The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Linux is subversive. Who would have thought even five years ago () that a world- class operating system could coalesce as. This book is available for free download in a number of formats - including epub, pdf, azw, mobi and more. You can also read the full text online using our.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Business & Career|
|ePub File Size:||15.60 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.14 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
development styles, the “cathedral” model of most of the com- mercial world versus the “bazaar” model of the Linux world. I show that these models derive from. THE CATHEDRAL AND THE BAzAAR. Musings on Linux and Open Source by an. Accidental Revolutionary. ERiC S. RAyMoND with a foreword by Bob Young. File:Raymond Eric S The Cathedral and the Bazaar rev caite.info caite.info (file size.
How long between Windows 8 and Windows 10? Dewey Decimal. Raymond points to 19 "lessons" learned from various software development efforts, each describing attributes associated with good practice in open source software development: In , the essay helped the final push for Netscape Communications Corporation to release the source code for Netscape Communicator and start the Mozilla project; it was cited by Frank Hecker and other employees as an outside independent validation of his arguments. One last Rule, relevant to security.
In , the essay helped the final push for Netscape Communications Corporation to release the source code for Netscape Communicator and start the Mozilla project; it was cited by Frank Hecker and other employees as an outside independent validation of his arguments. When O'Reilly Media published the book in , it became one of the first if not the first complete and commercially distributed book published under the Open Publication License.
In Nikolai Bezroukov published two cited critical essays on Eric Raymond's views on open source software, the second one called "A second look at The Cathedral and the Bazaar ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Dewey Decimal.
O'Reily Media. Retrieved 20 December Retrieved 18 April Netscape Embraces the Bazaar". The Story of Mozilla". Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 1st ed. Frank had done his homework, citing Eric Raymond's paper, "The Cathedral and the Bazaar," and talking to people in departments throughout the organization--from engineering to marketing to management. Frank Hecker , openffice. In my opinion the paper's importance in the context of Netscape's decision was mainly that it provided some independent validation of ideas that were already being actively discussed and promoted within Netscape.
If you've ever tried to promote a proposal within your organization, then you may have discovered that it's somewhat easier to do this if you can point to someone outside the organization who's saying the same thing. Free as in Freedom [Paperback]: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. When Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale cited Raymond's 'Cathedral and the Bazaar' essay as a major influence upon the company's decision, the company instantly elevated Raymond to the level of hacker celebrity.
Determined not to squander the opportunity, Raymond traveled west to deliver interviews, advise Netscape executives, and take part in the eventual party celebrating the publication of Netscape Navigator's source code.
Retrieved The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 July Much of the essay relates to Raymond's work on fetchmail. This simple utility relatively speaking; nothing is ever "simple" with SMTP, which ironically is an acronym for Simple Mail Transport Protocol automatically reads mail from a remote system perhaps with POP, though IMAP and other mail-reading protocols are also supported , and merges it into a local mail folder. I used to use it to retrieve email to pdordal luc. Raymond's problem was similar to mine.
He wanted to retrieve mail from a system mailbox, and stick it into a local mailbox he could then read locally. But he needed reply-to addresses not to end up broken in the process eg pointing to the system the system mailbox was on. After adopting popclient, Raymond arrives at a series of Rules.
The first, for our purposes, is. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and effective debugging. This is related to the Bazaar style: Raymond then acknowledges that the Bazaar style had in fact been used on some earlier GNU projects, in particular the Lisp library used within the Emacs editor:.
In contrast to the cathedral-building style of the Emacs C core and most other GNU tools, the evolution of the Lisp code pool was fluid and very user-driven. Linux releases averaged a few weeks apart, sometimes only a few hours those were probably due to "oops" moments, though.
Typical release intervals on other projects ran to several months, if not years. How long between Windows 8 and Windows 10? Raymond's thesis is that by releasing often, Linux kept developers and users engaged. Given a large enough beta-tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and the fix obvious to someone.
This formulation is particularly well-known in security contexts; the idea is that if enough people look at the code, the vulnerabilities will all be noticed. Life hasn't always worked out that way, but it's a start. In terms of cathedral v bazaar, the cathedral idea is that debugging is hard, and that experts need to do it, and that the long intervals between releases are necessary for thorough debugging.
While the bazaar theory is that "ok, here's one fix; anybody see anything else? Raymond then tries to reconcile Linus's Law with Brooks' Law.
Bugs often arise in misunderstandings about interfaces. Brooks assumed that with N programmers, they would have to expend effort O N 2 for everyone to communicate with one another. Linux teams didn't do that; devs only followed the email threads they were interested in. Raymond then gets to how he applied the bazaar theory to his own project. Here are a few of his ideas:. On lots of projects, people are reluctant to send comments because they believe they will be ignored. This is a crucial point about engagement, and it ended up as another Rule:.
At this point Raymond had his deepest technical insight. One of the developers proposed a mechanism for taking the fetched emails and delivering them to the local system the same way that big mail servers deliver to one another: The local machine, in other words, becomes the local user's mail server.
And that once this was done, there was no need to consider any other mail delivery mechanism. Raymond describes this as. The next best thing to having good ideas is recognizing good ideas from your users. Sometimes the latter is better. One last Rule, relevant to security. Users had asked for encryption of the email password, which had to be kept in a plaintext file. Raymond refused, on the theory that, as fetchmail itself would have to have access to the decryption key, this wasn't really secure.
A security system is only as secure as its secret. Beware of pseudo-secrets.
One of Raymond's final comments is that the bazaar style only works for incremental improvement. Not for initial development, and probably not for major redesign. Another is to acknowledge the fundamental role played by the Internet.
Without Internet communication and the early GNU projects did not have Internet access , arguably the bazaar style cannot exist. While Raymond attributes the success of the bazaar style to Torvalds himself, perhaps the real credit should go to the Internet. One common response among Linux developers and users is "Yay Linux!
We're doing it Right! Another was that Wikipedia is fundamentally a bazaar approach to documentation. People at Netscape found the Bazaar approach very persuasive, and claimed this was why they decided to open-source their code as the foundation of the Mozilla project.