Sentence i if they arrange a: Peace will be made i. Peace will be made, war is over. Complex declarative, Principal. Sentence 2: The war made. Compound declarative. The war has been fought, Principal. Sentence 3: Our soldiers over. Compound-complex declarative.

Our soldiers went to Europe, Principal. Sentence 4: Complex interrogative, shall we not be happy? The noun clause which is subject of a principal clause, should be stated both with the latter and separately, as in the following example: What they have accomplished is very important.

Principal declarative. What they have accomplished. Likewise, when a substantive clause is a complement, or the object of a verb or preposition, it should first a.

This book is what we want. We know that they are sincere. But, sir, I wish to tell you that the noblest prospect which a Scotchman ever sees, is the high road that leads him to England. Then he went on, till he came to the house of the interpreter, where he knocked over and over at last one came to the door and asked who was there.

Never love unless you can 3. Bear with all the faults of man ;! Men sometimes Though but be cause they will jealous little see, And hang the head in discontent, And speak what straight they will repent. Augustine had, by order of Pope Gregory, taken interpreters of the nation of the Franks, and, sending to King Ethelbert of Kent, announced that he was come from Rome, and brought a joyful message, which most undoubtedly assured to all that took advantage of it, everlasting joys in Heaven, and a kingdom that would never BEDE, end.

Ecclesiastical History. His antagonists, though inferior in strength, had both swiftness and daring, and above all they had settled how to attack him. When he reared his axe, they flew at him like cats, and both together. If he struck a full blow with his weapon, he would most he saw this, likely kill one, but the other would certainly kill him and understanding the danger, he thrust the handle fiercely in Denys's face, and, turning, jabbed with the steel at Gerard.

Denys went staggering back, covered with blood. Gerard had rushed in like lightning, and, just as the axe turned to descend on him, drove his sword so fiercely through the giant's body that the very hilt sounded on his ribs like the blow of a pugilist, and Denys, staggering back to help his friend, saw a steel point come out of the Abbot's ; back.

Although she had sunk twice, I was so overcome by my sensations that I was unable to attempt her rescue. She must have certainly perished, had not my companion, perceiving her danger, instantly plunged in to her relief, and with some difficulty brought her in safely to the opposite shore.

By taking the current a little further up, the rest of the family got safely over, where we had an opportunity of joining our Her gratitude may be more readily acknowledgments to hers.

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My wife also expressed the hope that she might have the pleasure of returnO. Fagin's character. Whenever the Dodger or Charley Bates came home at night, emptyhanded, he would expatiate with great vehemence on the misery of idle and lazy habits and that he might enforce upon them the necessity of an active life, he would send them supperless to bed. On one occasion, indeed, when they had returned with nothing, he was so righteously indignant, that he even knocked them both down a flight of stairs but this was carrying out his virtuous precepts to 7.

Oliver ; ; an unusual extent. If they attack the centre, which is covered by the principal battery, we can concentrate the left flank on this height and retire in good order to the reserve.

O good old man how well in thee appears 9. The constant service of the antique world, When service sweat for duty, not for meed Thou art not for the fashion of these times, 8. Where none will sweat but for promotion, And having that, do choke their service up Even with the having it is not so with thee,: But, poor old man, thou prun'st a rotten tree, much as a blossom yield thy pains and husbandry.

But come thy ways we'll go along together, And ere we have thy youthful wages spent, We'll light upon some settled low content. The Portuguese in the Brazils would have At last, our never-failing friend, William the Quaker, helped us out again. His proposal was this, that he should go as master of the ship, taking a few men whom we could best trust, and attempt to trade privately, upon the coast of Brazil, with the planters, not at the principal ports, since that would not be admitted.

The village all declared how much he knew. But past is all his fame. The very spot, Where many a time he triumph'd, is forgot. She wishes to know, by an early post, where he expects to go if he and with what feelings he could turn up quarrels with his victuals his nose at the broth, after his good master had asked a blessing on it.

This was not told to her by Mr. Squeers, since he is too kind and good to make trouble for anyone, and it has vexed her more than Mobbs can imagine.

She is sorry to find he is discontented, and Mr. Squeers will flog him into a happier state of mind. Cheerfulness and contentment must be kept up. Mobbs, " Alas, alas for Hamelin! The Mayor sent East, West, North, and South, To offer the Piper, by word of mouth, Wherever it was men's lot to find him, Silver and gold to his heart's content, he'd only return the way he went, bring the children behind him.

But when they saw 'twas a lost endeavour, And Piper and dancers were gone forever, They made a decree that lawyers never Should think their records dated duly If, after the day of the month and year, These words did not as well appear, " And so long after what happened here, On the twenty-second of July, Thirteen hundred and seventy-six.

If And Now Nature, 'tis said, is a comical jade, And among the fantastical tricks she has play'd, Was the making our good Father Richard a brother, As like him in form as one pea's like another ; He was tall and upright, about six feet in height, His complexion was what you'd denominate light, And, though he had not shorn his ringlets of brown, He'd a little bald patch on the top of his crown. But here, it's pretended, the parallel ended no doubt his life might have been mended, And people who spoke of the Prior with delight, Shook their heads if you mentioned his brother, the Knight.

And he thought it but just, since the owner had changed his profession, that the horse should also change his title and be dignified with another it must be a sonorous word such a one as should fill the mouth, and seem ; ; ENGLISH GRAMMAR 32 consonant with the quality and profession of his master. And thus, after many names which he devised, rejected, changed, liked, disliked, and pitched upon again, he concluded to call him Rozinante, a word composed of two parts, Rozin meaning an ordinary horse, and ante meaning formerly a name, lofty sounding, and significant of what he had been before, and also of what he was now in a word, a horse before or above all the vulgar breed of horses in the world.

You, merchant, have you anything to say? But little I am arm'd and well prepar'd. Give me your hand, Bassanio fare you well Portia. Commend me to your honourable wife Tell her the process of Antonio's end Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death; And when the tale is told, bid her be judge Whether Bassanio had not once a love. Repent not you that you shall lose your friend, And he repents not that he pays your debt For, if the Jew do cut but deep enough, I'll pay it instantly with all my heart.

Her heart melted, I suppose, at the notion that she should do for, when she reanything unkind to any mortal, great or small turned, she had sent away the housekeeper upon an errand by the door at the farther end of the gallery and, coming back to the lad, with a look of infinite pity and tenderness in her eyes, she took his hand again, placing her other fair hand on his head, and saying some words to him, which were so kind, and said in a voice so sweet, that this boy, who had never looked upon such a beauty before, felt as if the touch of a superior being or angel smote him down to the ground, and kissed the fair protecting hand as he knelt on one knee.

Other extracts for analysis will be found in Appendix E. A NOUN For instance, the word city in the sentence, Montreal is a great city, a common noun, because it may be used to name any one of the class of things we call cities. A common noun is significant, i. A proper noun is not significant. The word city has a definite meaning, and is used to name only places of a certain size and character. The word Montreal, on the other hand, has now no meaning, and is used to name a city, an island, and a river.

The proper noun begins with a capital letter common noun usually begins with a small letter. A common noun becomes a proper noun when used Proper city. The Tower of London has held 6. D A many notable prisoners. There are two Titians in this gallery. Several budding Miltons are in this class. When some lifeless thing, some lower animal, some quality, or some emotion is personified, a common noun becomes a proper noun, and is written with a capital.

A concrete noun is the name of something that has a material existence outside of our minds. And here is a story of a Brigade Headquarters that lived in a house surrounded by a moat over which there was only one road.

On Thursday, the enemy's artillery found the house, and later on, as the rush came, their rifle fire found it also. The staff went on with its work till the end of the week, when The shells set the place alight, and they were forced to move. Captain Scrimger, medical officer attached to the Royal Montreal Regiment, protected the wounded man with his own body against the shrapnel that was coming through the naked rafters, and carried him out of the 1 "It is recommended that the term collective be not used except when needed in explaining the occasional use of a plural verb with a singular noun.

Two of the staff, Brigadier-General Hughes then Brigade-Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade and Lieutenant Thompson then Assistant Adjutant, Royal Montreal Regiment re-swam the moat, and, waiting for a lull in the shell fire, got the wounded man across the road on to a stretcher and into a dressing-station, after which they went on with their official duties.

Within the lists, in knightly pride, Prize of the 2. An High Home and haughty Dacre ride ; Their leading staffs of steel they wield, As marshals of the mortal field While to each knight their care assigned Like vantage of the sun and wind.

Then heralds hoarse did loud proclaim, In king and queen and warden's name, That none, while lasts the strife, Should dare, by look, or sign, or word, Aid to a champion to afford. A noun denoting a male being is of the masculine gender. A noun denoting a female being is of the feminine gender. All other nouns are of the neuter gender. They are two kinds, a the names of things without sex, b the names that are given indifferently to beings of both sexes.

Gender in Modern English is a distinction in words, corresponding to the distinction of sex in the objects Modern English is said, therefore, to they represent. Latin, French, and German, on the other hand, have grammatical gender, because the gender of nouns in these languages has been determined For largely by the forms and derivations of words.

The distinction of gender in nouns is of importance Modern English only in connection with the use of personal pronouns and possessive adjectives. Except in such connection, the gender of a noun may be ignored. Russian Dutch: Spanish 3. One feminine noun is belle.

Gender is sometimes indicated by adding or prefixing a noun or a pronoun 4. Some ; names are applied Christian proper only, others to women William, Thomas, only Henry: But cliff, cliffs muff, muffs ; ; b Most nouns ending in change y to i and add -es chief, chiefs.

But nouns ending add -s monkey, monkeys in y preceded by a vowel simply: It will be noticed that many of the nouns in list b are used more frequently in familiar speech than are those in list c. A few nouns change the vowel sound of the stem. This method of forming plurals is used with a large number of nouns in German, as Mann, Manner The mark: One noun adds 39 -en to the singular; ox, oxen.

Three words have double plurals, a form already plural - e n being added to: A number of words taken from foreign languages form their plurals according to the rules of those languages. Many of these words have both foreign and English plurals, sometimes with different meanings for the phenomenon nebula two: Armstrong man-servant mother-in-law Dutchman footstool Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural, either generally, or in certain cases: In a large class of Old English neuter nouns, such as swine, deer, and sheep, one case-form was used for the nominative and accusative cases, singular and plural, and in Middle-English times many other nouns came to have the same peculiarity through analogy.

Although the words mentioned above generally have the same forms for singular and plural, they sometimes have plurals in - e s. There are several fishes kinds of fish in this lake. We have six dozen eggs. Dozens of eggs are for sale.

The people of 2. Europe are are tired of war. Some nouns, especially The peoples names of nationalities material, are seldom or never used in the plural, on account of their meaning tin,: But a ship's coppers, tins kinds of tin, or, tin dishes, or cans , the clays varieties of clay of Quebec, earths kinds of earth , the beauties of the St. Lawrence valley. Some nouns are used ordinarily in the plural only: A few nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning, unless specially used in the plural.

Several 5. Mathematics is are studied with delight by most girls. The ashes was were carried out by the janitor. News of the victory is are sent far and wide.

How much did you pay for this these spectacles? The United States has have taken part in the war against Germany. Checkers is are a favourite game with Mrs. The seventh innings is are decisive. Riches does do not bring happiness. The eaves of the house is are thirty feet above the ground. Alms is are given to the needy.

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The people of Canada is are proud of the Canadian soldiers. The mob demands demand the release of the The committee is are now in session, and its their report is brought in, it they will go home.

Darts is a traditional English game which presumably developed from archery. Some proper nouns: The United States has immense mineral wealth. There are a number of nouns ending in -s used as singular with reference to one unit, or as plural with reference to more than one: Pluralia Tantum A number of nouns in English occur in the plural only. To this group belong the following nouns. Nouns denoting articles of dress, tools and instruments consist- ing of two equal parts: These are called summation plurals and are used with a plural verb or in the construction a pair of and may be preced- ed by the plural demonstrative: These trousers are too long for me, give me another pair, please.

Is there a decent pair of scissors in this house? Miscellaneous nouns ending in -s used only with a plural verb, not with a numeral.

In some cases, however, there are also forms without -s with different meaning and use: Singularia tantum Singular invariable nouns occur in the singular only. Here belong non-count nouns, concrete gold, furniture, iron, bread, cheese, grass, oil, wine, tea, coffee, etc.

It should be not- ed that virtually all non-count nouns denoting substances can be treat- ed as count nouns when used to distinguish between classes of ob- jects: There are several French wines available. Special attention should be paid to invariable nouns ending in -s used as singular only with a singular verb. The noun news: This is very good news. Bad news travels fast. No news is good news. Names of some diseases and abnormal states of body and mind: Measles is a catching disease while rickets is not.

Names of sciences and subject names in -ics: Ethics is a science of moral principles and rules of conduct.

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When a word of this type is not used to refer directly to a disci- pline of study, it can take a plural verb and be preceded by a plural demonstrative: The acoustics in this room are far from perfect. These statistics are unreliable. Names of some games: A number of collective nouns take as pronoun substitutes either singular it or plural they without change of number in the noun, i. Modern English prescriptive grammar books specifically recom- mend consistent usage within the same sentence or two.

Our team plays best on its own ground singular and Our team play best on their own ground plural. Among collective nouns of this type, there are many denoting classes, social groups or referring to a group of people having a spe- cial relationship with one another, or brought together for a particu- lar reason. Three subclasses may be distinguished here: In sentences with collective nouns, the choice between singular and plural verbs is based on a difference in attitude, i. Thus, the singular must be used in sentences like: The audience was enormous where the non- personal collectivity of the group is stressed.

The plural is more likely in sentences like: The audience were enjoying every minute of it 3. Distributive Plural. To talk about several people each doing the same thing, English prefers a plural noun for the repeated idea; plural forms are almost always used in this case with possessives: The students should hand in their essays now.

Eighty-six people lost their lives in the air-crash. Repeated Events. In descriptions of repeated single events, singular and plural nouns are both possible. When no details are given, plural nouns are more natural: She often gets headaches. When details of the time or situation are given, singular nouns are often used: To refer to the time of repeated events, both singular and plural forms are com- monly used: Note the difference: How much do you pay for Come round to my lodgings board and lodging?

They denote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit. This group contains both count army, group, class, etc. Often a special group noun is used with names of certain kinds of objects: Collective nouns fall under the following sub-groups. Nouns used in the singular only denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: They take singular pronoun substi- tutes and the verb of a sentence is in the singular: The autumn foliage is beautiful.

Machinery new to the industry in Australia was introduced for cultivating land. Nouns which are singular in form though plural in meaning un- marked plurals: These nouns take plural pronoun substitutes and occur with a plural verb: These cattle are on the way to the market.

The poultry are in the yard. Vermin are harmful animals or insects. Reference to individual members of the group is made thus: With other proper names ending in -s there is vacillation both in pronunciation and spelling, but most commonly the spelling is the apostrophe only while the pronunciation is [iz]. The Use of the Genitive The genitive case is used to express a variety of ideas: In- stead, the noun is modified by an of-phrase: Note the parallel structures: Generalizations and Rules.

In generalizations and rules, singular and plural nouns are both possible: A present participle is used in a progressive verb form. Present participles are used in progressive verb forms. Mixtures of singular and plural forms are possible: Subjects agree with their verb. The Category of Case The category of case expresses relations between objects and phe- nomena denoted by nouns in a sentence. In English the category of case has become the subject of lively controversy in linguistics.

It has been discussed extensively by scho- lars, and the opinions on this subject differ widely. The widely accepted view is that English nouns have two cases. Another view is that English has more than two cases. Thus, in accordance with the theory of prepositional cases, combinations of nouns with prepositions in certain object and attributive collocations are treated as morphological case forms, e.

Obviously, on this interpretation the number of cases in English would become indefi- nitely large, which would mean abandoning a morphologically based conception of case and would lead to a confusion between morpho- logical and syntactic phenomena. A third view is that there are no cases at all in the English noun system.

This viewpoint presents the English noun as having completely lost the category of case in the course of its historical development.

On this view, the form called the genitive case by force of tradition, would be, in fact, a combination of a noun with a postpositional particle. The present review will proceed from the assumption that the English noun has a two-case system: It is pronounced as [I] after any voiceless sound except a sibilant: He has a heart of gold.

She rules her family with a rod of iron. A few pairs of nouns and adjectives are used as modifiers with different meanings; while the noun simply names the material some- thing is made of, the adjective has a metaphorical meaning: The meaning and functions of the genitive case require special consideration. The Dependent Genitive A noun in the genitive case generally precedes another noun which is its head word.

This is called the dependent genitive; the actual rela- tion between the notions expressed by the two nouns largely depends on their lexical meaning. The dependent genitive may be of two kinds. The specifying genitive denotes a particular person or thing.

It has the following meanings: With proper names, however, the geni- tive case is the rule: The genitive case is preferred for the subject-verb relation, and the of-phrase for the verb-object relation: Note that for words like top, bottom, front, back, side, edge, inside, outside, beginning, middle, end, part, the of-structure is usually preferred: There are, however, a number of common exceptions: The of-structure can refer to something that is used by a person or animal; the first noun refers to the user: British and American English sometimes differ.

In older English, the of-structure was more common in this case e. However, certain linguists find this interpretation doubtful. The independent genitive is typical of expressions relating to pre- mises or establishments. It is important, how- ever, that hotel room where Andrew could only be staying not living is excluded. Ellipsis is much more evident in sentences like: The noun in the genitive case must be both definite and personal while the head noun must have indefinite reference: The genitive case is common in headlines for reasons of brevity; it also gives prominence to the noun modified.

The descriptive classifying genitive refers to a whole class of similar objects: Unlike the specifying genitive, the descriptive genitive cannot be replaced by an of-phrase. Only the context will show what is meant; outside the context both interpretations would be equally justified.

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Various pat- terns can be found in this construction. Other examples include: The group genitive is not normally acceptable after a clause, though in colloquial use one may hear examples like: Such constructions may not be fre- quent but they do occur.

The Independent Genitive A noun in the genitive case may be used without a head word. This is called the independent genitive, or the genitive with ellipsis: I met a handsome student and he… I met a beautiful student and she… When there is no need to make a distinction of sex, the masculine reference pronoun is generally used.

This is the case when such nouns are used generically and neither sex is relevant: The artist, painter, poet, or musician, by his decoration, sub- lime or beautiful, satisfies the aesthetic sense; he lays be- fore you also the greater gift of himself. However, such usage is regarded as sexist by many people and there is a tendency to avoid sex indicators in contexts of this type as marks of masculine bias in Modern English.

What is new to the discourse is not necessarily new to the hear- er; he or she may already have prior knowledge to the entity in question. Anyone who wants to write non-sexist English will need to have their wits about them.

Other ways of expressing male or female reference are: Lady is used out of exaggerated polite- ness; female is used in an official, scientific or clinical context. Gen- erally speaking, this dual class is on the increase, but the expecta- tion that a given activity is largely male or female determines the frequent use of sex markers: There is a marked preference for gender specified reference.

A mother is not likely to refer to her baby as it, but it is quite possible for somebody who is not emotionally involved with the child, especially when the sex is unknown or unimportant. The double genitive is obligatory when the speaker wishes to use several modifiers including a, this, that, these, those in the same noun phrase: Gender English makes very few gender distinctions.

The Pro- noun. Nouns, adjectives and articles have no gender distinctions, although in a small number of words the feminine suffix -ess marks a noun having female reference. The category of gender is chiefly ex- pressed in English by obligatory correlation of nouns with the third person pronouns. These serve as specific gender classifiers of nouns. Since nouns have no grammatical gender, the choice of pronoun sub- stitutes he, she and it is based on natural distinctions of meaning.

The choice between he or she, for example, is almost entirely deter- mined by sex. Thus, he refers to a man or a male animal; she — to a woman or a female animal; it — to an inanimate object or an animal which is not regarded as either male or female; the plural pronoun they is not gender specific.

The pattern of pronoun substitution is determined by the lexical meaning of the noun. Animate personal nouns may refer to males or females. Some of them are morphologically marked for gender: Steward and stewardess are being re- placed by other terms such as flight attendant. Some optional feminine forms poetess, authoress are now rare, being replaced by the dual gender forms poet, author.

A mayor can be a man or a woman; in Britain a mayoress is the wife of a male mayor. Others are morphologically unmarked for gender and have no overt marking that suggests morphological correspondence be- tween masculine and feminine: Animate personal nouns may refer to both male or female. Here belong artist, cook, doctor, enemy, fool, foreigner, friend, guest, musi- cian, neighbour, parent, person, servant, student, teacher, writer, etc. The proud owner of a sports car may refer to it as she or perhaps he if the owner is female.

With names of countries the pattern of pronoun substitution de- pends on their meaning. As geographical units they are treated as inanimate nouns: Looking at the map we see France here. It is one of the largest countries in Europe. As political, economic or cultural units the names of countries of- ten take a feminine reference pronoun: France has been able to increase her exports by 10 per cent over the last six months.

England is proud of her poets. In sports, the teams representing countries can be referred to as personal collective nouns taking a plural pronoun substitute: France have improved their chance of winning the cup. Some words ending in -man e. As many women dislike being called chairman or spokesman, these words are now often avoided in references to women or in general reference to people of either sex.

In many cases, -person is now used instead of -man: A spokesperson said that the Minister does not intend to resign. In some cases, new words ending in -woman e. But the general tendency is to avoid what is called sexist usage and to choose words, even for men, which are not gender-marked e. It is worth noting that though man and mankind have traditionally been used to refer to the whole of the human race, some people find this usage sexist and use terms such as people, humanity, or the human race instead.

Note also the increasingly common use of synthetic fibres instead of man-made fibres. In names of higher animals animate non-personal nouns sex distinctions are chiefly made by people with a special concern — horse and cattle-breeders, veterinarians, trainers, etc. Sex reference is expressed morphologically in lion — lioness, tiger — tigress, or lexi- cally in: When no sex distinction is made or known, the pronoun substi- tute he is more usual than she with animals like cat or horse.

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Generally, masculine or feminine reference pronouns are used for animals when they are thought of as having the personal qualities of human beings especially with family pets: Have you given the dog his morning meal? It is otherwise used for animals when their sex is unknown or un- important: The dog was barking in its kennel.

Names of lower animals and inanimate nouns do not differ in the patterns of pronoun substitution, e. Sex differences can, however, be indicated by a range of gender markers for any animate noun when they are felt to be relevant: This kind of personifying transposition affects not only animate but also a wide range of inanimate nouns and is regulated in everyday language by cultural and historical traditions.

Compare the use of she in refer- ence to ships, vehicles, weaker animals, etc. A personal substitute he or she with inanimate objects expresses an affectionate attitude to entities referred to: Unlike definite NPs, or definite descriptions, which tell the hear- er how to identify the object referred to, indefinite descriptions con- tain no instruction which tells the hearer which particular object is meant.

The definite article is used if the hearer is meant to identify the object which the speaker is referring to as one that is known to him or has already been mentioned. The indefinite description serves only to indi- cate the class of objects to which that object belongs. The indefinite article in its main classifying function is used to show that the speaker is characterizing a person, object or event only as a specimen of a certain class of things. The classifying indefinite article is mostly found with predicative and appositive nouns: His father was a good soldier.

The cook, a bulky man who looked as though he enjoyed his own cooking, scarcely looked around. He owes his curious name to his father, a well-read man. Predicative and appositive nouns in the plural generally take no article: They were extraordinarily nice, healthy children. Then we were joined by two women, acquaintances of Charles and Ann. The indefinite article is also used in predicative and adverbial phrases with like and as: She looked like a boy with her head turned shamefacedly away.

I was trembling like a leaf. The solid appearance of Julius in the same room was as deci- sive as a dinner bell. With plural nouns no article is used: We stood looking at each other like children.

The indefinite article is used in its nominating function when the speaker wants to name an object or to state what kind of object is meant. Then Robert Strickland struck a match and lit a cigarette. The night before, he had met an explorer, an actor, and a Ma- rine sergeant at a party.

Articles in English are the most common noun determiners. Linguists recognized long ago that the article is essentially a functional element, acting to link the sentence to the situation of communication. Most recent ac- counts treat the article in terms of its role in reference to things, people, events, etc. There are two articles in English: The definite article indicates definite reference; it expresses the identification 4 or individualization of the referent denoted by the noun it determines.

The indefinite article indicates indefinite reference; it is commonly interpreted as referring the object denoted by the noun it determines to a certain class of similar objects. The Indefinite Article The indefinite article has the forms a and an: The indefinite article has developed from the Old English numeral an one , and as a result of its origin it is used only with nouns in the singular.

The main function of the indefinite article is to indicate indefinite reference. It means that at the moment of speech identification is impossible or unnecessary, either for both the speaker and hearer or for the hearer only: I must just telephone from the station. As the indefinite article often introduces new information, it is widely used in existential sentences in which something is presented as existent, or present: Beyond glassy mountains and beyond silken meadows stood a dark forest. We ate in the dining room, and there was a clean tablecloth.

The original numerical meaning is generally found: Not a word was spoken in the parlour; d in some set phrases at a time, at a gulp, at a draught: He picked up his drink and drank it off at a gulp; e between two noun groups in expressions denoting prices, sala- ries, speeds, etc.: In discussing the use of article it is essential to make a distinc- tion between specific and generic reference.

Sentences with the generic indefinite article express a generali- zation: With plural nouns neither the article nor some is used. Such instances are often referred to as general, or universal descriptions: Sheets, shirts, pillow-cases, and night-dresses flapped and danced in the thin breeze.

The indefinite article is often found with noun objects and in com- parison: We must send him a telegram. She has a son and a daughter. But he is much more to me than a model or a sitter.

He was a little round man, with a vest and apron, with pale, hairy ears and a long, nervous nose. My room had a high ceiling and a tall four-poster bed which should have had curtains around it to cut off the draft. The indefinite article is used by the speaker to name an object which is usually new to the hearer. This is the so-called first-mention function of the indefinite article.

It serves to introduce some new information, i. One morning a new man was sitting at the table. A car was coming. In Russian, which has no article, the centre of communication con- taining new information is usually marked by word order and also stress: We often find the indefinite article in introductory sentences which generally occur at the very beginning of a story: One fine day a cock and a hen set off together to the woods to look for hazel nuts. Once upon a time a fox went up to a stork and said… These sentences are always followed by further information about the person or object introduced: A crow, perched in a tree with a piece of cheese in his beak, attracted the eye and the nose of a fox.

Mr Turner is in the garden, watering the flowers. Shall I draw the curtains? It would make it more cheerful like. Lombard stared up at the sky. The clouds were beginning to mass themselves together.

The wind was increasing. Thus, it should be noted that the definite article is often used by reason of locality, i. After the party, Roy and I walked in the garden. The breeze had dropped, and on the great beeches no leaf stirred. The definite article is also used with nouns denoting objects that are normally found in a particular place. Their presence is simply taken for granted. Thus, at home we may hear Have you fed the dog?

With sentences like Pass me the book we have what might be called a visible situation use: The utterance is made in a situation when the description used is applicable to one referent only.

The definite article informs the hearer of the existence of a dog or a pony and instructs him to use the situation to find them. The larger situation use is where a definite NP serves as a first- mention of some object in the village, country etc. Members of a community share a body of knowledge of entities existing within the bounds of that community; this knowledge enables the inhabitants of the same village to speak of the pub, the church; fellow Englishmen to speak of the queen, the prime minister without ambiguity.

The hearer identifies the referent of the definite NP by relying either on specific or on general knowledge about the referent: Add to Wishlist. Both comprehensive and easy to use, the Oxford A-Z of Grammar and Punctuation is an essential tool for writing at home, in the office, and at school. Arranged alphabetically, this dictionary contains entries for standard grammatical terms as well as dealing with related questions of usage.

Readers of all levels will find this guide essential. In addition to explaining basic terms such as 'split infinitive', 'participle', and 'adverb', entries also discuss whether to use 'may' or 'might', 'that' or 'which', and 'it's' or 'its'. The Oxford A-Z of Grammar and Punctuation gives the reader quick and easy access to the answers to these, and many other, questions of grammar completed with clear and coherent explanations, and illustrations across a broad range of topics.

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